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Cafeteria roenbergensis FENCHEL and D J PATTERSON schematic drawing.svg
Cafeteria roenbergensis
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromalveolata
Division: Heterokontophyta
Order: Bicosoecida
Honigberg et al., 1964, Zhukov, 1978, Karpov, 1998, 2000

Bicosoeca James-Clark, 1866[1]
(= Bikoeca Stein, 1878[2])

  • Bikoecida Stein, 1878
  • Bicoecinae Grassé, 1926[3]
  • Bicoecidea Grassé & Deflandre in Grassé, 1952[4]
  • Bicosoecales Bourrelly, 1968, 1981
  • Bicoecales Kristiansen, 1972[5]
  • Bicosoecophyceae Casper, 1974, Loeblich III & Loeblich 1979[6]
  • Bicosoecea Cavalier-Smith, 1986
  • Bicoecia Cavalier-Smith, 1989
  • Bicoecea Cavalier-Smith, 1993
  • Bicocoecida van den Hoek et al., 1995

The bicosoecids, formally Bicosoecida (ICZN) or Bicosoecales/Bicoecea (ICBN), are a small group of unicellular flagellates, included among the heterokonts. The cells are free-living, with no chloroplasts, and in some genera are encased in a lorica.

The name of the type genus Bicosoeca is derived from Greek roots ("vase" and "to inhabit"). The group was formerly considered to be related to the Chrysophyceae.[7]

Some authors use the vernacular term "bicosoecid" (or "bicoecid") in a narrower sense, only for Bicosoeca, aplying "bicoeceans" to Bicosoeca and related groups like Cafeteria.[8]

External links[edit]


  • Hibberd, D. J. (1986). Ultrastructure of the Chrysophyceae. Colorless forms. p. 29-30 In: Chrysophytes: Aspects and Problems. Kristiansen, J. and R.A. Andersen [Eds.]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


  1. ^ James-Clark, H. (1868). On the Spongia Ciliatae as Infusoria Flagellata; or, observations on the structure, animality, and relationship of Leucosolenia botryoides, Bowerbank. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1 (3): 305-340. Abstract published in the Proceedings of this Society in June 20, 1866 (vol. 11, p. 15).
  2. ^ Stein, F. R. (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere, vol . 3, part 1. W. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  3. ^ Grassé, P.-P. Contribution à l'étude des flagellés parasites. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale, t. 65, 1926, pp. 345-602 [576], disponible at Gallica.
  4. ^ Grassé, P.-P. & Deflandre, G . (1952). Ordre des Bicoecidea. In: Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.). Traité de Zoologie. Vol. 1, fasc. 1. Phylogénie. Protozoaries: Generalités, Flagellés. Masson et Cie, Paris. 599-601.
  5. ^ Jørgen Kristiansen. (1972). Structure and occurrence of Bicoeca crystallina, with remarks on the taxonomic position of the Bicoecales. British Phycological Journal, 7:1, 1-12
  6. ^ Loeblich, A. R., III and L. A. Loeblich. 1979. Division Chrysophyta, pp. 411-423. In: CRC Handbook of Microbiology, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Viruses, ed. by A. I.Laskin and H. A. Lechevalier, CRC Press, Inc., West Palm Beach, FL.
  7. ^ David J. Hibberd (1978) Bicosoeca accreta sp. nov., a flagellate accumulating extraneous silica fragments, British Phycological Journal, 13:2, 161-166.
  8. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T; Chao, E. E. (2006). "Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista)". Journal of Molecular Evolution 62 (4): 388–420. doi:10.1007/s00239-004-0353-8. PMID 16557340.  edit Supplementary material [1].