Hakikat-Rah-Muqaam-Shivnabh-Raje-Ki, discription of the meeting of Guru nanak and Raja Shivnabh [p.1248] of an early 18th Century handwritten copy of Bhai Bannu’s Bir, the start of the Sikh Bhat Sangat.
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The Bhat, Bhatt, Bhatta or commonly known as the Bhatra community, refers to a priest, Bard, scribe in Sanskrit, a title given to learned Hindu Brahmins, Sikhs and Muslims with Saraswat Brahmin heritage. This community are also known as the Sangat community and are comprised majorly of Sikh, there is also a size able Muslim community (Bhat clan). Today in the United Kingdom there are significant numbers of Sikhs with Bhat ancestry, as there are in India. The majority Bhat Sikhs originate from Punjab and were among the first followers of Guru Nanak. In the Punjab most Bhat Sikhs are now in Patiala, Amritsar, Nawashahar, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur or Bhathinda districts, or in Jalandhar or Chandigarh; elsewhere in India they tend to live in cities, particularly Delhi.
- 1 Introduction to the Bhat Sikhs
- 2 Origins
- 3 Bhat Sikhs in the United Kingdom
- 4 Bhat Sikhs in The United States of America
- 5 Bhat Sangat name groups
- 6 Further information
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Introduction to the Bhat Sikhs
The Bhatra/Bhat Sikhs were originally northern hindu Saraswat Brahmins who eventually became Sikhs, these Brahmins were autochthonous inhabitants who helped found the Indus-Saraswati civilization during 4000-2000BC. They lived in the 700+ archeological sites discovered along the former Saraswati River that once flowed parallel to the Indus in present day Kashmir, Himachal, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan regions. As the intellectual and priestly class of that ancient civilization, they are highly respected and honored for creating the world's oldest literary and religious traditions. They were the original propagators (some argue composers too) of the revered texts such as the Vedas and the Upanishads and took these texts into other parts of South Asia. They are considered to be the descendants of the revered Brahmin, Sage Saraswat Muni, who lived on the banks of the ancient river Saraswati. Around 1900 BC, the river Saraswati started vanishing under ground and the people on its banks started migrating to other parts of South Asia thus forming sub-communities. During the Islamic invasions of modern day Pakistan and india, many Saraswat Brahmins were forced to flee due to religious oppression. Such as the saraswat Brahmin Kashmiri Pandit.
An estimate of the number of people killed, based on the Muslim chronicles and demographic calculations, was done by K.S. Lal in his book Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India, who claimed that between 1000 CE and 1500 CE, the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. Sir Jadunath Sarkar contends that that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic jihad against Hindus in India to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects." In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, Mahmud al-Ghazni's secretary, in the Tarikh-i-Yamini document several episodes of bloody military campaigns. In the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni launched seventeen expeditions into South Asia. In 1001, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty of Gandhara, the Battle of Peshawar and marched further into Peshawar and, in 1005, made it the center for his forces. The Ghaznavid conquests were initially directed against the Ismaili Fatimids of Multan, who were engaged in an on-going struggle with the Abbasid Caliphate in conjunction with their compatriots of the Fatimid Caliphate in North Africa and the Middle East; Mahmud apparently hoped to curry the favor of the Abbasids in this fashion. However, once this aim was accomplished, he moved onto the richness of the loot of wealthy temples and monasteries. By 1027, Mahmud had captured parts of North India and obtained formal recognition of Ghazni's sovereignty from the Abbassid Caliph, al-Qadir Billah.
Ghaznavid rule in Northwestern India lasted over 175 years, from 1010 to 1187. It was during this period that Lahore assumed considerable importance apart from being the second capital, and later the only capital, of the Ghaznavid Empire. At the end of his reign, Mahmud's empire extended from Kurdistan in the west to Samarkand in the Northeast, and from the Caspian Sea to the Punjab. Although his raids carried his forces across Northern and Western India, only Punjab came under his permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Rajput dynasties.
The Sultan's army was easily defeated on 17 December 1398. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed more than 100,000 Hindu captives.
