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|Music of India|
A Lady Playing the Tanpura, ca. 1735 (Rajasthan)
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A Bhajan is any type of Hindu devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine. The name, a cognate of bhakti, meaning religious devotion, suggests its importance to the bhakti movement that spread from the south of India throughout the entire subcontinent in the Moghul era.
Anecdotes and episodes from scriptures, the teachings of saints and descriptions of gods have all been the subject of bhajans. The Dhrupad style, Sufi qawwali and the kirtan or song in the Haridasi tradition are related to bhajan. Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Narottama Dasa, Surdas and Tulsidas are notable composers. Traditions of bhajan such as Nirguni, Gorakhanathi, Vallabhapanthi, Ashtachhap, Madhura-bhakti and the traditional South Indian form Sampradya Bhajan each have their own repertoire and methods of singing.
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Bhajans by Kabir, Mirabai, Surdas, Tulsidas and a few others are considered to be classic. The language of their works is influenced by several of the dialects of Hindi. They are widely enjoyed even among those who do not speak Hindi. Here is a representative selection of the best known bhajans by these poets.
Kabir: Chadaria Jhini Re Jhini
This bhajan has been recorded by several well-known singers. Kabir refers to his body as a chadar, a sheet of cloth. Kabir is the best-known exponent of Nirguni bhajan, which celebrate a formless (nirguna) divinity, encouraging listeners to shed dogma and look at reality. Baba Bulleh Shah is another and the Bauls of Bengal have developed from these roots. The Sikh guru Nanak gathered many such bhajans into the Guru Granth Sahib.
- This is fine, this is fine cloth.
- Dyed in the Ram Nam, the name of the lord,
- A spinning wheel like an eight-petalled lotus spins it,
- Five elements and three qualities are its pattern.
- The Lord tailored it in ten moons,
- Pressed the threads to get the weft tight.
- It has been worn by gods, men and sages:
- They soiled it with use.
- Says Kabir; I have covered myself with this cloth most carefully,
- And eventually will leave it as it was before.
Meera: Mane Chakar Rakho Ji
A version of this famous hymn was used in the 1947 Hindi film Meerabai. Mirabai lived in Rajasthan and her dialect of Hindi is more properly called a variety of Rajasthani. Because of Rajasthan's proximity to Gujarat, Rajasthani and Gujarati share many similar linguistic features, and Mirabai seemed equally at home in either language.
- Lord Girdhari (Krishna), make me your servant.
- As your servant, I will plant a garden, and see you every day.
- In the groves and lanes of Vrindavan, I will sing about you.
Tulsidas: Shri Ramachandra Kripalu Bhaju Man
- O my mind! Revere the kind Sri Rama, who can remove the fear of rebirths,
- Who has lotus eyes, lotus face and lotus hands, lotus feet, red like the rising sun.
Surdas: Main Nahi Makhan Khayo
- I did not eat the butter, mother.
- I think my friends have smeared some on my face!
Sampradaya Bhajan or Dakshina Bharatha Sampradaya Bhajan is the tradition of Bhajans (singing songs in praise of God and his divine love and simplicity) in India, particularly in South India. "Dakshina" means "south" in Sanskrit and "Bharat" means "India". "Sampradaya" means a tradition which is handed down by one's ancestors.
It is the collection of Kirtanas (songs) and Namavalis (songs composed of names of Hindu gods like Lord Rama, Lord Krishna etc.) in a specific order. Marudhanallur Sadguru Sri Venkataramana Swamigal was instrumental in establishing the format and had chosen the songs himself. Later Sri Pudukottai Gopala Krishna Bhagavathar, and Sri krishna Premi were instrumental in identifying the Kirtanas and Namavalis that are to be sung in any Bhajan and their evolution.
Swami Haridhoss Giri is one of the principal exponents of the Dhakshina Baratha sampradaya and is regarded by the bhajan fraternity as the sole reason for this traditional form of art to spread worldwide and to reach the masses
The trinity of gurus as far as Bhajans are considered as Bodhendra Swamigal, Sridhara Ayyaval and Marudhanallur Sadguru Swamigal. The sampradaya bhajana paddhati has mainly evolved due to the tradition and efforts of Marudhanallur Sadguru Swamigal.
