Bident

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Pluto holding a bident in a woodcut from the Gods and Goddesses series of Hendrick Goltzius (1588-89)

A bident is a two-pronged implement resembling a pitchfork. In classical mythology, the bident is associated with Pluto, the ruler of the underworld, while the three-pronged trident is the implement of Poseidon (Neptune), ruler of the sea and of earthquakes.

Etymology[edit]

The word 'bident' was brought into the English language before 1914,[1] and is derived from the Latin bidentis, meaning "having two prongs".[2]

Historical uses[edit]

Ancient Egyptians used a bident as a fishing tool, sometimes attached to a line and sometimes fastened with flight feathers.[3] Two-pronged weapons mainly of bronze appear in the archaeological record of ancient Greece.[4]

In Roman agriculture, the bidens (genitive bidentis) was a double-bladed drag hoe[5] or two-pronged mattock,[6] although a modern distinction between "mattock" and "rake" should not be pressed.[7] It was used to break up and turn ground that was rocky and hard.[8] The bidens is pictured on mosaics and other forms of Roman art, as well as tombstones to mark the occupation of the deceased.[9]

In mythology[edit]

Roman-era mosaics show the bident for hare hunting (Villa Romana del Casale, Sicily, ca. 300 AD)

Neither Pluto nor Hades is depicted unambiguously with a bident in ancient art, and the antiquity of this attribute has never been determined.[10] Two-pronged weapons do appear in Greek literature and art.[11]

The spear of Achilles is said by a few sources to be bifurcated.[12] Achilles had been instructed in its use by Peleus, who had in turn learned from Chiron the Centaur. The implement may have associations with Thessaly. A black-figured amphora from Corneto (Etruscan Tarquinia) depicts a scene from the hunt for the Calydonian boar, part of a series of adventures that took place in the general area. Peleus is accompanied by Castor, who is attacking the boar with a two-pronged spear.[11]

A bronze trident found in an Etruscan tomb at Vetulonia seems to have had an adaptable center prong that could be removed for use as a bident.[13] A kylix found at Vulci in ancient Etruria was formerly interpreted as depicting Pluto (Greek Plouton) with a bident. A black-bearded man holding a peculiarly two-pronged instrument reaches out in pursuit of a woman, thought to be Persephone. The vase was subjected to improper reconstruction, however, and the couple are more likely Poseidon and Aethra.[14] On Lydian coins that show Plouton abducting Persephone in his four-horse chariot, the god holds his characteristic scepter, the ornamented point of which has sometimes been interpreted as a bident.[15] Other visual representations of the bident on ancient objects appear to have been either modern-era reconstructions, or in the possession of figures not securely identified as the ruler of the underworld.[16]

The Cambridge ritualist A.B. Cook saw the bident as an implement that might be wielded by Jupiter, the chief god of the Roman pantheon, in relation to Roman bidental ritual, the consecration of a place struck by lightning by means of a sacrificial sheep, called a bidens because it was of an age to have two teeth.[17] In the hands of Jupiter (also known as Jove, Etruscan Tinia), the trident or bident thus represents a forked lightning bolt. In ancient Italy, thunder and lightning were read as signs of divine will, wielded by the sky god Jupiter in three forms or degrees of severity (see manubia). The Romans drew on Etruscan traditions for the interpretation of these signs. A tile found at Urbs Salvia in Picenum depicts an unusual composite Jove, "fairly bristling with weapons": a lightning bolt, a bident, and a trident, uniting the realms of sky, earth, and sea, and representing the three degrees of ominous lightning (see also Summanus).[18] Cook regarded the trident as the Greek equivalent of the Etruscan bident, each representing a type of lightning used to communicate the divine will; since he accepted the Lydian origin of the Etruscans, he traced both forms to the same Mesopotamia source.[19]

The later notion that the ruler of the underworld wielded a trident or bident can perhaps be traced to a line in the Hercules Furens ("Hercules Enraged") of Seneca. Dis (the Roman equivalent of Greek Plouton) uses a three-pronged spear to drive off Hercules as he attempts to invade the underworld. Seneca also refers to Dis as the "Infernal Jove"[20] or the "dire Jove",[21] the Jove who gives dire or ill omens (dirae), just as in the Greek tradition, Plouton is sometimes identified as a "chthonic Zeus." That the trident and bident might be somewhat interchangeable is suggested by a Byzantine scholiast, who mentions Poseidon being armed with a bident.[22]

In art[edit]

Council of the gods from the Loggia di Psiche, Villa Farnesina, with Pluto holding a bident and Neptune a trident