 Timur's purported autobiography, the Tuzk-e-Taimuri ("Memoirs of Temur") is a later fabrication, although most of the historical facts are accurate. As per Malfuzat-i-Timuri, Timur targeted Hindus. In his own words, "Excepting the quarter of the saiyids, the 'ulama and the other Musalmans [sic], the whole city was sacked". In his descriptions of the Loni massacre he wrote, "..Next day I gave orders that the Musalman prisoners should be separated and saved." During the ransacking of Delhi, almost all inhabitants not killed were captured and enslaved.
Timur's memoirs on his invasion of India describe in detail the massacre of Hindus, looting plundering and raping of their women and children, their forced conversions to Islam and the plunder of the wealth of Hindustan (Greater India). It gives details of how villages, towns and entire cities were rid of their Hindu male population through systematic mass slaughters and genocide and their women and children forcefully converted en masse to Islam from Hinduism. Up to about the beginning of the 13th century, Islam became the dominant religion in Kashmir as a large number of Saraswat Kashmiri Pandits were converted to Islam. Mahmud's armies looted temples in Varanasi, Mathura, Ujjain, Maheshwar, Jwalamukhi, Somnath and Dwarka.
The Sayyid (1414–51), and the Lodhi (1451–1526). Muslim Kings extended their domains into Southern India, Kingdom of Vijayanagar resisted until falling to the Deccan Sultanate in 1565. Certain kingdoms remained independent of Delhi such as the larger kingdoms of Punjab, Rajasthan, parts of the Deccan, Gujarat, Malwa (central India), and Bengal, nevertheless all of the area in present-day Pakistan came under the rule of Delhi. The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations with Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. They based their laws on the Quran and the sharia and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid the jizya (poll tax). They ruled from urban centres, while military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the countryside.
The destruction of Hindu temples in India during the Islamic conquest of India occurred from the beginning of Muslim conquest until the end the Mughal Empire throughout the Indian subcontinent. In the book "Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them", Sita Ram Goel produced a politically contentious list of 2000 mosques that it is claimed were built on Hindu temples. During the 14th to 16th century many Saraswat Brahmins were forced to lead unsettled lifes, unable to practice their hereditary profession as Hindu priests, artists, teachers, scribes, technicians class (varna). They used their academia in there unsettled life travelling as scribes, genealogies, bards and astrologists. In the 15th century the religion of Sikhism was born causing many to follow the word of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Further conversions of the Saraswat Brahmins Bhats to Sikhism were induced by a royal preacher by the name of Prince Baba Changa Bhat Rai.
Bhat/Bhatra tradition and Sikh text states their ancestors came from Punjab, where the Raja Shivnabh and his kingdom became the original 16th century followers of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. The Raja's grandson Prince Baba Changa after studying and competing in competition for 14 years under the high Pandit Chetan Gir earned the title ‘Bhat Rai’ – the ‘Raja of Poets, and then settled himself and his followers all over India as missionaries to spread the word of Guru Nanak, where most of northern Saraswat Brahmin Bhat became Bhat Sikhs. The Bhats also contributed 123 compositions in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (pp.1389–1409), known as the "Bhata de Savaiyye". They also wrote the Bhat Vahis, which were scrolls or records on the Gurus and Sikhism maintained by the Bhat Sikhs. As Guru Nanak and Sikhism do not support the caste system, the Bhat people do not consider themselves as a caste in the typical sense due to the message of Guru Nanak, but a clan within Sikhism linked by Guru Nanak which is not shackled by the caste system. The majority were from the northern Saraswat Brahmin caste (Bhat clan),(Bhat (surname)) as the Prince Baba Changa Bhat Rai although a kshatriya, trained under Brahmins scholars and shared the Bhat Brahmin heritage due to his passion for religion, many continued to be called the Bhat/Bhat-rai sikhs, eventually leading to the name Bhat-ra Sikh. The sangat also had many members from different areas of the Sikh caste spectrum, such as the Hindu Rajputs and Hindu Jats who joined due to Bhat sikh missionary efforts. The Ramaiya community of Uttar Pradesh is said to be a sub-clan of Bhatra origin. Currently there are many Hindus and Muslims that share the Brahmin Bhat heritage. Today modern Bhat sikhs are commonly known to have pioneered many of the first Gurdwaras outside of India and have donated to various Gurdwaras.
