Herman Melville bibliography
|References and footnotes|
The writings of Herman Melville includes magazine articles, book reviews, other occasional writings, and 15 books. Of these, seven books were published between 1846 and 1853, seven more between 1853 and 1891, and one in 1924. Melville was 26 when his first, and had been dead for 33 years when his last, books were published. At the time of his death he was on the verge of completing the manuscript for his first novel in three decades, Billy Budd, and had accumulated several large folders of unpublished verse.
To the collector and bibliographer of Melville, 1853 marks not only the close of his series of great novels, and the beginning of the long period of unpopularity precipitated by the appearance of Pierre; it also marks the occasion of a physical disaster which renders the books published by him in America prior to that date even more scarce today than would normally have been the case. At one o'clock on the afternoon of Saturday, December 10, 1853, the establishment of Melville's publishers Harper Brothers was completely destroyed by fire, reportedly caused by a plumber throwing a lit candle into a bucket of camphene, mistaken by him for water. The fire burned Harper's stock of Melville's unsold books which consisted of: Typee, 185; Omoo, 276; Mardi, 491; Redburn, 296; White Jacket, 292 ; Moby-Dick, 297 ; Pierre, 494. Mardi and Pierre, Melville's two least popular books, had the largest number of unsold copies burned.
A Melville revival that began in the 1920s led to the reprinting of many of his works, then out of print in the United States. Raymond Weaver, Melville's first biographer, edited a 16 volume edition for the London publisher Constable which included the first publication of Billy Budd. In 1926, Moby Dick was among the first titles in the newly founded Modern Library series. Beginning in 1948, independent publisher Walter Hendricks recruited scholars to edit annotated editions of Melville's works, beginning with a volume of his poetry. Produced under the general editorship of Howard P. Vincent, the series was originally projected to include 14 volumes but in the end no more than 7 appeared.
In the 1960s, Northwestern University Press, in alliance with the Newberry Library and the Center for Scholarly Editions of the Modern Language Association, established ongoing publication runs of Melville's various titles. The aim of the editors, Harrison Hayford, Hershel Parker, and G. Thomas Tanselle, was to present unmodernized "critical texts" which represented "as nearly as possible the author's intentions." The editors adopted as "copy text" either the author's fair copy manuscript or the first printing based on it, which were then collated against any further printings in Melville's lifetime, since he might have made corrections or changes. In the case of Moby-Dick, for instance, after collating the American and British editions from the various printings, the editors adopted 185 revisions and corrections from the English edition and incorporated 237 emendations made by the editors. The "Editorial Appendixes" for each volume included an "Historical Note" on composition and publication, an extensive account of the editorial process, a list of emendations and changes, as well as related documents.
Melville's lifetime earnings from his first seven books (over a period of 41 years, from 1846 to 1887) amounted to $10,444.53, of which $5,966.40 came from American publishers and $4,478.13 from British. The best-selling title in the United States was Typee (with 9,598 copies). The book which earned Melville the most in the United States was Omoo ($1,719.78).
A Peep at Polynesian Life
|1846||John Murray||Murray purchased the English rights to print 1000 copies for £100. It first appeared in two parts in Murray's Home and Colonial Library, Part I, February 26, 1846; Part II, April 1, 1846. Four thousand copies of the first edition of the book were printed.
The American rights were purchased by Wiley & Putnam after John Murray had agreed to publish the book in England, so that the credit of having first recognized Melville belongs to Murray's London publishing house. It appeared in book form in 1846 simultaneously in New York and London, being one of the first works to be published in this manner.
The Sequel, containing "The Story of Toby", was written in July, 1846, and incorporated in the Revised Edition published in the same year. Extracts from the Sequel were also published prior to its appearance in book form. In England, John Murray paid an additional £50 for the Sequel, which was first printed as a small pamphlet in an edition of 1250 copies, and subsequently incorporated in the book.
A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas
|1847||John Murray||The manuscript was written in 1846, and the book was published in March, 1847. In England, John Murray paid £150 for the copyright. Together with Typee, Omoo was one of the earliest works to be published simultaneously in New York and London. The first English edition consisted of 4000 copies.
The Harper Brothers published in New York the same year. In their catalog for 1847 the book was advertised: "Muslin $1.25, paper $1.00." In 1849 Harper advertised: "In two parts 50 cents each, or complete in muslin gilt $1.25."
And a Voyage Thither
|1849||Richard Bentley||The novel appeared in two volumes on March 16, 1849, in London (1000 copies), and on April 14, 1849, in New York in three volumes. It was the first Melville book published in England by Bentley. Raymond Weaver stated that up to February 22, 1850, 2154 copies were sold.