In Western art of the Middle Ages, classical underworld figures began to be depicted with a pitchfork.[23] Early Christian writers identified the classical underworld with Hell, and its denizens as demons or devils.[24] In the Renaissance, the bident became a conventional attribute of Pluto in art. Pluto, with Cerberus at his side, is shown holding the bident in the mythological ceiling mural painted by Raphael's workshop for the Villa Farnesina (the Loggia di Psiche, 1517–18). In a scene depicting a council of the gods, the three brothers Jove, Pluto, and Neptune are grouped closely, with a Cupid standing before them. Neptune holds the trident. Elsewhere in the loggia, a putto holds a bident.[25]

Perhaps influenced by this work, Agostino Carracci had depicted Pluto with a bident in a preparatory drawing for his painting Pluto (1592), in which the god holds instead his characteristic key.[26] In Caravaggio's Giove, Nettuno e Plutone (ca. 1597), a ceiling mural based on alchemical allegory, it is Neptune who holds the bident.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Webster's Online Dictionary, entry on bident.
  2. ^ American Psychological Association (APA). "Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary". Dictionary.com. www.reference.com. Retrieved May 18, 2012. 
  3. ^ Wilkinson, John Gardner (1837). Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians: including their private life, government, laws, arts, manufacturers, religion and early history : derived from a comparison of the painting, sculptures and monuments still existing with the accounts of ancient authors, Volume 3. Murray. pp. 60, 61. "bident was a spear with two barbed points ... thrust at the fish ... fish spears of the South Sea Islanders ... same manner ... as the bident by the ancient Egyptians" 
  4. ^ Arthur Bernard Cook, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion (Oxford University Press, 1924), vol. 2, p. 799.
  5. ^ K.D. White, Roman Farming (Cornell University Press, 1970), p. 239.
  6. ^ K.D. White, Agricultural Implements of the Roman World (Cambridge University Press, 1967, 2010), p. 11.
  7. ^ White, Agricultural Implements, p. 12.
  8. ^ Pliny, Natural History 17.54; White, Agricultural Implements, p. 19.
  9. ^ White, Agricultural Implements, pp. vii, viii, 11, 51.
  10. ^ A.L. Millin, "Mythologie," in Magasin Encyclopédique (Paris, 1808), p. 283; G.T. Villenave, Les métamorphoses d'Ovide (Paris, 1806), p. 307; Cook, Zeus, p. 798 ff.; John G. Fitch, Seneca's Hercules Furens: A Critical Text With Introduction and Commentary (Cornell University Press, 1987), p.
  11. ^ a b Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 799.
  12. ^ By Lesches of Lesbos (7th century BC) in the Little Iliad (Ilias parva), frg. 5 in the edition of Kinkel, as preserved by the scholiast to Pindar, Nemean Ode 6.85 and the scholiast to the Iliad 16.142. Also in the Classical period by Aeschylus in the fragmentary Nereids (Nereides), frg. 152 in the second edition of Nauck; and by Sophocles in the Lovers of Achilles (Achilleos erastai), frg. 156 (Nauck2 = 152 in the edition of Jebb), as cited by Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 799.
  13. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 1225, with images of Zeus wielding lightning bolts, and citing Milani, Studi e materiali di archeologia e numismatica (Florence, 1905), (vol. 3, p. 85.
  14. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, pp. 800–801. The kylix from the workshop of Brygos.
  15. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 801.
  16. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 802.
  17. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, pp. 805–806.
  18. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 803, with image on p. 804.
  19. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 806.
  20. ^ Inferni Iovis (genitive case), Hercules Furens line 47, in the prologue spoken by Juno.
  21. ^ Diro Iovi, line 608 of Hercules Furens; compare Vergil, Aeneid 4.638, Iove Stygio, the "Jove of the Styx". Fitch, Seneca's Hercules Furens, p. 156.
  22. ^ Codex Augustanus, note to Euripides' Phoenician Women, line 188, as cited by Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 806, note 6.
  23. ^ Cook, Zeus, vol. 2, p. 803.
  24. ^ Friedrich Solmsen, "The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius' Contra Symmachum: A Study of His Poetic Imagination," Vigiliae Christianae 19.4 (1965), pp. 238, 240–248 et passim.
  25. ^ Richard Stemp, The Secret Language of the Renaissance: Decoding the Hidden Symbolism of Italian Art (Duncan Baird, 2006), p. 114; Clare Robertson et al., Drawings by the Carracci from British Collections (Ashmolean Museum, 1996), p. 78.
  26. ^ Robertson et al., Drawings by the Carracci from British Collections, pp. 78–79.
  27. ^ Creighton Gilbert, Caravaggio and His Two Cardinals (Penn State University Press, 1995), pp. 124–125.

External links[edit]

Media related to Bidents at Wikimedia Commons