|Latin||musculus biceps brachii|
|Gray's||subject #124 443|
|Origin||short head: coracoid process of the scapula. long head: supraglenoid tubercle|
|Insertion||radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia on medial part of forearm|
|Nerve||Musculocutaneous nerve (C5–C6)|
|Actions||flexes elbow and supinates forearm|
|Antagonist||Triceps brachii muscle|
In human anatomy, the biceps brachii, or simply biceps in common parlance, is, as the name implies, a two-headed muscle. The biceps lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Both heads arise on the scapula and join to form a single muscle belly which is attached to the upper forearm. While the biceps crosses both the shoulder and elbow joints, its main function is at the latter where it flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm. Both these movements are used when opening a bottle with a corkscrew: first biceps unscrews the cork (supination), then it pulls the cork out (flexion). 
The term biceps brachii is a Latin phrase meaning "two-headed [muscle] of the arm", in reference to the fact that the muscle consists of two bundles of muscle, each with its own origin, sharing a common insertion point near the elbow joint. The proper plural form of the Latin adjective biceps is bicipites, a form not in general English use. Instead, biceps is used in both singular and plural (i.e., when referring to both arms).
The English form bicep [sic], attested from 1939, is a back formation derived from interpreting the s of biceps as the English plural marker -s. While common even in professional contexts, it is often considered incorrect.
The biceps brachii muscle is the one that gave all muscles their name: it comes from the Latin musculus, "little mouse", because the appearance of the flexed biceps resembles the back of a mouse. The same phenomenon occurred in Greek, in which μῦς, mȳs, means both "mouse" and "muscle".
Human anatomy 
Origin and insertion 
When the humerus is in motion, the tendon of the long head is held firmly in place in the intertubercular groove by the greater and lesser tubercles and the overlying transverse humeral ligament. During the motion from external to internal rotation, the tendon is forced medially against the lesser tubercle and superiorly against the transverse ligament. 
Both heads join on the middle of the humerus, usually near the insertion of the deltoid, to form a common muscle belly. Distally, biceps ends in two tendons: the stronger attaches to (inserts into) the radial tuberosity on the radius, while the other, the bicipital aponeurosis, radiates into the ulnar part of the antebrachial fascia. 
The tendon that attaches to the radial tuberosity is partially or completely surrounded by a bursa; the bicipitoradial bursa, which ensures frictionless motion between the biceps tendon and the proximal radius during pronation and supination of the forearm.
Two additional muscles lie underneath the biceps brachii. These are the coracobrachialis muscle, which like the biceps attaches to the coracoid process of the scapula, and the brachialis muscle which connects to the ulna and along the mid-shaft of the humerus. Besides those, the brachioradialis muscle is adjacent to the biceps and also inserts on the radius bone, though more distally.
Traditionally described as a two-headed muscle, biceps brachii is one of the most variable muscles of the human body and has a third head arising from the humerus in 10% of cases (normal variation) — most commonly originating near the insertion of the coracobrachialis and joining the short head — but four, five, and even seven supernumerary heads have been reported in rare cases.  The distal biceps tendons are completely separated in 40% and bifurcated in 25% of cases. 
These joints and the associated actions are listed as follows in order of importance:
- Proximal radioulnar joint (upper forearm) – Contrary to popular belief, the biceps brachii is not the most powerful flexor of the forearm, a role which actually belongs to the deeper brachialis muscle. The biceps brachii functions primarily as a powerful supinator of the forearm (turns the palm upwards). This action, which is aided by the supinator muscle, requires the elbow to be at least partially flexed. If the elbow, or humeroulnar joint, is fully extended, supination is then primarily carried out by the supinator muscle.
- Humeroulnar joint (elbow) – The biceps brachii also functions as an important flexor of the forearm, particularly when the forearm is supinated. Functionally, this action is performed when lifting an object, such as a bag of groceries or when performing a biceps curl. When the forearm is in pronation (the palm faces the ground), the brachialis, brachioradialis, and supinator function to flex the forearm, with minimal contribution from the biceps brachii.
- Glenohumeral joint (shoulder) – Several weaker functions occur at the glenohumeral, or shoulder, joint. The biceps brachii weakly assists in forward flexion of the shoulder joint (bringing the arm forward and upwards). It may also contribute to abduction (bringing the arm out to the side) when the arm is externally (or laterally) rotated. The short head of the biceps brachii also assists with horizontal adduction (bringing the arm across the body) when the arm is internally (or medially) rotated. Finally, the short head of the biceps brachii, due to its attachment to the scapula (or shoulder blade), assists with stabilization of the shoulder joint when a heavy weight is carried in the arm.
To isolate the biceps brachii in elbow flexion, place the shoulder in hyperextension.
The proximal tendons of the bicep brachii are commonly involved in pathological processes and are a frequent cause of anterior shoulder pain. Disorders of the distal biceps brachii tendon typically result from partial and complete tears of the muscle. Partial tears are usually characterized by enlargement and abnormal contour of the tendon. In complete tears, discontinuity exists, and if the bicipital aponeurosis is also disrupted, retraction called a "Popeye's deformity" sign. Tears of the biceps brachii occur in athletic activities and corrective surgery repairs biceps brachii tendon tears. Proximal ruptures of the long head of the biceps tendon can be surgically repaired by two different techniques. Bicep tenodesis is resurfacing the tendon by screw fixation on the humerus and bicep tenotomy is trimming the long head of the biceps tendon promoting the muscle origination from the coracoid process.Preexisting degeneration in the tendon can cause partial tears called lesions and are rarely associated with a traumatic event. The most common symptom of a bicep tear is pain. It will be the most severe in the muscle, but may stretch to the shoulders and elbows as well. Treatment of a bicep tear depends on the severity of the injury. In most cases, the muscle will heal over time with no corrective surgery. Applying cold pressure and using anti-inflammatory medications will ease pain and reduce swelling. More severe injuries require surgery and post-op physical therapy to regain strength and functionality in the muscle. Corrective surgeries of this nature are typically reserved for elite athletes who rely on a complete recovery.
Evolutionary variation 
In Neanderthals, the radial bicipital tuberosities were larger than in modern humans, which suggests they were probably able to use their biceps for supination over a wider range of pronation-supination. It is possible that they relied more on their biceps for forceful supination without the assistance of the supinator muscle like in modern humans, and thus that they used a different movement when throwing. 
In the horse, the biceps' function is to extend the shoulder and flex the elbow. It is composed of two short-fibred heads separated longitudinally by a thick internal tendon which stretches from the origin on the supraglenoid tubercle to the insertion on the medial radial tuberosity. This tendon is capable to withstand very large forces when the biceps is stretched. From this internal tendon a strip of tendon, the lacertus fibrosus, connects the muscle with the extensor carpi radialis -- an important feature in the horse's stay apparatus (through which the horse can rest and sleep whilst standing.) 
Additional images 
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Cadaver dissections 
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