In the 17th century Bhats Bhai Mati Das and Bhai Sati Das were Saraswat Mohyal Brahmin and were disciples of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675). They were executed along with the Guru at the Kotwali (police-station) near the Sunehri Masjid in the Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi, under the express orders of emperor Aurangzeb. Bhat Bhai Sati Das was wrapped in cotton wool and set on fire by the Mughal authorities for refusing to denounce his faith. His brother Bhat Bhai Mati Das was also tortured to death, by having his head sawn in two.
On 16 December 1634 the Sikh forces under the command of Rai Jodh and Kirt Bhat waged a guerrilla attack on Mughal forces at night, whereby the Sikhs routed and defeated the enemy. Guru Sahib lost 1200 Saint Soldiers including Kirat Bhat Ji. On the other side Sameer Beg and his two sons Shams Beg and Qasim Beg were also killed. The Mughal forces fled to Lahore leaving behind the dead and wounded.
After the Battle of Kartarpur, Guru Hargobind Sahib moved towards Kiratpur Sahib, which was under the rule of Raja Tara Chand (a hill state chief). Guru Sahib's entourage was suddenly ambushed by a contingent of royal forces under the command of Ahmed Khan in the village Palahi near Phagwara town on 29 April 1635. It caused considerable loss on the Guru's soldiers. In which Bhai Dasa Ji and Bhai Sohela Ji (sons of Ballu Bhat, and grandsons of Mula Bhat) sacrificed their lives.
Many Religious Bhats also went to fight as "warrior-saints" against Mughal persecution in the Khalsa campaign inspired by Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Since many Bhat lived as travelling missionaries, their mobility led them to depend on occupations which did not require a settled life.
Bhat Kirat’s grandson Bhat Narbadh (son of Keso Singh) was in attendance to Guru Gobind Singh and accompanied him to Nanded (now Sachkand Hazur Sahib) where Guru Ji spent his last days. In the Bhat-Vahis, Bhat Narbadh records an entry, of the conferment of Guruship upon the Guru Granth Sahib in 1708 upon the death of Guru Gobind Singh.
By the 19th century Bhat was the name of a caste or jati within the Indian tradition of social classes, each with its own occupation. Even though Sikhism itself does not support separation by caste, the social system meant that the Bhat followed a hereditary profession of missionaries, bards,scribes, poets and genealogists while some also foretold the future, if they were considered to have clairvoyant or astrological ability's, most of which were from a Brahmin heritage, eventually becoming salesman due to economic change however it is not uncommon to see Bhats in other professions such as farming and retail. According to Nesfield as quoted in W. Crooke, The Tribes and Castes of the North Western India, 1896, Bhats frequently visited the courts of princes and the camps of warriors, recited their praises in public, and kept records of their genealogies. They have been praised for business acumen, described as people with "a spirit of enterprise". They were a small clan compared to others and many people in india did not know of them. Though some lived in Lahore, many Bhat can trace their roots to villages around Sialkot and Gurdaspur Districts.
In the 21st century due to the changing world and new opportunities which are available to all people of the world, Bhats have almost completely left their missionary and hereditary professions, to pursue careers in Engineering, Medicine, Law, Banking, Politics, Arts, Hospitality, Sikh Priest hood and much more.
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According to the Sikh Encyclopedia, Bhat is related to the Sanskrit word bhatta, a bard or poet.
The Bhatras/Bhats were originally northern Saraswat Brahmins, round 1900 BC, the river Saraswati started vanishing under ground and the people on its banks started migrating to other parts of South Asia thus forming sub-communities. During the Islamic invasions of modern day Pakistan and India, many Saraswat Brahmins were forced to flee due to religious oppression. During the 14th and 15th century many Saraswat Brahmins were forced to lead unsettled lifes, unable to practice their hereditary profession as Hindu priests, artists, teachers, scribes, technicians class (varna). They used their academia in there unsettled life travelling as scribes, genealogies, bards and astrologists. These Brahmins Bhats soon converted to Sikhism due to the word of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and due to missionaries such as prince Baba changa Bhat-Rai.
