Big Dig ceiling collapse
|This article is outdated. (June 2013)|
The Big Dig ceiling collapse occurred on July 10, 2006, when a concrete ceiling panel weighing 3 short tons (2,700 kg) and measuring 20 by 40 feet (6.1 by 12.2 m) fell in Boston's Fort Point Channel Tunnel (which connects to the Ted Williams Tunnel). The panel fell on a car traveling on the two-lane ramp connecting northbound I-93 to eastbound I-90 in South Boston, killing a passenger and injuring the driver. Investigation and repair of the collapse caused a section of the Big Dig project to be closed for almost a full year, causing chronic traffic backups.
The east ends of the westbound and eastbound connector tunnels were designed and constructed in the same manner. Both ends of the tunnel were built sooner than the connecting section to allow the D Street bridge above to be constructed sooner. The end sections were not designed to incorporate a hanging ceiling system like that used in the connecting section.
The collapse of the ceiling structure began with the simultaneous creep-type failure of several anchors embedded in epoxy in the tunnel's roof slab. Each of the panel's intersecting connection points consists of several individual bolts anchored into the roof slab concrete. The failure of a group of anchors set off a chain reaction which caused other adjacent connection groups to creep then fail, dropping 12 short tons (11,000 kg)[inconsistent] of concrete to the roadway below.
Numerous problems with this same system of bolts and epoxy in the Ted Williams Tunnel had been previously revealed in a 1998 (Massachusetts) Office of the Inspector General report. Not only were the bolts too short, but the epoxy used to glue the bolts into the concrete was not up to standard. The state Turnpike Authority and the Federal Highway Administration, citing the ongoing criminal investigation, refused requests received after the accident to release documents relating to the work conducted along the Seaport connector, including:
- Deficiency reports that would have shown problems flagged during initial work on the tunnel.
- Construction change orders that would have shown costly repairs and contract revisions that occurred because of deficiencies.
- Inspection reports and other documents that would show who would have knowledge of the workmanship and building material quality.
Aftermath and response
After the ceiling collapse, Attorney General Tom Reilly described the tunnel as a crime scene and issued subpoenas to the companies and individuals responsible for the tunnel construction and testing. Governor Mitt Romney returned from a vacation in New Hampshire to view the condition of the tunnels.
The Governor ordered connecting roads that lead into the Fort Point Channel Tunnel and several ramps to the westbound section from within the city be closed. These closures caused dramatic overflow congestion throughout the city as motorists sought alternate routes to and from Logan International Airport and several other key arterial routes. Beyond the difficulties posed within the city, the Fort Point Channel Tunnel and Ted Williams Tunnel link the Massachusetts Turnpike and Interstate 93 to Logan, so this also blocked a key inbound link for airport travelers coming from outside the city, forcing them to seek alternate routes like the Callahan Tunnel or follow poorly marked detours that wound through the city, often resulting in additional travel times of one hour or more.
The legislature approved the governor's plan to assume oversight of the investigation into the collapse, taking responsibility away from the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, and additionally allocating $20 million for a "stem to stern" safety review of the Central Artery system. At the request of all the members of the Massachusetts congressional delegation, the National Transportation Safety Board dispatched a six-member civil engineering team to Boston to inspect the accident scene and determine whether a full-scale investigation was warranted.
Safety inspections following the accident identified 242 potentially dangerous bolt fixtures supporting the ceiling tiles in the Interstate 90 connector tunnel. As problems throughout the tunnels were identified, various sections of roadway were closed and re-opened to make repairs. New concerns about ceiling fans, weighing approximately three tons each, used to circulate air throughout the tunnel system, were also identified.
The National Transportation Safety Board released a report on the one year anniversary of the disaster, that attributed the major cause of the collapse to "epoxy creep". On August 8, 2007, a Suffolk County Grand Jury indicted epoxy company Powers Fasteners, Inc., on one charge of involuntary manslaughter, with the maximum penalty in Massachusetts being a fine of one thousand dollars.
The epoxy used in the D Street portal that failed cost $1287.60. The cost to redesign, inspect, and repair all of the tunnels after the collapse was $54 million.
On July 13, 2006, the leaders of the state legislature, Senate President Robert Travaglini and House Speaker Sal Dimasi, called upon Turnpike Authority chairman Matthew J. Amorello, who provided oversight of the project, to consider stepping down from his position and accepting a diminished role. Governor Romney and Attorney General Reilly both called for the resignation of Amorello. This stance was supported in editorials in Boston's two major newspapers, the Boston Herald and The Boston Globe. On July 18, Amorello was presented with a formal list of charges that Romney intended to use to justify Amorello's removal.
