Biagio Marin

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"I wanted to be the voice of my island, nothing else"

"The sea was for me the word of otherness, the most pure and most immediate incarnation of Divinity"

Biagio Marin
Grado 19.5.2012 10.jpg
Born (1891-06-29)29 June 1891
Grado, Austria-Hungary
Died 24 December 1985(1985-12-24) (aged 94)
Grado, Italia
Occupation Poet, Professor, Teacher, Librarian
Nationality Italian
Literary movement Dialect poetry
Notable work(s) e.g. La vita xe fiama: Poesie 1963-1969; I canti de l’isola ; Nel silenzio più teso
Spouse(s) Pina Marini

Biagio Marin (1891–1985) was an Italian poet, best known from his poems in the Venetian-Friulian dialect, which had no literary tradition until then.[1] In his writings he has never obeyed rhetoric or poetics.[2] He only uses a few hundred words for his poems.[3]

Early life[edit]

He was born on June 29, 1891 in the coastal town of Grado, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian county of Gorizia and Gradisca. His family was a middle-class family of modest origins, his father, Antonio Raugna,[4] was an innkeeper. His mother Maria Raugna died early in his life, and he was then raised by his paternal grandmother.[5] In his youth he was an irredentist.[6] He was sent to the gymnasium in Görz, where is education was in German, there he started to write literary texts in German. After Görz he went to study in Venice, and Florence.[7] In Florence he met the writesrs Scipio Slataper, Giani Stuparich, Carlo Stuparich, Umberto Saba and Virgilio Giotti.[8] He started to write for the magazine Voce (Voice),which was then the most famous magazine of its time. There he began to write his first poems in the Venetian-Friulian dialect. In 1912 he starts to study in Vienna. There he reads Russian and Scandinavian authors and meets the Austrian educator Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster,[9] who will have great influence in its subsequent choices of study and work. He published the Book "Fiuri de tapo", which is the first serious poetry book in the Venetian-Friulian dialect. During his studies in Vienna, there was an Italian student demonstration in favor of the Italian University in Triest, where he was sent as the spokesman for the demonstrators to the dean. In the conversation with the dean he declared that he wishes for Austria's defeat in the war.[10] After two years in Vienna he returned to Florence. He participated in debates with his friends Umberto Saba and Scipio Slataper in the Cafe Aragno about the war, and if artists should go to war.

First World War[edit]

In 1914 he is sent to Maribor as a soldier for the 47th Infantry Regiment. He deserts to Italia, is already infected with tuberculosis, but fights as a soldier in the Italian army against the Austrian troops. He graduates in philosophy under Bernardino Varisco, the fascistic philosopher Giovanni Gentile whose idealistic doctrine had already exerted a profound influence on him, was the chairman of the committee.[11][12] Varisco has offered to his pupil a place at the University. But Marin was eager to run to the front. Arriving in Stra nel Veneto he suffers from a relapse. When an Italian captain treated him boorishly, he protests with the words "Wir Österreicher sind an einen anderen Stil gewöhnt" "Captain, you are a villain; we Austrians are accustomed to different manners"[13]

Second World War[edit]

In the 1940s he writes in his diaries that he believes that only the Nazis could bring order to Europe.[14] Hearing about the Concentration Camp Risiera di San Sabba shocked and depressed him. In 1945 he becomes involved in the Liberal part of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale[15] On April 27, 1945 he was asked if he could preside on the Committee for the Liberation of Trieste, and becomes its president.

Career[edit]

He gets a job as Professor at the Scuola Magistrale in Görz, but has to leave when he gets into a dispute about his teaching method with the clerus at the school. He used the Gospel a teaching text. Then he works as a school inspector in the mandate of Gradisca d'Isonzo. From 1923 until 1937 he worked as the director of the tourismageny in Grado and as a librarian.[16] After that he works as a Teacher for History, Philosophy and Literature in Triest until 1941. His next vocation was to be the librarian of the Assicurazioni Generali in Triest.

