Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson
April 13, 1743|
|Died||July 4, 1826
|Political party||Democratic-Republican Party|
|Alma mater||College of William and Mary|
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom (1777), the third President of the United States (1801–1809) and founder of the University of Virginia (1819). He was an influential Founding Father and an exponent of Jeffersonian democracy.
At the beginning of the American Revolution, Jefferson served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia. He then served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), barely escaping capture by the British in 1781. Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris, initially as a commissioner to help negotiate commercial treaties. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France. He was the first United States Secretary of State (1790–1793). During the administration of President George Washington, Jefferson advised against a national bank and the Jay Treaty. Upon leaving office, with his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton's policies, especially his desire to create a national bank. He and Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts and formed the basis of States' rights.
Elected president in what he called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw a peaceful transition in power, purchased the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the new west. He decided to allow slavery in the acquired territory, which laid the foundation for the crisis of the Union a half century later. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr, and escalating trouble with Britain. Jefferson always distrusted Britain as a threat to American values. With Britain at war with Napoleon, he tried aggressive economic warfare, however his embargo laws stopped American trade, hurt the economy, and provoked a furious reaction in the Northeast.
Jefferson was part of the Virginia planter elite and, as a tobacco planter, owned hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime. Like many of his contemporaries, he viewed Africans as being racially inferior. He remained a widower for the rest of his life after his wife of eleven years, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, died in childbirth. Their marriage produced six children. Most historians believe that after his wife's death, Jefferson had an intimate relationship for nearly four decades with Martha's half-sister, his mixed-race slave Sally Hemings; and he also fathered her six children. He freed the four surviving Hemings children when they came of age.
A leader in The Enlightenment, Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and was deeply interested in science and political philosophy. While not an orator he was an indefatigable letter writer and was acquainted with many influential people in America and Europe. His views on slavery were complex, and changed over the course of his life. He was a leading American opponent of the international slave trade, and presided over its abolition in 1807. Jefferson has often been rated by historians as one of the greatest U.S. presidents, though in recent decades scholars have tended to be more negative.
- Appleby, Joyce. Thomas Jefferson (2003), short interpretive essay by leading scholar.
- Bernstein, R. B. Thomas Jefferson. (2003) Well-regarded short biography.
- Brodie, Fawn McKay. Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, W.W. Norton, 1974,
the "first extensive investigation of the Sally Hemings story".
- Burstein, Andrew. Jefferson's Secrets: Death and Desire at Monticello, New York: Basic Books, 2005
- Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason (1988) well-reviewed short biography.
- Crawford, Alan Pell, Twilight at Monticello, Random House, New York, (2008)
- Ellis, Joseph. "American Sphinx: The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson".
- Ellis, Joseph. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1996).
Prize-winning essays; assumes prior reading of his biography.
- Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American controversy,
Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 1997 (reprint 1998 to include discussion of DNA analysis)
- Hale, Edward Everett (1896). Illustrious Americans, Their lives and Great Achievements.
International Publishing Company, Philadelphia, PA., and Chicago, ILL, 1896,
by W. E. SCULL, Library of Congress, Washington DC. ISBN 978-1-162-22702-3.
- Halliday, E. M. (2001, 2002). Understanding Thomas Jefferson. New York, NY:
Perennial HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019793-5.
- Hitchens, Christopher (2005). Thomas Jefferson: Author of America, short biography.
- Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols. (1948–82). Multi-volume biography of TJ by leading expert;
A short version is online[dead link].
- Mclaughlin, Jack (1990) Jefferson and Monticello: The Biography of a Builder
Macmillan, pp. 496 isbn:9780805014631 Url
- Padover, Saul K. Jefferson: A Great American's Life and Ideas
- Parton, James (1874) Life of Thomas Jefferson: third president of the United States
James R. Osgood and Company, Boston, pp. 764 Ebook (full view)
- Peterson, Merrill D. (1975). Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. A standard scholarly biography.
- Peterson, Merrill D. (ed.) Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography (1986),
24 essays by leading scholars on aspects of Jefferson's career.
- Pierson, Rev. Hamilton W., D. D. (1862). JEFFERSON AT MONTICELLO. THE PRIVATE LIFE OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. from entirely new Materials WITH NUMEROUS FAC-SIMILES
Charles Scribner, New York; (Original from the University of Michigan), pp. 138 Ebook (full view)
- Randall, Henry Stephens (1858). The Life of Thomas Jefferson (volume 1 ed.).
- Salgo, Sandor (1997). Thomas Jefferson: Musician and Violinist. Abook detailing Thomas Jefferson's love of music.
- Schachner, Nathan (1951). Thomas Jefferson: A Biography. 2 volumes.