His First Voyage
|1849||Harper & Brothers||The manuscript was written in New York during the summer of 1849. The book appeared on August 18, 1849, in New York, and on September 29, 1849, in London (750 copies). Weaver stated that up to February 22, 1850, 4011 copies were sold.
or, The World in a Man-of-War
|1850||Richard Bentley||The manuscript was written in New York City during the summer of 1849. In November of that year Melville went to London to dispose of it. Richard Bentley offered £200 for the English rights to print 1000 copies. The manuscript was refused by Murray, Colbour, and Moxon. Finally, in December, Bentley confirmed his previous offer, and accepted the manuscript for publication at the end of March, 1850 (1000 copies). The American Harpers edition came after the English.
or, The Whale
|1851||Richard Bentley||The manuscript was written at Arrowhead, Massachusetts, in 1850-1851 and was first published in October, 1851. In England Richard Bentley agreed to pay £150 for the first 1000 copies, and half profits thereafter. The American edition (Harpers: 1 volume) is subsequent to the English (3 volumes, 500 copies) and contained thirty-five passages omitted from the English edition. The published price was $1.50.
or, The Ambiguities
|1852||Harper & Brothers||The manuscript was written at Arrowhead, Massachusetts, in 1851 and was first published in August, 1852. Copies issued in England in November of that year consist of the American sheets, with a cancel title = Pierre : Or The Ambiguities. By Herman Melville. London:Sampson Low Son and Co., 47 Ludgate Hill. 1852.|
|Isle of the Cross||1853(?)||Unpublished||(since lost)|
His Fifty Years of Exile
|1855||G. P. Putnam & Co.||Published in April 1855, by Putnam, having previously appeared serially in Putnam's Monthly Magazine, July 1854 - March 1855.) A pirated edition was published under the title The Refugee in Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson, 1865.|
|1857||Dix, Edwards & Co.||Published in April, 1857.|
|Billy Budd, Sailor
(An Inside Narrative)
|1924||Constable||Edited by Raymond Weaver. Published posthumously as part of a sixteen volume edition of Melville's Complete Works for the London publisher. A second text, F. Barron Freeman Ed., was published in 1948, as Melville's Billy Budd by the Harvard University Press. In 1962, Harrison Hayford and Merton M. Sealts, Jr., established what is now considered the text closest to Melville's intentions; published by the University of Chicago Press.|
The publication dates of Melville's stories in no way correspond to their dates of composition; with editorial considerations, such as length vs. amount of space available, usually determining when they would appear. The Piazza Tales was the only collection of Melville's stories published under his direct supervision. The volume sold slowly in spite of generally favorable notices. Its publishers, Dix & Edwards, dissolved their partnership in 1857 and, it appears, paid the author no royalties on either this book or their other published title of his, The Confidence Man. The plates were put up for sale at publishers' auction but attracted no bidders. As one editor commented, "no one would risk a dollar on Melville."
The plates were subsequently sold for scrap. In 1922, during the Melville revival, there was a complete resetting of the book for its publication in the Constable edition of Melville's Complete Works. That same year saw the Princeton University Press issue a collection of the remaining known stories under the title The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches. The final two stories in the list were discovered in the box turned over to biographer Raymond Weaver by Melville's granddaughter (the same box which yielded Billy Budd) and appeared in the final Constable volume titled Billy Budd and Other Prose Pieces.
First published in
|"Bartleby the Scrivener"||November–December 1853||Putnam's Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Piazza Tales (1856)|
|"Cock-A-Doodle-Doo!"||December 1853||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches (1922) by Princeton University Press, which includes the essay, "Hawthorne and His Mosses" (1850), and contains an introductory note by Henry Chapin. Internet Archive has four versions of the scanned book.|
|"The Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles"||March–May 1854||Putnam's Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Piazza Tales. Melville received a monthly payment of $50 for each of the three installments for a total of $150. He received no additional payment from the Piazza Tales because the collection never generated any royalties.|
|"Poor Man's Pudding and Rich Man's Crumbs"||June 1854||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Happy Failure"||July 1854||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Lightning-Rod Man"||August 1854||Putnam's Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Piazza Tales|
|"The Fiddler"||September 1854||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids"||April 1855||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Bell-Tower"||August 1855||Putnam's Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Piazza Tales|
|"Benito Cereno"||October–December 1855||Putnam's Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Piazza Tales|
|"Jimmy Rose"||November 1855||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The 'Gees"||March 1856||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"I and My Chimney"||March 1856||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Apple-Tree Table"||May 1856||Harper's New Monthly Magazine||Collected in The Apple-Tree Table and Other Sketches|
|"The Piazza"||1856||The Piazza Tales||The only story specifically written for the collection|
|"The Two Temples"||1924||Billy Budd and Other Prose Pieces||Originally rejected by Harper's because it might offend religious sensibilities, it was subsequently printed from manuscript as a part of Constable's Works, Raymond Weaver editor|
|"Daniel Orme"||1924||Billy Budd and Other Prose Pieces||First printed in London, Volume 13 of Constable's Works|
After the disastrous publication of The Confidence-Man in 1857, Melville turned to the writing of poetry. Virtually ignored by the public and scorned by reviewers, he nevertheless persevered in this endeavor for the next 30 years. The perception then was of Melville as a novelist who dabbled unsuccessfully in verse, a view held by many even today. Although the poetry has survived via the revival of Melville's fiction, it remains on the whole where it was during his lifetime: hard to find, seldom read, and generally regretted.
