Biak

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This article is about the island in Papua, Indonesia. For the language spoken there, see Biak language.
Biak
Fishing boats on Biak.jpg
Fishing boats lined up at Kota Biak, Indonesia.
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 1°0′0″S 136°0′0″E / 1.00000°S 136.00000°E / -1.00000; 136.00000
Country
Indonesia
Largest city Kota Biak
Biak Islands

Biak is a small island located in Cenderawasih Bay near the northern coast of Papua, an Indonesian province, and is just northwest of New Guinea. Biak is the largest island in its small archipelago, and has many atolls, reefs, and corals.

The largest population centre is at Kota Biak (Biak City) on the south coast. The rest of the island is thinly populated with small villages.

Biak is part of the Biak Islands (Kepulauan Biak).

History[edit]

First sighting by Europeans was by the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra in 1528 when trying to return from Tidore to New Spain. Another sighting was later reported in 1545 by Spanish navigator Íñigo Ortiz de Retes on board of galleon San Juan when also attempting the return to New Spain [1]

In World War II, a strategic airfield of the Imperial Japanese Army was located there, serving as a base for operations in the Pacific theatre. American forces eventually captured the island during the Battle of Biak. The captured airfield was renamed Mokmer Airfield and later transferred[when?] to the Royal Australian Air Force.[citation needed]

It was transferred from Dutch rule, along with half of New Guinea, in the 1960s.[citation needed]

Biak Massacre[edit]

On July 1, 1998 (the anniversary of the unsuccessful 1971 Papuan declaration of independence) Biak was the scene of what is commonly known as the 'Biak Massacre' or 'Bloody Biak'. Native Papuan people and members of the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (Free Papua Movement), raised their traditional flag, 'The Morning Star', at Kota Biak water tower and camped there for the next six days.[2]

At 5:30am on July 6, 1998 the demonstration was fired upon by the Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI or Indonesian Military). Many were cut down by the gunfire while attempting to flee. Survivors were rounded up and forced to the docks where they were kept for the several days while further demonstrators were caught.[citation needed]

About 200 of the original demonstrators were forcibly loaded onto two Indonesian naval vessels and taken to two different locations to be thrown into the ocean. In the following days, bodies washed up on Biak's shores, or were snarled in fishing nets. The TNI explained that the bodies turning up belonged to victims of the Aitape tsunami which occurred approximately 1000 km away in Papua New Guinea.[3]

Demographics[edit]

The people of Biak are predominantly Melanesians and the main religion is Christianity. The official language is Indonesian and the main local language is Biak. Other languages such as Dutch and English are also used, but limited. Administratively there are 12 kecamatan, covering only the island itself, having 112,873 people in 2010 census.[4]

Climate[edit]

Biak, Indonesia
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
250
 
29
25
 
 
240
 
28
25
 
 
250
 
29
25
 
 
200
 
29
25
 
 
250
 
29
25
 
 
230
 
29
25
 
 
250
 
28
25
 
 
240
 
29
25
 
 
220
 
29
25
 
 
180
 
29
25
 
 
190
 
30
25
 
 
230
 
29
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [2]

Biak features a tropical rainforest climate with nearly identical temperatures throughout the course of the year. The average annual temperature in the city is 27 °C (81 °F), which is also generally the average temperature of each day in Biak. The city sees a good amount of precipitation in every month throughout the course of the year, averaging roughly 2,850 millimetres (112 in) of precipitation per year. Its driest months, October and November, average a little under 200 millimetres (7.9 in) of rain per month.

Climate data for Biak, Indonesia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
28
(82)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(82)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
29
(84)
Average low °C (°F) 25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
Precipitation mm (inches) 250
(9.84)
240
(9.45)
250
(9.84)
200
(7.87)
250
(9.84)
230
(9.06)
250
(9.84)
240
(9.45)
220
(8.66)
180
(7.09)
190
(7.48)
230
(9.06)
2,840
(111.81)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=6579&refer=&units=metric

Transport[edit]

Biak is serviced by Frans Kaisiepo Airport, which has flights from all over Indonesia.

Space satellite launch services had been planned, As of 2006, for the new Biak Spaceport.[dated info] The equatorial location offers particularly efficient launches to equatorial and near-equatorial orbits; facing eastward toward the Pacific ocean reduces the downrange risks of launch.[5]

Tradition[edit]

The Biak Numfor culture revolves around their ancient animist religion, although today they are Christian as well.

Their beliefs revolve around a ritual ceremony called Wor, where they will be plagued by all kinds of bad luck and sickness. The Wor is in all aspect of their life and some of their traditional ceremonies are still being held now. They include the first hair cut ceremony (Wor Kapapnik), the growing up ceremony (Wor Famarmar) and the Wedding ceremony (Wor Yakyaker Farbakbuk). All of these ceremonies are accompanied by singing, dancing and offering to ancestral spirits.[citation needed]

Yosim Pancar Dance[edit]

The Biak Numfor have a friendship dance called "Yosim Pancar". It's small to mid-size dance group formations which could last all-night long. Several "Yosim Pancar" moves that are popular till this day are: Pancar Gas, Gale-Gale, Jef, Pacul Tiga, Seka, and Poco-poco adaptation.[citation needed]

The rhythm and song of Yosim Pancar dance are now being modernized with special effect sounds and pop dance beat. Originally the rhythm is to summon ancestal spirits and let them join the group. The traditional musical instrument of this dance is a selfmade stringbass from coconut tree and roots which is similar to the guitar or ukulele.[citation needed]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes insignis grows on Biak.

The rain forest-covered Biak Islands have been designated the Biak-Numfoor rain forests, especially as they have the largest number of endemic bird species of any single area in the New Guinea region. There are also numerous reptile and amphibian species found here. Among the many snake species catalogued by Tom Mendelson during his herpetological survey of Biak in the 1990s, The Green Tree Python (Chondropython viridis) and the Amethystine Python (Morelia amethystina)were quite common.

There are numerous types of flora in the tropical rain forest of the island, including a variety of trees and other commercially important species plus the lush vegetation of mangrove swamps.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Coello, Francisco "Notas sobre los planos de las bahias descubiertas, en el año 1606, en las islas de Espíritu Santo y de Nueva Guinea, que dibujo el capitán don Diego de Prado y Tovar, en igual fecha" Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica de Madrid, t IV, primer semestre de 1878, p.234.
  2. ^ Kilvert, Andrew (1998-10-11). "Behind The Biak Massacre". Asia Pacific Network. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  3. ^ Barclay, Paul (1 August 2008). "The Biak Massacre". RadioNational: Perspective. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  4. ^ http://sp2010.bps.go.id/files/ebook/9409.pdf
  5. ^ John J. Klein. Space warfare: strategy, principles, and policy. McGraw Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-415-77001-7.196 pages. PP 85. Google reference: [1]