Raja Shivnabh and Prince Baba Changa Rai
Guru Nanak visited Sri Lanka during 1574 and met Raja Shivnabh, who was the grandfather of Changa Rai. The Guru bestowed the title of sangat on the Raja and his people, united seven kingdoms and made the Raja Shivnabh leader of them all. Some scholars consider the Raja was the ruler of Batticaloa.
Theafter the grandson of Raja Shivnabh, Changa Rai or Changa Bhat, a disciple of Guru Nanak's mentioned in the Janamsakhis. Earned the title ‘Bhat Rai’ – the ‘Raja of Poets, and then settled himself and his few followers all over India as missionaries, where many Sikhs and general Indians became Bhat Sikhs., A congregation led by a teacher called Baba Changa Rai is described in an old document called the Haqiqat Rah Muqam. The Sikh Encyclopedia discusses the link between Bhat Sikhs,Raja Shivnabh and Prince Changa Bhat, who became a disciple of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Due to the Princes title ‘Bhat Rai’ he added Bhat to his name and spread the word of Guru Nanak to his followers, who also became known as Bhats or Bhatras.
Bhatra Sikhs are said to have a partially mixed ancestry, the mass majority of Bhats were Punjabi saraswat Brahmin. The Northern traveling Saraswat Hindu Brahmins joined Sikhism due to the message of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and the preaching efforts of the Sikh prince Baba changa Bhat Rai. However, as by the commandment of Guru Nanak, caste discrimination was deemed as blasphemy and so the Sikh Bhats also have a partially mixed ancestry due to the missionary work of the Bhat prince and his followers to spread the message of Sikhism. Some Kambojas, Tarkhan, Jat, Rajput, Khatri, Gujjars and others also joined. Many Bhats are apart of the Khalsa and Nihang of Sikhism.
M.S. Ahluwalia, a Senior Fellow at the Indian Council of Historical Research, New Delhi, offers historical evidence for Guru Nanak's presence in Sri Lanka, probably in the year 1510. A place called Singaldeep or Sangladeep is often mentioned in 'Hakikat-Rah-Mukaam-Shivnabh-Raje-Ki' and is stated to be in Sri Lanka.
Bhat Sikhs in the United Kingdom
Bhat Sikhs started to arrive in the United Kingdom in the 1920s, but most immigrated in the late 1940s or 1950s.
In the 1920s some men travelled to Britain to work as door-to-door salesmen, most leaving their families in the Punjab to begin with. By the time of the Second World War there were a few hundred Sikhs clustered in British seaports like Cardiff, Bristol, and Southampton and Hull. Some returned to India when war broke out, but others stayed on and used contacts with Punjabi merchant seamen to import scarce goods.
The Partition of India in 1947 led many Sikhs to emigrate, and the Bhat population in the UK was greatly enlarged. Later arrivals tended to join relatives, friends and neighbours from the Punjab, so that some British Bhat communities have links to one or two particular villages. Difficult journeys following Partition are not forgotten. The Edinburgh Sikh women's group (Sikh Sanjog) has exhibited artwork telling the story of leaving the Punjab and arriving in a strange land. A 2001 obituary of a senior figure in the Cardiff Bhat community described the trials of leaving northern India in turbulent times.
The traditional Bhat profession of itinerant salesman and taxi drivers was useful to those arriving in the UK, and was "a skill with considerable potential". At first most Bhat, like some other Sikhs, worked either as doorstep or market traders (working with the Khatri community), but some settled in big cities like Leeds or Birmingham, gave up self-employment and took waged jobs in industry. (At this time many educated immigrants to Britain had difficulty finding employment suited to their qualifications and experience, because of racial and/or cultural prejudice.)
