Bhudev Mukhopadhyay

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Bhudev Mukhopadhyay
Born 22 February 1827
Died 15 May 1894
Occupation Educator, writer

Bhudev Mukhopadhyay (1827-1894) was a writer and intellectual in 19th century Bengal. His works were considered ardent displays of nationalism and philosophy in the period of the Bengal renaissance.

Whereas the Young Bengal movement was more concerned with the dynamics of social change, their younger contemporaries, a group, to which Bhudev Mukhopdahyay belonged, also came out from the same college with western education, and joined the quest for literary achievements. There was a kind of balance between differing sensibilities - Michael Madhusudan Dutt against Bhudev Mukhopadhyay, Rajnarayan Basu against Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay[1]

Early life[edit]

He was born in Chinsurah, Hooghly on 22 February 1827 to Pandit Biswanath Tarkabhusan, a renowned Sanskrit scholar. He was a student of Sanskrit College and Hindu College, studying at the same time as other Bengal renaissance figures such as Michael Madhusudan Dutt. After completing his education at Hindu College, Bhudev became the headmaster of the Hindu Hitarthi School in 1846. He later founded Chandannagar Seminary and taught there.In 1848, he joined Calcutta Madrasa as English teacher. In 1856, he was selected for the post of Principal of Hooghly Normal School through a competitive examination for which his former class-mate Michael Madhusudan Dutt was also a candidate.[2]

Later career[edit]

In 1862 he was appointed Assistant Inspector of Schools. He was later appointed Inspector of Schools and served in the states of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha. Recognizing his services, Mukhopadhyay was awarded the CIE (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) in 1877 by the British.

In 1882 he was appointed as Director of Public Instruction and was also nominated to the Lt.-Governor's Council and the Education Commission later that year. Mukhopadhyay retired from public service in 1883. He was also involved with several educational journals including Shiksadarpan O Sangbadsar and the Education Gazette, which he edited. This involvement lasted from 1868 until his retirement.

His sense of nationalism was so strong that the English principal of Presidency College once noted, “Bhudev with his CIE and 1500 a month is still anti-British.”[2]


Mukhopadhyay was a renowned writer and thinker and combined nationalism with rationalism in his works. He strived to reform Hindu customs and family laws to synergize with modern times. He had an immense knowledge of Sanskrit, as evidenced by his numerous essays, and critiques of Sanskrit literature. He wrote several books for young people, historical novels and fused many different philosophies into characters he portrayed.


  • Paribarik Prabandha (1882) - essay
  • Samajik Prabandha (1892) - essay
  • Achar Prabandha (1895) - essay
  • Prakrtik Bijnan (in two parts, 1858 & 1859) - Book
  • Purabrttasar (1858) - Book
  • Englander Itihas (1862) - Book
  • Romer Itihas (1862) - Book
  • Banglar Itihas (3rd Part, 1904) - Book
  • Ksetratattva (1862) - Book
  • Puspanjali (1st part, 1876) - Book
  • Aitihasik Upanyas (1857) - Historical Novel
  • Svapnalabdha Bharatbarser Itihas (1895) - Novel



  1. ^ Majumdar, Swapan, Literature and Literary Life in Old Calcutta, in Calcutta, the Living City, Vol I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, pp. 113–14, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563696-1.
  2. ^ a b Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1976/1998, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (Bengali), p. 380, ISBN 81-85626-65-0