Despite sporadic claims for him as one of the three best American poets before 1900, histories of American poetry have all but ignored him. The poems remain available only in incomplete "complete" editions, selections, reprints, and editions of individual titles—most of these out of print, few of them textually reliable, and all of them together falling well short of completeness. "That Melville was a poet only in prose is a truth almost universally acknowledged among his critics, one guaranteed to endure as long as the poems remain unavailable in a complete, reliable edition."
The fact remains that Melville wrote fiction for 11 years, poetry for over 30. Although it is true he wrote more prose than poetry, the same can be said of Walt Whitman and T. S. Eliot both of whom wrote less verse than Melville did. In Clarel, he wrote one of the longest poems ever written in the English language. If one includes the poems contained in his novels his entire poetic oeuvre approaches the size of Lord Byron's or Robert Browning's. In July 2009 Northwestern-Newberry released Published Poems: The Writings of Herman Melville Vol. 11 the most complete collection to date, containing substantial scholarly notes on individual poems. The final volume (12), Billy Budd and Other Later Manuscripts will contain the unpublished poems.
- Battle Pieces and Aspects of the War (1866) New York: Harper Bros.; 1200 copies were printed of which only 486 were sold by February 13, 1868. In the seven years that followed, only eleven additional copies were sold. Published price: $1.75. The book was not issued in England. Melville states that "with few exceptions, the pieces in this volume originated in an impulse imparted by the fall of Richmond..." Of the poems included in this volume, the following had already appeared in magazines:
- "The March to the Sea," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, February 1866.
- "The Cumberland," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, March 1866.
- "Chattanooga," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1866.
- "Gettysburg: July, 1863," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, July 1866.
- The work was Melville's last commercially funded publication of any sort. He lost $400 on the volume.
- Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land (1876) G. P. Putnam's Sons publishers, New York; 2 volumes; published price $3.00. The book was not issued in England. Published in July 1876 at the expense of Melville's uncle, Peter Gansevoort. The manuscript had been in existence for some time.
- John Marr and Other Sailors (1888) The De Vinne Press, New York. The volume contains 19 poems. The edition was privately printed and limited to 25 copies. Princeton University press issued an edition in 1922 edited by Henry Chapin.
- Timoleon (1891) The Caxton Press, New York. The volume contains 43 poems, was privately printed and limited to 25 copies.
Uncollected or unpublished in Melville's lifetime
- Weeds and Wildings, with a Rose or Two (1924) A book of poems written for his wife and dedicated to her. Unpublished at the time of his death although a fair copy had been made by Elizabeth Melville for the printer. First published in Volume 16 of the Constable edition of Melville's Works (London 1924), then reprinted in a somewhat different order and form in Collected Poems of Herman Melville, Chicago 1947.
- "Epistle to Daniel Shepherd" - first published in Herman Melville: Representative Selections, Willard Thorp, Ed. (New York, 1938).
- The following were first published in Collected Poems of Herman Melville, Howard P. Vincent Ed. (Chicago 1947).
- "Inscription for the Slain at Fredericksburgh" [sic]
- "The Admiral of the White"
- "To Tom"
- "Suggested by the Ruins of a Mountain-temple in Arcadia"
- "The Continents"
- "The Dust-Layers"
- "A Rail Road Cutting near Alexandria in 1855"
- "A Reasonable Constitution"
- "A Ditty of Aristippus"
- "In a Nutshell"
The following essays were uncollected during Melville's lifetime:
- "Fragments from a Writing Desk, No. 1" (Democratic Press, and Lansingburgh Advertiser, May 4, 1839)
- "Fragments from a Writing Desk, No. 2" (Democratic Press, and Lansingburgh Advertiser, May 18, 1839)
- "Etchings of a Whaling Cruise" (New York Literary World, March 6, 1847)
- "Authentic Anecdotes of 'Old Zack'" (Yankee Doodle, II, excerpted September 4, published in full weekly from July 24 to September 11, 1847)
- "Mr Parkman's Tour" (New York Literary World, March 31, 1849)
- "Cooper's New Novel" (New York Literary World, April 28, 1849)
- "A Thought on Book-Binding" (New York Literary World, March 16, 1850)
- "Hawthorne and His Mosses" (New York Literary World, August 17 and August 24, 1850)
- Correspondence, Ed. Lynn Horth. Evanston, IL and Chicago: Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library (1993). ISBN 0-8101-0995-6
- Journals, Ed. Howard C. Horsford with Lynn Horth. Evanston, IL and Chicago: Northwestern Univ. Pr. and The Newberry Library (1989). ISBN 0-8101-0823-2
- Minnigerode, Meade (1922). Some Personal Letters of Herman Melville and a Bibliography. New York: The Brock Row Book Shop, Inc. pp. 95–100.