- Scharff, Virginia. The Women Jefferson Loved (2010)
Politics and ideas 
- Ackerman, Bruce. The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy. (2005)
- Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1889-1891; Library of America edition 1986) famous 9-volume history
- Adams, Henry (1890). History of the United States of America during the second administration of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 4,
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. pp. 502Ebook (full view)
- Wills, Garry, Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), detailed analysis of Adams' History
- Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
- Brown, Stuart Gerry (1954). The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison.
- Channing; Edward. The Jeffersonian System: 1801–1811 (1906), "American Nation" survey of political history
- Dunn, Susan. Jefferson's Second Revolution: The Election Crisis of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism (2004)
- Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995) in-depth coverage of politics of 1790s
- Fatovic, Clement. (2004) "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives." : American Journal of Political Science, Issn: 0092-5853 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta, Jstor, and Ebsco
- Ferling, John (2004). Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800.
- Finkelman, Paul. Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (2001), esp ch 6–7
- Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "I Tremble for My Country": Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia Gentry, (University Press of Florida; 206 pages; 2007). Argues that the TJ's critique of his fellow gentry in Virginia masked his own reluctance to change
- Hitchens, Christopher (2005). Author of America: Thomas Jefferson. HarperCollins.
- Horn, James P. P. Jan Ellen Lewis, and Peter S. Onuf, eds. The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic (2002) 17 essays by scholars
- Irelan, John Robert (1886), History of the Life, Administration and Times of Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States: American Independence and the Political Development of the Republic,
Fairbanks and Palmer, Chicago, pp. 541, ISBN = xxx, Ebook (full view)
- Jayne, Allen. '(2000). 'Jefferson's Declaration of Independence: Origins, Philosophy and Theology ; traces TJ's sources and emphasizes his incorporation of Deist theology into the Declaration.
- Johnston, William Dawson (1904). History of the Library of Congress: Volume I, 1800-1864
Govt. Print. Off. pp. 535 Ebook (full view)
- Kennedy, Roger G. (2003). Mr. Jefferson's Lost Cause: Land, Farmers, Slavery, and the Louisiana Purchase
- Knudson, Jerry W. (2006). Jefferson and the Press: Crucible of Liberty.
- Lewis, Jan Ellen, and Onuf, Peter S., eds. (1999). Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, Civic Culture
University of Virginia Press
- Lisitzky, Gene, (1933). Thomas Jefferson'
The Viking Press, pp. 356, Url
- McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1987) intellectual history approach to Jefferson's Presidency
- Matthews, Richard K. "The Radical Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson: An Essay in Retrieval," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XXVIII (2004)
- Mayer, David N. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (2000)
- Miller, Robert (2006). Native America, Discovered and Conquered: : Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99011-4.
- Onuf, Peter S., "Every Generation Is An 'Independant Nation': Colonization, Miscegenation and the Fate of Jefferson's Children", William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. LVII, No.1, January 2000, JSTOR
- Onuf, Peter S. Jefferson's Empire: The Languages of American Nationhood. (2000). Online review
- Onuf, Peter. "Thomas Jefferson, Federalist" (1993) online journal essay
- Padover, Saul K. (1967). The Writings of Thomas Jefferson
The Easton Press, Norwalk, Conn. pp. 362
- —— (1952) Jefferson
Penguin Press, pp. 362, isbn:9781101153970. Url
- Rahe, Paul A. "Thomas Jefferson's Machiavellian Political Science". Review of Politics 1995 57(3): 449–481. ISSN 0034–6705 Fulltext online at Jstor and Ebsco.
- Sears, Louis Martin. Jefferson and the Embargo (1927), state by state impact
- Sheean, Vincent (1953). Thomas Jefferson, father of democracy
Random House, pp. 184, Url
- Sloan, Herbert J. Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (1995). Shows the burden of debt in Jefferson's personal finances and political thought.
- Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801–1815 (1968). "New American Nation" survey of political and diplomatic history
- Staloff, Darren. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. (2005)
- Tucker, Robert W. and David C. Hendrickson. Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1992); called "probably the most important study of the theory & means of Jefferson's foreign policy. by Cogliano, Thomas Jefferson: reputation and legacy (2008) p. 237
- Urofsky, Melvin I. "Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall: What Kind of Constitution Shall We Have?" Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 109–125. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
- Valsania, Maurizio. "'Our Original Barbarism': Man Vs. Nature in Thomas Jefferson's Moral Experience." Journal of the History of Ideas 2004 65(4): 627–645. Issn: 0022-5037 Fulltext: in Project Muse and Swetswise
- Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr. Jefferson and Education. (2004).
- Wilentz, Sean (2005). The Rise of American Democracy. W. W. Norton & Company, New York NY. ISBN 0-393-05820-4.
