||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (January 2013)|
|— city —|
|Elevation||183 m (600 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Area code(s)||(+91) 5644|
|Vehicle registration||RJ 05|
Bharatpur is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in the Brij region, Bharatpur was once considered to be an impregnable city[by whom?] and was the capital of the Jat kingdom. Located 55 km west of the city of Agra (the city of the Taj Mahal) and 35 km from Mathura, it is also the administrative headquarters of Bharatpur District and the headquarters of Bharatpur Division of Rajasthan. The Royal House of Bharatpur traces its history to the eleventh Century AD. Bharatpur is located at . It has an average elevation of 183 metres (600 feet). Bharatpur is also known as Lohagarh. Bharatpur is famous for Keoladeo National Park.
The Jat rulers of Bharatpur were from Sinsinwar clan of Jat people Which is indo-sythian tribe migrated in India around 100AD. According to Cunningham and William Cook, the city of Gohad was founded in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Gohad developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by the Marathas. The Jat people of Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture Gwalior and Gohad from the Marathas. The British kept Gwalior and handed control of Gohad to Jat people in 1804. Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.
In the 10th century, the Jat people took control of Dholpur, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputs. Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad. Dholpur thus became a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj.
Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli village. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state.
Other Jat states of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries included Kuchesar (ruled by the Dalal Jat clan of Mandoti, Haryana), and the Mursan state (the present-day Hathras district in Uttar Pradesh) ruled by the Thenua Jats.
The Jat people also briefly ruled at Gwalior and Agra. The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707–1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757–1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort.
The rulers of Bharatpur claim originally to have been Yadavs, the descendants of Krishna.:
- Gokula, ? - 1670
- Raja Ram, 1670–1688
- Churaman, 1695–1721
- Badan Singh, 1722–1756
- Maharaja Suraj Mal, 1756–1767
- Maharaja Jawahar Singh, 1767–1768
- Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768–1769
- Maharaja Kehri Singh, 1769–1771
- Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771–1776
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776–1805
- Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805–1823
- Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823–1825
- Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825–1853
- Maharaja Jashwant Singh, 1853–1893
- Maharaja Ram Singh, 1893 - 1900 (Exiled)
- Maharani Girraj Kaur, regent 1900-1918
- Maharaja Kishan Singh, 1900–1929
- Maharaja Brijendra Singh, 1929-1947 (Joined the Indian Union)
As of the 2001[update] Indian census, Bharatpur had a population of 304,560. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Bharatpur has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 75% and female literacy of 56%. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. The languages commonly spoken in Bharatpur are English, Hindi and Brij-Bhasha.
There are both government and privately run colleges in Bharatpur, including MSJ College, RD Girls College, the Sri Digambeber Nursing College and the College of Engineering and Hotel Management government engineering collage in Bharatpur.
Economy of Bharatpur district is dependent to a large extent on agriculture and its products. The main crops grown here are wheat, mustard, cotton, red-chillies and potatoes . There are more than 60 oil mills in Bharatpur due to mustard grown in large quantity in the surrounding areas. Bharatpur is famous for its sweets which are well prepared here and there are a large number of shops here.In some areas stone mining is also done like bansi paharpur as Aravalli is extended in this area.
Keoladeo National Park
Being a UNESCO's World Heritage Site, the duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is one of the major wintering areas for large numbers of aquatic birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. Some 364 species of birds, including the rare Siberian Crane, have been recorded in the park. The name "Keoladeo" is derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary's central zone while the Hindi term "Ghana" implies dense, thick areas of forest cover. It is mainly famous for siberian crane. It was the only habitat of siberian crane in the world, other than siberia. Now with course of time, this endangered species has stopped reaching the park. The main reasons for this are being cited as lack of conservation measures in India, diversion of water for farmers instead of saving the wetlands as per then Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje's orders, hunting during migration in Pakistan and the Afghanistan as well as the war against Taliban in Afghanistan.
Bharatpur Jn. is located on the main Delhi-Mumbai line as well as the Bandikui - Agra Fort line . One can easily reach here by train from Kota, Delhi, Jaipur, Agra, Mumbai .
Places to see
Tourist attractions in Bharatpur
- Keoladeo National Park
- Lohagarh Fort
- Government Museum
- Golbagh Palace
- Moti Mahal
- Shri Rajendra suri kirti mandir
- Kishori Mehal
- Laxmi Vilas Palace
- Jawahar Burj
- Fateh Burj
- Ganga mandir
- Laxman mandir
- Vishwapriya shastri park
- Bankebihari temple
- Nehru Park
Tourist attractions in surrounding area
- Deeg Palace
- kaman (kamyavan) Palace
- Gopal Bhavan
- Laxman mandir [deeg]
- Bayana Fort
- Kailadevi Temple [ Teshsil Bayana ]
- Temples at Kaman
- Fatehpur Sikri
- Taj Mahal
Fairs and festivals
- gaurav mahamna: Brij Mahotsav is held in the month of February–March.
- Jaswant Exhibition: Jaswant Exhibition is held in the month of September–October during Dussehra.
- Gangaur: Gangaur festival is held in March–April.
- Teej: Teej festival is held in July–August
Bharatpur sthapana diwas;Held in the Month of February- 17,18 and 19th every year
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bharatpur
- Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : "Gohad ke Jaton ka Itihas" (Hindi), p.63-71
- Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197–200
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- SANDIPAN SHARMA (5 February 2005). "Vasundhara govt refuses water to Keoladeo Park". Indian Express. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Anuradha Nagraj (22 January 2003). "Siberian Cranes give Bharatpur a miss". Indian Express. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bharatpur|
- Brief history and detailed genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur
- Genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur
- Imperial Gazeteer of India Vol 8, P-73 Bharatpur State
- R.C.Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0-333-90298-X, p. 535-36
- Female infanticide and child marriage