Late life[edit]

In 1968 he moved back to Grado, where he resided in a House at the beach. His Eyesight deteriorated, and for the rest of his live he was nearly blind and deaf [17][18] His private library was moved after his death to the Biblioteca Civica in Grado.[19]

Private life[edit]

In 1914 he marries Pina Marini with whom he had four children, Gioiella, Falco He knew the family of Art-deco artist and designer Josef Maria Auchentaller, so well that he wrote about an affair Emma Auchentaller had when the couple visited Grado.[20] His son Falco Marin was a poet and essayist, who died during the World War Two in a fight against the Yugoslav partisans in the Province of Ljubljana, Slovenia on 25 July in 1943. Shortly before he had joined an anti-fascistic group.[21][22] In 1977 his nephew Guy commits suicide, and a year later his wife Pina Marini dies. The writer Claudio Magris considered himself as one his best friends.[23] He also said that Marin was both brother and father to him.[24] Immediately after the death of his friend, Pier Paolo Pasolini he wrote a Cycle of poems called "El critoleo del corpo fracasao" about him.[25]

Work[edit]

His poems, written in the Grado dialect of Venetian, are about the daily life and simple landscapes of his native land. He used the "lingua franca" that the merchants of the city used for his writings.[26] He was influenced by Hölderlin and Heine. Religious thematics occur somethimes in his work. Andrea Zanzotto and Pier Paolo Pasolini had some difficulties with the existence of religious thematics in Marins work[27] In 1970 the poet decides to publish all the poems written at that time in one volume, which, significantly for his sentimental attachment to his land will be titled Songs from the Island.His output in the 70s gains him the attention of Italian audiences.[28] He is now obligated to write in Italian, so that everybody in Italian can understand him. Despite this he only wrote one book in Italian called "Acquamarina" in 1973 In 1985 he said that publishers where reluctant to publish even a selection of his poetry.[29]

Influence[edit]

His book "Nel silenzio più teso" is in the Unesco Collection of representative works[30] He is one of the Founders of the Circolo della Cultura e delle Arti[31] He was active for many years as president of the "Circolo di cultura italo-austriaco" in Trieste, and he was among the first leaders of the "Incontri Culturali Mitteleuropei" in Gorizia. For Pier Paolo Pasolini, Marin's poems where the greatest Italian verses written in a contemporary dialect. Luigi Dallapiccola´s first work was named after the first book by Marin, Fiuri de tapo. It used Poems by Marin.[32] Peter Handke cites a poem of Marin in his book "Gestern unterwegs" [33] In 1983 a research center was created, which has its headquarters in the Public Library "Falco Marin" . A National Prize called "POESIA IN DIALETTO" is awarded each year to a writer of dialect poetry from the center, the prize takes its name from Marin. The center also awards thesis works regarding Marin.

Bibliography[edit]

Poems[edit]