- Gaustad, Edwin S. Sworn on the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson (2001) Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 0-8028-0156-0
- Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (1987) University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-1131-1
- Sheridan, Eugene R. Jefferson and Religion, preface by Martin Marty, (2001) University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 1-882886-08-9
- Edited by Jackson, Henry E., President, College for Social Engineers, Washington, D. C. The Thomas Jefferson Bible (1923) Copyright Boni and Liveright, Inc. Printed in the United States of America. Arranged by Thomas Jefferson. Translated by R. F. Weymouth. Located in the National Museum, Washington, D. C.
Legacy and historiography 
- Cogliano, Francis D. Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy (Edinburgh University Press, 2006) online edition
- Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American controversy, Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 1997 (reprint 1998 to include discussion of DNA analysis)
- Onuf, Peter. "The Scholars' Jefferson," William and Mary Quarterly 3d Series, L:4 (October 1993), 671–699. Historiographical review or scholarship about TJ; in JSTOR
- Onuf, Peter S., ed. Jeffersonian Legacies. (1993)
- Onuf, Peter S., ed. (with Jan Ellen Lewis). Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, and Civic Culture, University Press of Virginia, 1999, Google preview.
- Perry, Barbara A. "Jefferson's Legacy to the Supreme Court: Freedom of Religion", Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 181–198. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
- Peterson, Merrill D. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind (1960), how Americans interpreted and remembered Jefferson
- Taylor, Jeff. Where Did the Party Go?: William Jennings Bryan, Hubert Humphrey, and the Jeffersonian Legacy (2006), on Jefferson's role in Democratic history and ideology.
- Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935), analysis of Jefferson's political philosophy
- "Thomas Jefferson", PBS interviews with 24 historians
Primary sources 
- Thomas Jefferson: Writings: Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters (1984, ISBN 978-0-940450-16-5) Library of America edition. There are numerous one-volume collections; this is perhaps the best place to start.
- Thomas Jefferson, Political Writings ed by Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball. Cambridge University Press. 1999 online
- Lipscomb, Andrew A. and Albert Ellery Bergh, eds. The Writings Of Thomas Jefferson 19 vol. (1907) not as complete nor as accurate as Boyd edition, but covers TJ from birth to death. It is out of copyright, and so is online free.
- Edwin Morris Betts (editor), Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, (Thomas Jefferson Memorial: December 1, 1953) ISBN 1-882886-10-0. Letters, notes, and drawings—a journal of plantation management recording his contributions to scientific agriculture, including an experimental farm implementing innovations such as horizontal plowing and crop-rotation, and Jefferson's own moldboard plow. It is a window to slave life, with data on food rations, daily work tasks, and slaves' clothing. The book portrays the industries pursued by enslaved and free workmen, including in the blacksmith's shop and spinning and weaving house.
- Boyd, Julian P. et al., eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. (1950-2012, in process) The definitive multivolume edition; available at major academic libraries. 38 volumes covers TJ to Nov. 1802.
- The Jefferson Cyclopedia (1900) large collection of TJ quotations arranged by 9000 topics; searchable; copyright has expired and it is online free.
- The Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606–1827, 27,000 original manuscript documents at the Library of Congress online collection
- Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), London: Stockdale. This was Jefferson's only book
- Jefferson, Thomas: "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" (complex publication history, eText online)
- Cappon, Lester J., ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters (1959)
- A MANUAL OF PARLIAMENTARY PRACTICE:, for the Use of the Senate of the United States. BY THOMAS JEFFERSON.
- Howell, Wilbur Samuel, ed. Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings (1988). Jefferson's Manual of Parliamentary Practice, written when he was vice-President, with other relevant papers
- Melton, Buckner F.: The Quotable Founding Fathers, Potomac Books, Washington D.C. (2004).
- Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, 3 vols. (1995)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Herring, George. "From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776". p104. Oxford University Press, 2008.
- "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account", Monticello Website, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, accessed 22 June 2011. Quote: "Ten years later [referring to its 2000 report], TJF and most historians now believe that, years after his wife’s death, Thomas Jefferson was the father of the six children of Sally Hemings mentioned in Jefferson's records, including Beverly, Harriet, Madison and Eston Hemings."
- Stephen E. Ambrose, To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian (2003), p. 4
- Gordon Wood, The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States (2011) p 14.
- Booknotes interview with Willard Sterne Randall on Thomas Jefferson: A Life, December 26, 1993
- Booknotes interview with Conor Cruise O'Brien on The Long Affair: Thomas Jefferson and the French Revolution, 1785-1800, November 17, 1996.
- Booknotes interview with Annette Gordon-Reed on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, February 21, 1999.
- "Writings of Jefferson and Madison" from American Writers: A Journey Through History, April 9, 2001