The history of the town dates back to 1540, when King Sigismund I the Old granted town rights to the town of Brzegi, which was located on the left bank of the Pilica, on the territory of Lesser Poland. At that time, Brzegi belonged to a local noble woman Anna Fałęcka, then it was property of other families. The town never gained significance and remained a small center, whose population was involved in trade and agriculture. During the January Uprising, several units operated in the area, and in 1870, as a reprisal for residents’ support of the insurrection, Białobrzegi was stripped of its town privileges and became a settlement. In 1910, a fire destroyed much of Białobrzegi. During World War I, there was further destruction, but the town slowly grew, due to the Warsaw - Kraków road, which passed through it.
In 1958 Białobrzegi, located then in Kielce Voivodeship, regained its town rights. It now is an important road hub, where Expressway S7 crosses with National Road nr. 48.