Bhat traders gradually moved into other roles as self-employed businessmen, often specialising in retailing. By the end of the 1950s selling door-to-door was less common and many British Bhat Sikhs moved towards commercial enterprises like market stalls, shops, supermarkets and wholesale warehouses. Nowadays the younger Bhata generation are represented in many varied professions from doctors to accountants, from engineers to lawyers. Also very well known taxi drivers.
In the 1920s some men travelled to Britain to work as door-to-door salesmen, most leaving their families in the Punjab to begin with. By the time of the Second World War there were a few hundred Sikhs clustered in British seaports like Cardiff, Bristol, Southampton and Hull. Some returned to India when war broke out, but others stayed on and used contacts with Punjabi merchant seamen to import scarce goods.
‘One group of Sikhs who kept their turbans were a group called Bhartedas (sic)’.
The Bhat Sikhs are the pioneer Sikh community to migrate to Britain. Whilst most men from other Sikh communities were finding a foothold in Britain in the early 1950‘s, the Bhats had already established themselves as a settled community all over Britain in port towns and cities. Most Sikh preachers amongst the Sikh community today belong to the Bhatra caste.
When possible the Bhat community have established Gurdwaras (temples). The first of which was opened in Manchester in 1953. As of 2006 there are more than 30 Bhat or Bhat Sikh temples in the UK, the newest being the one opened in Peterborough in 2004. In some British towns Bhats are a small proportion of the overall Sikh population (in Glasgow 5%); elsewhere, as in Edinburgh, they are in the majority. Many Bhats took the role of Gyanis in the newer established Gurdwara, especially in Luton and Leicester.
The London Bhat Community
The Bhat Gurdwaras in the UK are sometimes linked with ongoing community projects. The site of the first Sangat Bhat Gurdwara in London, in Mile End Bow in Campbell Road, is still in service and of interest to social historians. The Community also moved to a retired Synagogue in a Grade Two listed building in Harley Grove, East London, recognised as a fine example of Jewish Architecture and visited by Jewish historians. This fits with Sikh beliefs in tolerance and respect for other cultures. The Harley Grove Gurdwara has large Vasakhi celebrations at the Sikh New Year, and is a focal point for Bhat Sikhs in London. Puran Singh Roudh was the first President (Pardaan) of this Gurdwara in London.
The Leeds Bhat community
Gurdwara Guru Hargobind Sahib ji, Potternewton Mansion LS7 4EY, was recently established by the Bhat Sangat in Leeds; mainly consisting of the families of the following: S Hazara Singh Rathore, S Jagdish Singh Rathore (Pardaan), S Ranjit Singh Rathore, S Jaswant Singh Rathore(Secretary),S Gulab Singh Rathore(kajanch),Balbir singh Chauhan SHO ,Amrik Singh , Sukhdev singh Rathore,Mohinder singh rathor reader teh S Dalip Singh Rathore, S Pargash Singh Rathore S Himmat Singh Landa, S Sher Singh Landa,Jagvrinder singh Landa Surjit Singh Rathore, Gagandeep Singh Rathor Valleti Singh Digwa,Amandeep singh Rathor and many others. It is a grade two listed building, situated in Potternewton Park. The Gurdwara Sahib is in an excellent location with good transport links and good car parking facilities. The building has been a Gurdwara since March 2006, it was Park Lane college before the building was bought.
On Sunday 13 April 2008, The new building of Gurdwara Kalgidhar Sahib ji was opened just in time for Vaisakhi thanks to the efforts of its hardworking Sangat who made this possible. The new building replaces 138 Chapeltown Road which had been previous Gurdwara building for 21 years.
The previous Gurdwara Sahib, Gurdwara Kalgidhar Sahib was established by a few members of the Bhat Sangat around 21 years ago. These included S Mehlia Singh Rathore, S Boota Tehl Singh Rathore, S Jaswant Singh Rathore, and some others. It was previously Gurdwara Ramgarhia Board.
The very first Sikh Gurdwara in Leeds, on Chapeltown Road,LS7 4EE, was established with the help of many Bhat Sikhs. These included, S Mehlia Singh Rathore, S Boota Tehl Singh Rathore, S Sardar Singh Rathore, S Hazara Singh Rathore, Akali Balwant Singh Landa. Indeed, these people were among the first Sikh settlers in Leeds.