Amorello made an unsuccessful effort to ask the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court to postpone the removal hearing before Romney. On July 27, 2006, after the Supreme Judicial Court rejected his request and shortly before the hearing was to have begun, Armorello announced his intention to resign as Chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority effective August 15, 2006.
Massachusetts Secretary of Transportation John Cogliano also came under fire after he chose to hire Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, the company that was responsible for overseeing the original construction of the tunnel, to inspect the repairs. The hiring of Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff resulted in an inquiry from the Office of Inspector General for the Department of Transportation. Cogliano admitted that he regretted reusing the firm and the state promised not to hire any Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff employees to work on repairs in the I-90 tunnel.
On November 27, 2006, departing Attorney General Tom Reilly announced that the state would launch a civil suit over the collapse of the ceiling in the Ted Williams Tunnel. The Commonwealth will be seeking over $150 million from project manager Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, builder Modern Continental Construction Co. and the manufacturer of the epoxy used to hold the ceiling bolts.
Attorney General Martha Coakley on March 1, 2007 named Paul Ware from Goodwin Procter, a Boston law firm to lead the criminal investigation into whether there is criminal culpability in the Big Dig tunnel collapse. Paul Ware will be appointed as a special assistant attorney general.
On December 24, 2007, the family of Milena Del Valle (who was killed in the collapse) and Angel Del Valle (who was injured) announced that they had reached a settlement with Powers Fasteners, in which they would be paid $6 million. The Del Valle family stated, "We are grateful that the Powers family company has done the right thing." Powers denied responsibility, but said that the settlement would "allow the healing process to begin." Powers also stated "We also hope that this will lead others who, unlike Powers, truly were responsible for the accident, to do the same." The Del Valle family still has 14 lawsuits pending against other defendants.[needs update]
There have been other difficulties with the design and construction of the Big Dig project, including numerous leaks, dangerous guardrails, and the threat of heavy lighting fixtures also falling from the ceilings.
The Georgia DOT found that failure of the same epoxy at fault for the ceiling collapse was also to blame for the 2011 fall of a fenced and lighted covered-walkway structure attached to the south side of the relatively new 17th Street Bridge, which links Atlantic Station to Midtown Atlanta over Interstate 75/85. No injuries occurred in that incident, as the collapse was in the overnight hours, with very little traffic on the freeway.
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- Lindsay, Jay (2006-07-11). "Reilly: Big Dig collapse is crime scene". boston.com. Retrieved 2006-07-18.[dead link]
- "Mitt’s MIA as bigs dig into tunnel tragedy", "The Boston Herald"
- Mishra, Raja; Sean P. Murphy (2006-07-14). "Many more flaws detected; Romney to take over probe; Loose ceiling fixtures number in hundreds". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 21 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
- "Romney Shuts Down Part Of Ted Williams Tunnel". WBZ-TV CBS 4. 2006-07-20. Retrieved 2006-07-20.[dead link]
- Mishra, Raja (2006-07-26). "Stability of ramps' massive fans in question". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2006-07-26.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the National Transportation Safety Board document "Accident Report Ceiling Collapse in the Interstate 90 Connector Tunnel" (retrieved on 2013-11-23).
- Ross, Casey (2007-08-08). "Epoxy company hit with Big Dig indictment". Boston Herald. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- "Engineering Disaster 21". Modern Marvels. History Channel. 2007.
- Helman, Scott; Andrea Estes and Andrew Ryan (2006-07-13). "Legislative leaders tell Amorello to take lesser role". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
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- Boston Globe editorial staff (2006-07-12). "Time to go". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2006-07-20.
- Boston Globe (2006-07-25). "'In violation of your duty:' Excerpts from Governor Mitt Romney's July 17 letter to Matthew J. Amorello, chairman of the Turnpike Authority". Boston Globe. p. B5. Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- Estes, Andrea (2006-07-25). "Amorello failed at Big Dig, letter says". Boston Globe. p. B1+. Retrieved 2006-07-25.
- Ross, Casey (October 27, 2006). "Mitt passes buck on Bechtel hiring ; Blames Cogiliano for `mistake'". Boston Herald. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Allen, Scott (October 25, 2006). "Official regrets reuse of firm; Big Dig error, Cogliano says". Boston Globe. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Mass. to sue Big Dig firms over tunnel accident, Reuters, 2006-11-27
- "Coakley tabs private attorney to lead Big Dig criminal probe". Associated Press. March 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "The man chosen to lead the criminal investigation into last summer's deadly Big Dig tunnel ceiling collapse was a prosecutor in the Iran-Contra affair and more recently in the disciplinary hearing against former Superior Court Judge Maria Lopez."
- Cramer, Maria (2006-08-30). "Family of Big Dig victim speak about Lawsuit". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- Woolhouse, Megan (2007-12-24). "Settlement reached in Big Dig death". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-12-25.