The bhajans are typically rendered in the following order:
- Dhyana Slokam
- Sangraha Thodaya Mangalam (Thotakam - Beginning with a praise, Mangalam - End)Thodaya Mangalam is different from Thotaka Ashtakam of ADI SANKARA
- Guru Dhyanam
- Guru Abhangs
- Sadhu Keertanas (hymns on Sadhus and sants. It can be abhangs also)
- Jayadeva Ashtapadi (Geeta Govindam)
- Narayana Teertha Krishna leela Tharangini
Panchapati (Five songs in Telugu (Bhadrachala Ramadas), Kannada (Sri Purandara dasa), Sanskrit (Sri Sadasiva Brahmendral), Tamil (Sri Gopalakrishna Bharathi) and compositions of Sri Tyagaraja
And if time permits, one can sing the North Indian Bhajan Compositions of
The comes the turn of Dyana keertanais (hymns on Gods, stuti, Abhangs or Guru Keertanai). In the Dyana Keertana, it starts from Lord Ganesha Saraswati Muruga (Karthikeyan) Shiv Durga Narasimhan Ram Krishna Venkateshwar Vittal Ranganathan Dashavatara stuti Vittal (Marathi Abhangs on Lord Panduranga) Lakshmi Sita / Radha Hanuman Garuda Aiyappan Chandeeshwaran Nandikeshwaran Chaitanya deva (Gauranga) Guru Keertana
Then comes Pooja Sampradaya Kritis
- Baro murare (welcome)
- Sharanagata vatsala (request)
- Kastoori gana.. (pooja)
- Chita juni... (aarati)
- Jay Jay aarati...
- Prartana Abhang
- Rajadi rajaya.. (pushpanjali)
- Kattiya vachanam (verses from variety of books)
- Chatur veda parayan
- Kshetra mahatmiyam (verses on importance of tirta kshetras)
- Upacharamu.. (upachara sankeertan)
- Vinnappa gadyam (praying to God - shlokas)
- Sri Krishna Govinda hare murare.. (naamaavali)
Pooja ends here and Divya namam starts. (deepa pradakshinam - With lighted lamp in the middle considering the lamp as God, bhagavatas will do sankeertan by doing pradakshinas). This equals going around the earth.
Then comes dolotsavam (making God sleep).
- Anjaneya Keertanai
The Thotaka Ashtakam was composed by Thotakachariyar. It is sung in praise of Sri Adi Sankara of Kaladi. Legend says that Thotakachariya (or Thotakar) was a devotee of Aadi Sankara. Do not confuse this Thodaya Mangalam of Bhagavathas with the Thotaka Ashtakam of Thotakachariyar.
V. D. Paluskar and V. N. Bhatkhande have combined Indian classical music with bhajan. Pandit Kumar Gandharva made famous the Nirguni Bhajans of Sant Kabir and Malwa Region. The dancer Mallika Sarabhai has produced performances based on bhajans. Mallika Sarabhai, one of the nation’s most intelligent dance professionals, was successful in producing this piece that is innovative, yet flows into the inherent poetic structures of Bhajan with ease. Abhinaya Chakravathi Sri JS Eswara Prasad Rao of Hyderabad who is the disciple of AL Krishnamurthy Bhagavathar, Pudukkottai system, has produced performances based on Sampradaya bhajans under the title "Nitrya sankeerthnam", he has performed abhinaya for all the bhajans irrespective of the languages.
Jagadguru Shree Kripaluji Maharaj (born 1922) is a prominent poet Saint of modern times, in the path of Bhakti Marg, the path of love or devotion to God. He has composed eleven thousand one hundred and eleven doha (couplets) on the leela of Radha Krishn and the devotional philosophy called Radha Govind Geet; 1008 pad (songs) called Prem Ras Madira; hundreds of kirtan in the form of Yugal Shatak and Yugal Ras and twelve pad which fully describe the beauty and the decorations of Krishn, and thirteen pad which describe the beauty and the decorations of Radha Rani called Shree Krishn Dwadashi and Shree Radha Trayodashi. Renditions of Shree Maharajji's bhajans and kirtans have been recorded by well-known singers in India such as Manna Dey Anuradha Paudwal and Anup Jalota.
Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, and Anandamayi Ma encouraged bhajans among followers.
Sathya Sai bhajans include devotional reverence to all religions including Hinduism, Islam and Christianity etc. Accompanied by traditional Indian musical instruments such as the harmonium and tabla, bhajans set to Indian classical music ragas are lead by trained singers and followed by the congregation. Sathya Sai on bhajans- "Bhajans charge the atmosphere with divine adoration; that is why I insist on group singing."***Sathya Sai Speaks VI, Chap 50, 239 (old ed.)
- David Courtney: http://www.chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music/bhajan.html
- Anna King, John Brockington, The Intimate Other: Love Divine in Indic Religions, Orient Longman 2005, p 359.
- Amaresh Datta (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 430–431. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- Hutton, F. 2008. Rose lore: essays in cultural history and semiotics. Lexington Books.
- Saraswati, S. 2001. The true history and the relfigion of India: a concise encyclopedia of authentic hinduism. Motilal Banarsidass
- Kinnear, M. 1985. A discography of Hindustani and Karnatic music. Greenwood Press.
- Video Keertans by Shri Kripalu Ji Maharaj. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Rang De with Anup Jalota at Radha Madhav Dham, Austin. 20 Oct 2011. Indo-American News. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Ref. Sant Ji on Bhanans, by Ajaib Singh.