- Herman Melville,The Works of Herman Melville (London: Constable 1922-1924).
- Library of Congress listings
- Gunn, Giles B. (2005). A Historical Guide to Herman Melville. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-19-514281-0.
- About Northwestern University Press Search at NU Press website
- Melville, Herman (1988) . "Note on the Text". In Harrison Hayford, G. Thomas Tanselle, Hershel Parker. Moby-Dick or the Whale (Newberry Library Volume 6 ed.). Evanston, Chicago: Northwestern University Press. pp. 763–64. ISBN 0-8101-0268-4.
- Tanselle, G. Thomas (April 1969). "The Sales of Melville's Books". Harvard Library Bulletin XVII (2): 199. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Wilson, Carroll (1950). Thirteen Author Collections of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 307–316.
- "The Cambridge Companion to Herman Melville - Google Böcker". Books.google.se. 1998-05-13. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Melville, Herman (1960). Merrell R. Davis and William H. Gilman, ed. The letters of Herman Melville. p. 188, note 9.
- Sealts, Merton M. (1982). "The Reception of Melville's Short Fiction (1979)". Pursuing Melville, 1940-1980. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-299-08870-7.
- "Internet Archive Search: The apple-tree table and other sketches". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Leyda, Jay (1969). The Melville log: a documentary life of Herman Melville, 1819-1891. Staten Island, NY: Gordian Press. pp. 485–87.
- Newman, Lea Bertani Vozar (1986). A Reader's Guide to the Short Stories of Herman Melville. Boston Mass: G.K.Hall & Co. pp. 175–6. ISBN 0-8161-8653-7.
- Sattelmeyer, Robert; Barbour, James (November 1978). "The Sources and Genesis of Melville's "Norfolk Isle and the Chola Widow"". American Literature 50 (3): 398–417. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Young, Philip (1989). "The Last Goodbye: "Daniel Orme"". The Private Melville. University Park: Penn State Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-271-00857-1.
- E.g.: "Whitman, Dickinson, and Melville seem to me the best poets of the 19th Century here in America. Melville's poetry has been grotesquely underestimated, but of course it is only in the last four or five years that it has been much read." (Jarrell, Randall. Poetry and the Age. New York: Knopf, 1953)
- Spengemann, William C. (Winter 1999). "Melville the Poet". American Literary History 11 (4): 1. JSTOR 490271.
- Renker, Elizabeth (Spring - Summer 2000). "Melville the Poet: Response to William Spengemann". American Literary History 12 (1/2): 348–354. JSTOR 490257.
- Buell, Lawrence (1998). "Melville The Poet". In Robert Steven Levine. The Cambridge companion to Herman Melville. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-521-55477-2.
- Montague, Gene B. (1956). "Melville's "Battle-Pieces"". The University of Texas Studies in English 35: 106–115. JSTOR 20776108.
- "John Marr and other poems, with an introductory note by Henry Chapin : Melville, Herman, 1819-1891 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-12-04.
- Rollyson, Carl Edmund; Lisa Paddock (2007). Critical companion to Herman Melville: a literary reference to his life and work. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 242–3. ISBN 0-8160-6461-X. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Bridgman, Richard (Summer 1966). "Melvilles' Roses". Texas Studies in Literature and Language 8 (2). JSTOR 40753898.
- Braswell, William (January 1948). "Review: Collected Poems of Herman Melville. Edited by Howard P. Vincent". American Literature 19 (4): 367. JSTOR 2921491.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Life and Works of Herman Melville (last revised July 2000)
- Works by Herman Melville at Project Gutenberg
- The Northwestern-Newberry Edition of the Writings of Herman Melville - All of Melville's writings published with extensive notes and commentary
- A Checklist Of Herman Melville's First and Major Editions
- Herman Melville Works © 2009 W.L. Pinder and Associates
- Collecting Herman Melville by William S. Reese, 1993
- Melville's marginalia