The Doncaster Bhat community
The Bhat community is very large and comprises families of various jarths including Landa, Wahiwala, Swali, Digpal, Potiwal, Gola, Neer, Roudh, Kasbia etc.
The Bhat community in Doncaster was founded by Sant Singh Landa, who stopped over at Doncaster on a rail journey. He liked the town so much, that he moved his family there and other Bhat soon followed. The descendants of Sant Singh still live in the town and are active members of the community.
The Bhats in Doncaster, as throughout the rest of the country, obtained pedler's licences and continued working as door to door salesmen, finding the nearby villages in the South Yorkshire area a convenient place to sell their wares. Others found that with an active rail industry and a number of other local factories, salaried jobs were easy to come by.
The next generation mostly shied away from door to door selling but found setting up stalls at the local markets, particularly Doncaster market, an easy transition.
Presently, the members of the community have varied jobs ranging from professionals such as lawyers and accountants to businessmen and call centre workers. A number also continue to work as salesmen, partcularly in their own shops.
The first Gurdwara was founded at Cemetery Road, in Hyde Park, founded by S.Mohan Singh Landa in the early 1960s. In 1965 the Gudwara moved to the current location at St James Street,Waterdale in the town centre, and was named the Guru Khaligidhar Gurdwara. The original Gurduwara was a renovated Church building. This was demolished in 2009 and the present Gurdwara was built on the site. The present Gurdwara is one of the largest in the UK and fine example of modern architecture.
The Doncaster sangat are very active and regularly hold ceremonies on each Gurpurb and organise a large Nagar Kirtan once every year.
Despite its relatively smally size, Doncaster holds a much larger Sikh Community than nearby largers cities such as Sheffield. Even though the Bhat community has grown very large, they are still quite close knit.
Bhat Sikhs in The United States of America
The first Bhat Sikh in the U.S.A was Vilati Singh Rathour. He originally had the surname Rathore, although because of spelling changed to Rathour. He came from Sialkot, Punjab before the Partition. His brothers decided to move to the United Kingdom, while he decided to move to America.
The majority of Bhat Sikhs in the U.S.A live in New York City.
There are a sizeable number of Bhat Sikhs in the United States. The number increases as immigrants from India obtain visas and move in with relatives or acquaintances.
Bhat Sangat name groups
The Names of the Jarth came from certain tribal groups.
Bhat Sikhs consist of 2 groups, who at around the 16th and 17th century started travelling and preaching Sikhism around India separately and overtime, formed two Bhat groups, Darewal and Landervaser.
Indians that embraced Guru Nanak’s teachings from hearing the Bards of these travellers (Bhats), joined the Bhat Sikhs and became Sikhs. As many joined the Bhat Sikhs they brought there surnames with them, which include those from , Khatri, Tarkhan, Rajput, Jat, Kambojas, Brahmin and Gujjars. Many Bhats today are influenced by the Nihang sect of Sikhism and many are Khalsa.
- Bhati / Bhatti / Bhati
- Roudh/Rhaud (Descendants of Alexander the Great Army,that invaded India 326 B.C. came from greek island called Rhodes So on that how the name originated)
- Rathore (a Rajput Warrior Clan mainly from Rajasthan, India.)
