|Princely State of British India|
|-||Independence of India||1947|
|-||1931||5,123 km2 (1,978 sq mi)|
|Density||95.1 /km2 (246.2 /sq mi)|
|This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.|
The Royal House of Bharatpur traces their history to the 11th Century AD. They claim descent, as Jadon Rajputs, from Sind Pal, common ancestor with the House of Karauli. Than Pal, twelfth in descent from Sind Pal, left several sons, including Dharam Pal, the eldest son and progenitor of Karauli. Madan Pal, the third son of Than Pal, being ancestor of Bharatpur. His descendant, Bal Chand or Balchandra of Siansini, having no issue by his wife, took a Jat lady as a concubine, by whom he had two sons named Birad (Bijji) and Surad (Sijji). Birad was the ancestor of Thakur Khanu Chand, with whom we treat.
The city and the fort of Bharatpur have been believed to be founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in the early 17th century. He established a state in the Mewat region south of Delhi, with its capital at Deeg. Leaders such as Gokula, Raja Ram, Churaman and Badan Singh brought the Jats together and moulded them into a force to be reckoned with.
Maharaja Suraj Mal was the state's greatest ruler; he made the state a formidable force in the region. Suraj Mal took over the site of Bharatpur from Khemkaran, a son of Rustam, and established it as the capital of his state. He fortified the city by building a massive wall around it.
During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 km² and its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the Dominion of India in 1947. It was merged with three nearby princely states to form the "Matsya Union", which in turn was merged with other adjoining territories to create the present-day state of Rajasthan.
Flag of Bharatpur State
Chronology of Bharatpur rulers
The descendants of Khanu Chand became leaders of the Jat race and rose to considerable power during the Mughal decline in the late seventeenth century. Badan Singh extended his territories and received enhanced titles and honours. The power of the Jats reached its zenith under Suraj Mal, Badan Singh's nephew, stepson, adopted son and successor. He conquered a vast territory in north central India, including the Imperial cities of Agra and Delhi. Thereafter the Jats proved fickle allies, making and breaking alliances with the Mughals, Mahrattas and the British. Losing territory to all three, but also gaining Deeg in the process. The British, under Lord Lake, fruitlessly besieged the fort of Bharatpur twice in 1804 and 1805, eventually settling for a treaty of protection after the failure of the second siege. The fort eventually fell to Lord Combermere's forces in 1826, after the British intervened to unseat a usurper, and demolished. Thereafter, Jats proved to be great allies, supplying large numbers of recruits for the Indian Army and the Maharajas participating in Imperial campaigns. The state acceded to the Dominion of India in August 1947, and merged into the Matsya Union in 1948 (absorbed into Rajasthan in 1949). Members of the ruling family continue to participate in national and regional affairs, in post-independence India. Several members of the family have served as members of parliament and in the state legislature.
According to Cunningham and William Crooke, the city of Gohad was founded in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Gohad developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by the Marathas. The Jat people of Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture Gwalior and Gohad from the Marathas. The British kept Gwalior and handed control of Gohad to Jat people in 1804. Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.
Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Surji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad by British as a reward for their loyalty. Dholpur thus became a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj.
Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by the Jat people of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli village. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state.
The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707–1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757–1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort.
The chronology of Sinsinwar Jat clan rulers of Bharatpur is:
- Gokula, ? - 1670
- Raja Ram, 1670–1688
- Churaman, 1695–1721
- Badan Singh, 1722–1756
- Maharaja Suraj Mal, 1756–1767
- Maharaja Jawahar Singh, 1767–1768
- Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768–1769
- Maharaja Kehri Singh, 1769–1771
- Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771–1776
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776–1805
- Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805–1823
- Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823–1825
- Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825–1853
- Maharaja Jashwant Singh, 1853–1893
- Maharaja Ram Singh, 1893 - 1900 (Exiled)
- Maharani Girraj Kaur, regent 1900-1918
- Maharaja Kishan Singh, 1900–1929
- Maharaja Brijendra Singh, 1929-1947 (Joined the Indian Union)
- Princely States of India
- Baratpur—Indian Princely State—the only political entity ever to have a chartreuse coloured flag:
- Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197–200
- Imperial Gazeteer of India Vol 8, P-73 Bharatpur State
- R.C.Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0-333-90298-X, p. 535-36