Big Eight Conference

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This article concerns the dissolved NCAA Division I-A conference. For other uses, see Big Eight Conference (disambiguation).
Big Eight Conference
Big Eight Conference logo
Established 1907
Dissolved 1996
Association NCAA
Division Division I
Members 8 (final), 12 (total)
Sports fielded 21[1] (men's: 11; women's: 10)
Region Midwestern United States, Mountain States, West South Central States
Former names Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association (1907–1964)
Big Six Conference (1928–1948, unofficial)
Big Seven Conference (1948–1957, unofficial)
Big Eight Conference (1957–1964, unofficial)
Headquarters Kansas City, Missouri
Commissioner Carl C. James (final) 1980–1996
Website http://bigeightsports.com
Locations
Big Eight Conference locations

The Big Eight Conference was an NCAA-affiliated Division I-A (FBS) college athletic association that sponsored football. It was formed in January 1907 as the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association (MVIAA)[2] by its charter member schools: the University of Kansas, University of Missouri,[2] University of Nebraska, and Washington University in St. Louis. Additionally, the University of Iowa was an original member of the MVIAA, while maintaining joint membership in the Western Conference (now the Big Ten Conference).

The conference was dissolved in 1996. Its membership at its dissolution consisted of the University of Nebraska, Iowa State University, the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of Kansas, Kansas State University, the University of Missouri, the University of Oklahoma, and Oklahoma State University. The Big Eight kept its headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri.

In February 1995, the Big Eight and the Southwest Conference announced that the two leagues had reached an agreement to form a new conference. The eight members of the Big Eight joined with SWC schools Texas, Texas A&M, Baylor, and Texas Tech to form the Big 12 Conference the following year. A vote was conducted on whether to keep the new conference's headquarters in Kansas City, and by a vote of 7-5 the conference members voted to move to the Dallas suburb of Irving, Texas. The two Oklahoma schools, all four Texas schools, and Colorado voted for the move while both Kansas schools, Nebraska, Missouri, and Iowa State voted for Kansas City.[3]

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

The conference was founded as the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association (MVIAA) at a meeting on January 12, 1907, by five charter members: the University of Kansas, the University of Missouri, the University of Nebraska, Washington University in St. Louis. The University of Iowa who was also a member of the Western Conference (now the Big Ten Conference) was also a joint member of the conference. Iowa only participated in football and outdoor Men's track and field.[4]

Early membership changes[edit]

In 1908, Drake University and Iowa Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) joined the MVIAA, increasing the conferences membership to seven. Iowa who was a joint member departed in 1911 to only compete in the Western Conference, but Kansas State University joined the conference in 1913. Nebraska left in 1918 to play as an independent for two seasons before returning in 1920. In 1919, the University of Oklahoma and Saint Louis University applied for membership, but were disapproved due to deficient management of their athletic programs.[5] The conference then added Grinnell College in 1919, with the University of Oklahoma applying again and being approved in 1920. Oklahoma A&M University (now Oklahoma State University) joined in 1925, bringing conference membership to ten, an all-time high.[6]

Conference split[edit]

At a meeting in Lincoln, Nebraska, on May 19, 1928, the conference split up. Six of the seven state schools (all except Oklahoma A&M) formed a conference that was initially known as the Big Six Conference.[2] Just before the start of fall practice, the six schools announced they would retain the MVIAA name for formal purposes. However, fans and media continued to call it the Big Six. The three private schools--Drake, Grinnell, and Washington University--joined with Oklahoma A&M, becoming known as the Missouri Valley Conference (MVC).[7] The similarity of the two conferences' official names, as well as the competing claims of the two conferences, led to considerable debate over which conference was the original and which was the spin-off, though the MVIAA went on to become the more prestigious of the two. For the remainder of the Big Eight's run, both conferences claimed 1907 as their founding date, as well as the same history through 1927.

Locations of final Big Eight Conference full member institutions.

Conference membership grew with the addition of the University of Colorado on December 1, 1947, from the Mountain States Conference.[8] Later that month, Reaves E. Peters was hired as "Commissioner of Officials and Assistant Secretary" and set up the first conference offices in Kansas City, Missouri. With the addition of Colorado, the conference's unofficial name became the Big Seven Conference, coincidentally, the former unofficial name of the MSC.

The final membership change happened ten years later, when Oklahoma A&M, now known as Oklahoma State University, joined (or rejoined, depending on the source) the conference on June 1, 1957,[9] and the conference became known as the Big Eight. That same year, Peters' title was changed to "Executive Secretary" of the conference. He retired in June 1963 and was replaced by Wayne Duke, whose title was later changed to "Commissioner."

In 1964, the conference legally assumed the name "Big Eight Conference." In 1968 the conference began a long association with the Orange Bowl, sending its champion annually to play in the prestigious bowl game in Miami, Florida.

