Bharata (emperor)

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For other uses, see Bharat (disambiguation).
Bharata
Chakravarti or Emperor
Bharat plays with lion cubs.jpg
Bharat plays with lion cubs
Predecessor Thirthankara Vrushabnath
Successor Bhumanyu
Consort Sunanda
Issue Bhumanyu
House Lunar Dynasty
Dynasty Lunar Dynasty
Father Dushyanta of Hastinapura
Mother Śakuntalā
Born Saravadamana
Sage Kanva hermitage.

In Hindu mythology, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, Bharata ie, "The cherished")[1][2] is a legendary emperor and the founder of the Bhārata dynasty, and thus an ancestor of the Pandavas and the Kauravas in the Sanskrit epic, The Mahabharata. Though the Bhāratas are prominent tribe in the Rigveda,[3] the story of Bharata is first told in the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, wherein he is the son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala.[4][5] The story of his parents, and his birth, is also related in Kalidasa's famous play, Abhijñānashākuntala.

There are also many references to "Bharata Chakravarti" in the sacred Jain texts.[citation needed] He conquered all of the earth and the worlds above and reached the top of "Meru" or "Sumeru" mountain (the center of the world and tallest mountain) and placed a flag. But upon reaching the top he saw numerous such flags of world conquerors before him. This made him feel very insignificant and he took the diksha and attained nirvana. His successor was his youngest son Bhumanyu.[citation needed]

India has been called Bharatavarṣa (the country of Bharata) after him, and Bhārat is an official name of the Republic of India[4][5]

Etymology[edit]

The name Bharata means "the cherished" in Sanskrit. In the Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning) of the Mahabharata, King Dushyanta was advised by the words:

अभूतिर् एषा कस् त्यज्याज् जीवञ् जीवन्तम् आत्मजम्
शाकुन्तळं महात्मानं दौःषन्तिं भर पौरव
भर्तव्योऽयं त्वया यस्माद् अस्माकं वचनाद् अपि
तस्माद् भवत्व् अयं नाम्ना भरतो नाम ते सुतः

abhūtir eṣā kas tyajyāj jīvañ jīvantam ātmajam
śākuntalaṃ mahātmānaṃ dauḥṣantiṃ bhara paurava
bhartavyo 'yaṃ tvayā yasmād asmākaṃ vacanād api
tasmād bhavatv ayaṃ nāmnā bharato nāma te sutaḥ

Therefore, O thou of Puru's race, cherish thy high-souled son born of (Queen) Sakuntala
and because this child (Bharata) is to be cherished by thee even at our word,
therefore shall this thy son be known by the name of Bharata ("the cherished").

In his childhood, Bharata was known by the name "Sarvadamana" (Sanskrit: सर्वदमनः, Sarvadamanaḥ), meaning "the subduer of all". The dwellers at Sage Kanva's asylum called him by this name because, even in the age of six, he was able to seize and restrain wild animals.

Bharata in Literature[edit]

According to the Mahābhārata (Adi Parva), Bharata was the son of King Dushyanta and Shakuntala and thus a descendant of the Lunar Dynasty of the Kshatriya Varna. He was originally named Sarvadamana ("the subduer of all"); the Mahābhārata traces the events in his life by which he came to be known as Bharata ("the cherished"). Bharata's exploits as a child prince are dramatised in Kalidasa's poetic play Abhijñānaśākuntalam.

Bharata in the Rig Veda[edit]

The Rig Veda knows of Bharata[6] only as an ancestor of contemporary dynasties, tribes and clans. There is nothing in the Rig Veda about Bharata the person, let alone Bharata the emperor. There is absolutely no mention of any wars that he may have fought, enemies that he vanquished or territories annexed, not even the wealth he may have amassed or gifted (as danastutis). But nevertheless, he was important, for reasons that are not clear based on the Rig Veda alone. Every family of priests that represent the composers of Mandala II to VII, seem eager to showcase their association and allegiance to a descendant of the Bharatas. There are several references to “sons of Bharatas” or where contemporary kings or chiefs are referred to as a “Bharata”, always suggestive of a virtue or praise. These references echo throughout the Rig Veda, so clearly, Bharata must have been an extraordinary person of his time.