  • 1912 - Fiuri de tapo, Gorizia, republished 1999
  • 1922 - La girlanda de gno suore, Gorizia, republished 2008
  • 1927 - Canzone piccole, Udine,
  • 1949 - Le litànie de la madona republished 2007
  • 1951 - I canti de l'Isola, Udine,
  • 1953 - Sénere colde, Rome,
  • 1957 - Trìstessa de la sera, Verona,
  • 1958 - L'estadela de S. Martin, Caltanissetta,
  • 1959 - El fogo del ponente, Venice,
  • 1961 - Solitàe, a cura di P.P. Pasolini, Milan,
  • 1961 - I mesi dell'anno, Triest,
  • 1962 - 12 poesie, Milan,
  • 1963 - Elegìe istriane, Milan,
  • 1964 - Il non tempo del mare, 1912–1962, Milan
  • 1965 - Dopo la longa ìstae, Milan,
  • 1965 - Elogio delle conchiglie, Milan,
  • 1966 - La poesia è un dono, Milan,
  • 1967 - E! mar de l'eterno, Milan,
  • 1969 - Quanto più moro, Milao,
  • 1969 - La vose de le scusse, Milan,
  • 1969 - El picolo nio, Gorizia,
  • 1970 - La vita xe fiama. Poesie 1963-1969, Turin,
  • 1970 - I canti de l'Isola, 1912–1969, Triest,
  • 1970 - Le litanie de la Madona, Grado,
  • 1970 - La vita xe fiama: Poesie 1963-1969, Edited by Claudio Magris, Preface by Pier Paolo Pasolini
  • 1971 - Friuli, Venezia, Giulia,
  • 1973 - Aquamarina
  • 1974 - El vento de l'Eterno se fa teso, Milan,
  • 1974 - A sol calao, Milan,
  • 1976 - El crìtoleo del corpo fracasao, Milan,
  • 1976 - Pan de pura farina,
  • 1977 - Stele cagiùe, Milan,
  • 1978 - In memoria, Milan,
  • 1980 - Nel silenzio più teso, Milan, edited by Biagio Marin and Claudio Magris
  • 1981 - Poesie, Edited by Claudio Magris and Edda Serra
  • 1982 - La vita xe fiama e altri versi, 1978–1981, edited by Biagio Marin and Claudio Magris
  • 1982 - E anche il vento tase, Genova,
  • 1982 - La girlanda de gno suore,
  • 1985 - La vose de la sera, Milan,
  • 2005 - La pace lontana: diari 1941-1950
  • 2007 - Le due rive: reportages adriatici in prosa e in versi
  • 2007 - Authoritratti e impegno civile: scritti rari e inediti dell'archivio Marin della Fondazione Cassa
  • di risparmio di Gorizia : Biagio Marin

Prose[edit]

  • 1955 - Grado l'isola d'oro, Grado,
  • 1956 - Gorizìa la città mutilata, Gorìzia,
  • 1965 - I delfini - Slataper, Milan,
  • 1967 - Strade e rive di Trieste, Milan,

Other[edit]

  • 1962 - Ricordo di Carlo Michelstaedter in: Studi Goriziani No. XXXII [1962]: page. 4f

About his work[edit]

  • Bertazzolo Nicola, 2010 - "La Vita E Ll Opere Di" [34]
  • Erbani Francis, 2005 - The Republic Sept. 23, 2005
  • Dante Maffia, 2001 - "BIAGIO MARIN"[35]
  • Pericle Camuffo, 2000 - Biagio Marin, la poesia, i filosofi
  • 1997 - Poesia italiana del Novecento, by Ermanno Krumm and Tiziano Rossi
  • 1996 - Leggere poesia, Atti del Convegno
  • Anna De Simone (ed.), 1992 - L’isola Marin
  • Giuseppe Radole, 1991 - I musicisti e la poesia di Biagio Marin
  • E. Serra (ed.), 1981 - "Poesia e fortuna di Biagio Marin"
  • 1980 - "Il silenzio di Marin" in Nuova Rivista Europea
  • A. Zanzotto, 1977 - "Poesia che ascolta le onde" in Corriere della sera
  • L. Borsetto, 1974 - "La poetica di Biagio Marin" in La rassegna della letteratura italiana
  • C. Marabini, 1973 - "La ciave e il cerchio"
  • E. Guagnini (ed.), 1973 - "El vento de l'eterno se fa teso"

Prizes[edit]

