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Bi'ina or al-Bi'na is an Arab town in the North District of Israel. It is located east of Akko. In 2003, Bi'ina merged with Majd al-Krum and Deir al-Asad to form the city of Shaghur, but was reinstated as a local council in 2008 after Shaghur was dissolved. Bi'ina has a mostly Muslim population with a small Christian minority.
The village was established in the Crusader period, and continued to be inhabited after the Mamluks conquered Palestine. Al-Qalqasandi (d. 1418) mentioned the place as "a village in the district of al-Sajur with a monastery." The monastery was also mentioned later.
In 1517, Bi'ina was with the rest of Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman Empire after it was captured from the Mamluks, and by 1596, Bi'na appeared in tax registers as belonging to the Nahiya of Akka of the Liwa of Safad. It had a population of 16 Muslim households and 15 Christian households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, cotton, goats or beehives and a press for grapes or olives.
French scholar Victor Guérin visited in the 1870s, and wrote that the population was divided between Druze and "Schismatic Greek." He listed a mosque and a Greek church, both of which were built on the sites of older churches. In the late 19th century, it was described as a village of 300 Muslims and 100 Christians, surrounded by olives and arable land. Water was supplied by a spring.
At the time of the 1931 census, Bi'ina had 133 houses and a population of 441 Muslims and 270 Christians. In 1945, Bi'ina had 830 inhabitants, all Arabs. They owned 14,839 dunams of land, while 57 dunams were public.
During Operation Hiram, 29-31 October 1948, the village surrendered to the advancing Israeli army. Many of the villagers fled north but some remained and were not expelled. The village remained under Martial Law until 1966.
In 1981, a Bedouin neighborhood was created in the village, populated by members of the Sawaed tribe from Rame.
- from personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 41
- Ellenblum, 2003, pp. 167- 169
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 191
- Guérin, 1880, p. 445, as translated by Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p.150
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP, p. 150
- Mills, 1932, p. 100
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970 p. 40
- Morris, 1987, p. 226
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, Herbert H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 1. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. (p. 153)
- Ellenblum, Ronnie (2003). Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521521874.
- Guérin, Victor (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale. (Deir al-Asad: p. 446, Majd al-Kurum: pp 437, 444)
- Hadawi, Sami (1970), Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine, Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33028-9.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Pringle, Denys (1993), The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A-K (excluding Acre and Jerusalem), Cambridge University Press (p.80 -92 )
- Röhricht, Reinhold (1893). (RRH) Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVII-MCCXCI) (in Latin). Berlin: Libraria Academica Wageriana. (p. 188 no 674; p. 248 no 934; p. 256 no 974; p. 308 no 1175)