Story of Bharata[edit]

Story of Shakuntala[edit]

An Apsara or nymph called Menaka had come down to Earth from Heaven at the behest of Indra, to distract the great sage Vishvamitra from his deep penance. She succeeded and bore a child, by him. Vishwamitra, angered by the loss of the virtue gained through his many hard years of strict asceticism, distanced himself from the child and mother to return to his work. Realizing that she could not leave the child with him, and having to return to the Heavenly realms, the nymph left the newborn baby on the banks of the Malini River flowing in the Shivalik mountain ranges Himalayas. The child was found by a Rishi or Sage called Kanva surrounded and protected by birds (Shakunton in Sanskrit), and so she was named "Shakuntala".

Śakuntalā, the mother of Emperor Bharata, painted by Raja Ravi Varma.

Shakuntala was brought up by Sage Kanva in his hermitage. King Dushyanta encountered Shakuntala while travelling through the forest with his army. Pursuing a male deer wounded by his arrow into the hermitage, he saw Shakuntala nursing the deer, her pet, and fell in love with her. He profusely begged her forgiveness for harming the deer and Dushyanta married Shakuntala there in the hermitage. King Dushyanta left hermitage after some time due to unrest in the capital city. At the time of leaving, he gave her a ring as a memory of their time spent together and promised her to come back later.

The Malini River on whose banks Menaka the Apsara or nymph left the girl child is located in the Sivalik Hills of the Himalaya and Malini flows about 10 km west of a town Kotdwara in Uttarakhand, India. This is corroborated by the famous poet Kalidasa in his Abhijñānaśākuntalam.

Bharata (Sarvadamana), painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

In due course, Shakuntala gave birth to a child. The Sage Kanwa named him as Sarvadamana. Surrounded only by wild animals, Sarvadamana grew to be a strong child and made a sport of opening the mouths of tigers and lions and counting their teeth.

Time passed on and the King Dushyanta never came back. So, Shakuntala reached King's palace with her son. During the journey, she lost the ring while crossing a river. Arriving at King's court, Shakuntala was hurt and surprised when her husband did not recognize her, nor recollected anything about her. Since she lost the ring, she didn't have any proof as well. A few days later, a fisherman found that ring inside a fish and presented it before the king. After a long course of arguments made by Shakuntala, the King accepted her as his wife. Because King supported his child after hearing the speech of Celestial Messenger, that Shakuntala's son came to be called Bharata ("the cherished", "the supported").

This is however a dramatised version by poet Kalidasa. This varies dramatically from the version in the epic Mahabharata.[7]

Crying of Shakuntala

In his youth, Bharata became the King. Young Bharata conquered and ruled the entire sub continent of India, from sea to Himalaya. His empire was named Bharatavarsha, the land of Bharata.

Vishnu Purana accounts the extent of Bharatavarsha,

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् ।
वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।।

uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇam
varṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥ

"The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."

He ruled virtuously and earned great fame and was known by the titles of "Chakravarti" (emperor) and "Sarvabhauma" (Sanskrit: सार्वभौमः).

He performed many sacrifices and Sage Kanva was the chief priest at those sacrifices. Bharata had a son named Bhúmanyu. The Mahabharata, in the Adi Parvan, tells two different stories about Bhúmanyu's birth. The first story says that Bharata married Sunanda the daughter of Sarvasena, the King of Kasi Kingdom, and begot upon her the son named Bhumanyu.[8] According to the second story, Bhúmanyu was born out of a great sacrifice that Bharata performed for the sage Bharadwaja.[9]

Bharata lineage[edit]

Emperor Bharata gave his name to the dynasty of which he was the founder. It was in the Bharata's dynasty that, later, the Pandavas of epic Mahabharata were born.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva
  2. ^ Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva (in Sanskrit)
  3. ^ Singh, U. (2009), A History of Ancient and Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Delhi: Longman, p. 187, ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 
  4. ^ a b Apte, Vaman Shivaram (1959). "भरतः". Revised and enlarged edition of Prin. V. S. Apte's The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary. Poona: Prasad Prakashan. 
  5. ^ a b Buitenen, J. A. B. van (1973). "Introduction". Mahabharata Book I: The book of beginnings. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226846637. 
  6. ^ Bharata in the Rig Veda
  7. ^ Macfie, J. M (1993). Myths and Legends of India. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. p. 323. ISBN 978-81-7167-131-1. 
  8. ^ Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Sambhava Parva - Bharata Vamsha in Detail
  9. ^ [1]

External links[edit]