Films and music
Actors, films, music and musicians which may be of special interest to Sikhs in the UK include:
- Baleah Baleh – a traditional Punjabi folk-singer
- Gandhi – the film directed by Richard Attenborough which portrays the Amritsar massacre
- Films with Gurdas Maan
- Dholki drumming – a traditional art
- Jasbir Singh Bhogal, tabla player
- Rhythm Dhol Bass (RDB), a Bhangra group
- San2, Bhangra Singer
- Amrit Gurtek Singh Roudh Sab Toh Vadha
- Mehsopuria, a Bhangra singer
- Daljit Neer, singer, writer, media, radio, tv presenter
- Onkar Singh, London based Stand Up Comic
- Ranbir Daskai ( singer, writer)
- Herbie Sahara (singer)
- Santu singh (san2) singer)
- Jay Status Suki Roudh (singer for dj sanj)
- D-sarb (beatcircle)
- Garry sandhu
People of historical importance for Sikhs in the UK include:
- Desh Pradesh, Differentiation and Disjunction among the Sikhs in South Asian Experience in Britain (1994) ed. Roger Ballard
- Roger Ballard, The Growth and Changing Character of the Sikh Presence in Britain in The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States (2000), ed. Harold Coward, Raymond Brady Williams, John R Hinnells
- Roger Ballard, Migration,Remittances, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Reflections on the basis of South Asian Experience
- R and C Ballard, The Sikhs: the development of South Asian settlements in Britain in Between Two Cultures ed. JL Watson (1977)
- P Ghuman, Bhattra Sikhs in Cardiff: Family and Kinship Organization. New Community (1980) 8, 3.
- Marie Gillespie, Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change (Routledge 1995)
- Malory Nye, A Place for Our Gods: The Construction of an Edinburgh Hindu Temple Community (1995)
- Eleanor Nesbitt, Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2005) ISBN 0-19-280601-7
- Difference within Sikh Communities
- Sikh settlers in Britain (includes material on caste and on "Bhattra")
- The Sikh Encyclopedia
- Saathi, Jeevan. "Sindhi Sikh Matrimony". Sindhi Sikh Online Matrimonial Service. Jeevansathi. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Kaw, M.K. (2008). Kashmiri Pandits: Looking to the future. 5, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi: APH Publishing House. p. 32. ISBN 8176482366. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Sarkar, Jadunath. How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam.
- Sir H. M. Elliot (1869). "Chapter II, Tarikh Yamini or Kitabu-l Yamini by Al Utbi". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period. Trubner and Co. pp. 14–52.
- Cahen, Cl.; İnalcık, Halil; Hardy, P. "Ḏj̲izzya." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 29 April 2008
- Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography or Memoirs of Emperor Tímúr (Taimur the lame). Page: 389 (1. Online copy, 2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; London Trubner Company 1867–1877.)
- Lane-Poole, Stanley (1907). "Chapter IX: Tinur's Account of His Invasion". History of India. The Grolier Society. Full text at Google Books
- B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam.
-  Hindu temples- What happened to them
- Sikh Encyclopedia
- [^ http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=QpjKpK7ywPIC&pg=PA365&lpg=PA365&dq=History+of+kashmir+and+its+people&source=bl&ots=-RI_8tLrab&sig=8d9tzPeeB5lAjaq9RZqzYO8QydA&hl=en&ei=ab9pSobcB46PkAXutZW4Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6]
- O. P. Ralhan (1997). The Great Gurus of the Sikhs. Anmol Publications. p. 16. ISBN 978-81-7488-479-4. "His life-long companion Bhai Mati Das, a Mohyal Brahmin of village Karyala in Jehlam district..."
- Hari Ram Gupta - Sikhs (1978). History of the Sikhs. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 211. "The Guru's companions included Mati Das, a Mohyal Brahmin..."
- Sikh Encyclopaedia
- HA Rose, Glossary of Tribes and Castes of the Punjab (Lahore 1883), quoted by Pradesh
- Sikh Encyclopedia
- Haqiqat Rah Muqam shivnabh raje ki page 624 [p.1248]khari
- For more on Guru Nanak's journey to Batticaloa/Batticola see: Kirpal Singh, Janamsakhi Tradition (Amritsar 2004)
- Haqiqat Rah Muqam "included in Bhai Banno's "bir", according to the Sikh Encyclopedia and others.
- M.S. Ahluwalia, Guru Nanak in Ceylon (Sikh Spectrum Quarterly 2004)
- Western Mail, 13 December 2001
- The Irish Raj, 1997, p.174
- Bhatra.co.uk – includes unique content on the early decades in the UK – collection of photographs
- Bhatra in the UK before Partition
- Sikh Sanjog
- Sikh Directory UK – includes Bhatra Gurdwaras
- Cardiff Bhatra Gurdwara
- Bhat Sikh Community in Peterborough
Bhat Sikh Community in Doncaster