  • 1964 - Bagutta Prize

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Poesia italiana del Novecento, by Ermanno Krumm and Tiziano Rossi, 1997
  2. ^ Storia Della Letteratura Italiana,by Emilio Cecchi and Natalino Sapegno, volume 9, page 178
  3. ^ http://www.engeler.de/marin.html
  4. ^ http://www.leg.it/editrice/scorciatoie.htm
  5. ^ http://cronologia.leonardo.it/biogra2/marin.htm
  6. ^ Europäische Begegnung, Band 6
  7. ^ Merian:Städte und Landschaften, Band 20-21
  8. ^ http://www.perlentaucher.de/autoren/1484/Biagio_Marin.html
  9. ^ http://www.circoloculturaeartits.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=128&Itemid=37
  10. ^ http://www.italiantouristoffice.dk/dk/docs/693.pdf
  11. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=FsLJdBSWc8cC&pg=PA306&lpg=PA306&dq=%22Giovanni+Gentile%22+%22Biagio+Marin%22&source=bl&ots=RPQHRR7X-q&sig=ZoTq0VAEwU_WKSJNTpk6jAa9stU&hl=de&ei=w49ATPDFCoSbOKDxyf4M&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Giovanni%20Gentile%22%20%22Biagio%20Marin%22&f=false
  12. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=KaHCNhRhCuAC&pg=PA266&lpg=PA266&dq=%22Giovanni+Gentile%22+%22Biagio+Marin%22&source=bl&ots=QOveovTsn0&sig=5Ay2bS4oJmyQtBE42AA0_YoKU2I&hl=de&ei=w49ATPDFCoSbOKDxyf4M&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CC4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
  13. ^ http://www.italiantouristoffice.dk/dk/docs/693.pdf
  14. ^ La pace lontana. Diari 1941-1950 by Biagio Marin, 2005, Editrice Goriziana
  15. ^ Kärnten, 1945:vom NS-Regime zur Besatzungsherrschaft im Alpen-Adria-Raum by August Wälzl, Universitätsverlag Carinthia, 1985
  16. ^ Merian:Städte und Landschaften, Band 20-21
  17. ^ http://www.perlentaucher.de/autoren/1484/Biagio_Marin.html
  18. ^ http://www.satt.org/italo-log/52.html
  19. ^ http://www.perlentaucher.de/autoren/1484/Biagio_Marin.html
  20. ^ http://www.spectator.co.uk/arts-and-culture/fine-arts/page_14/892451/part_3/lost-and-found.thtml
  21. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=gpbUvMB6sIYC&pg=PA249&lpg=PA249&dq=Biagio+Marin+fascism&source=bl&ots=_vcC_d1PXB&sig=UJ6ZJ9sXL2tTKN2KmdG_TzxWEoE&hl=de#v=onepage&q=Biagio%20Marin&f=false Believe, obey, fight: political socialization of youth in fascist Italy, 1922-1943 (HTML)
  22. ^ Alpen-Adria:zur Geschichte einer Region,by Andreas Moritsch, Hermagoras-Mohorjeva, 2001. page 481
  23. ^ http://www.euroalter.com/2008/hans-ulrich-obrist-interviews-claudio-magris/
  24. ^ http://www.italiantouristoffice.dk/dk/docs/693.pdf
  25. ^ Die Geheimnislosigkeit,by Peter Waterhous, Residenz Verlag, 1996, page 180
  26. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=5pAwqsSyTlsC&pg=PA149&dq=Biagio+Marin&hl=de&ei=SwU-TJviDoGRjAePld34Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwATge#v=onepage&q=Biagio%20Marin&f=false "History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe: junctures and disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries"
  27. ^ In Memoria / Der Wind der Ewigkeit wird stärker. Gedichte, by Biagio Marin, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Andrea Zanzotto Urs Engeler Editor, Basel 1999
  28. ^ http://cronologia.leonardo.it/biogra2/marin.htm
  29. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=1hVfHLOGAxwC&pg=PA193&dq=Biagio+Marin&hl=de&ei=vQY-TMTcNI6UjAeB9sX5Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAzge#v=onepage&q=Biagio%20Marin&f=false "The Cambridge companion to modern Italian culture"
  30. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000890/089018mb.pdf
  31. ^ http://www.circoloculturaeartits.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=128&Itemid=37
  32. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=9-M_jhnOuboC&pg=PA118&dq=Biagio+Marin&hl=de&ei=SwU-TJviDoGRjAePld34Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBjge#v=onepage&q=Biagio%20Marin&f=false
  33. ^ http://books.google.at/books?id=DOqzAAAAIAAJ&q=Biagio+Marin&dq=Biagio+Marin&hl=de&ei=dSw-TMeSBoqQjAfPz9D4Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBDhk
  34. ^ http://cronologia.leonardo.it/biogra2/marin.htm
  35. ^ http://userhome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bonaffini/DP/marin.htm

External links[edit]

  • [1] A letter of Biaggio from 19 January 1984
  • [2] Some Poems in both in Italian and English translation
  • [3] Homepage of the Centro Studi Biagio Marin (in Italian)