Formation of the Big 12 Conference[edit]

Main article: Big 12 Conference

In the early 1990s, most of the colleges in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), then known as Division I-A, were members of the College Football Association; this included members of the Big Eight and Southwest Conferences. Following a Supreme Court decision in 1984, the primary function of the CFA was to negotiate television broadcast rights for its member conferences and independent colleges. In February 1994, the Southeastern Conference announced that they, like the Big Ten, Pac-10, and Notre Dame before them, would be leaving the CFA and negotiate independently for a television deal that covered SEC schools only. This led The Dallas Morning News to proclaim that "the College Football Association as a television entity is dead".[10] More significantly, this change in television contracts ultimately would lead to significant realignment of college conferences, with the biggest change being the dissolution of the Big Eight and the Southwest Conferences and the formation of the Big 12.

After the SEC's abandonment of the CFA, the Southwest Conference and the Big Eight Conference saw potential financial benefits from an alliance to negotiate television deals, and quickly began negotiations to that end, with ABC and ESPN. Though there were complications over the next several weeks (some of which are detailed below), on February 25, 1994, it was announced that a new conference would be formed from the members of the Big Eight and four of the Texas member colleges of the Southwest Conference.[11][12][13] Though the name would not be made official for several months, newspaper accounts immediately dubbed the new entity the "Big 12".[14] Charter members of the Big 12 included the members of the Big Eight plus Baylor, Texas, Texas A&M and Texas Tech.

Dissolution[edit]

Following the formation of the Big 12 Conference in 1994, the Big Eight continued operations till August 30, 1996 when the Conference was formally dissolved and its members officially began competition in the Big 12 Conference. Following the dissolution, all of the Conference records were moved to Kansas State's Vanier Complex and are now on exhibit in the Big 8 room which also serves host to post-game interviews after football games.[citation needed]

Although the Big 12 was essentially the Big Eight plus the four Texas schools, the Big 12 regards itself as a separate conference and does not claim the Big Eight's history as its own.

Members[edit]

Final members[edit]

Institution Location
(Population)
Founded Type Enrollment Endowment Nickname Mascot Varsity Sports National Titles(See chart below)
University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado
(83,312)
1876 Public 30,128 $665,000,000[15] Buffaloes Ralphie the Buffalo / Chip 14 26
Iowa State University Ames, Iowa
(47,198)
1858 Public 28,682[16] $452,200,000[17] Cyclones Cy the Cardinal 16 18
University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas
(65,608)
1865 Public 30,004[18] $1,005,000,000[15] Jayhawks Big Jay / Baby Jay 16 13
Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas
(37,712)
1863 Public 23,588[19] $277,600,000[15] Wildcats Willie the Wildcat 14 0
University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri
(69,101)
1839 Public 33,318[20] $974,900,000[15] Tigers Truman the Tiger 18 2
University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska
(191,972)
1869 Public 24,100[21] $1,140,000,000[15] Cornhuskers Herbie Husker / Lil' Red 21 23
University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma
(80,071)
1890 Public 29,721 $968,400,000[15] Sooners Sooner Schooner / Boomer and Sooner 19 27
Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma
(36,676)
1890 Public 23,307 $311,000,000[22] Cowboys Pistol Pete / Bullet 16 55

Previous members[edit]

Institution Location
(Population)
Founded Type Enrollment Endowment Nickname Varsity Sports NCAA Titles[23]
Drake University Des Moines, Iowa
(193,187)
1881 Private 3,164 $135,000,000[15] Bulldogs 18 3
Grinnell College Grinnell, Iowa
(8,902)
1846 Private 1,688 $1,260,000,000[24] Pioneers 18 0
University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa
(59,735)
1847 Public 30,825 $791,231,000[15] Hawkeyes 24 25
Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri
(396,685)
1853 Private 13,995 $4,600,000,000[25] Bears[26] 17 19 (Div. III)

Membership timeline[edit]

Big 12 University of Colorado Big 12 Oklahoma State University Big 12 University of Oklahoma Grinnell College Big 12 Kansas State University Big 12 Iowa State University Drake University Big 12 University of Nebraska Big 12 University of Missouri Big 12 University of Kansas Washington University in St. Louis University of Iowa

Full members Other Conference

Subsequent conference affiliations[edit]

Team Left for Current home
Colorado Big 12 Conference Pacific-12 Conference1
Drake Missouri Valley Conference Pioneer Football League
Missouri Valley Conference2
Grinnell Missouri Valley Conference Midwest Conference3
Iowa Big Ten Conference
Iowa State Big 12 Conference
Kansas
Kansas State
Missouri Big 12 Conference Southeastern Conference4
Nebraska Big 12 Conference Big Ten Conference5
Oklahoma Big 12 Conference
Oklahoma State
Washington-St. Louis Missouri Valley Conference University Athletic Association6
  1. ^ Colorado left the Big 12 for the Pac-12 beginning with the 2011-12 season.
  2. ^ Drake withdrew from the Missouri Valley Conference from 1951-1956. The MVC stopped sponsoring football in 1985; Drake remains a member for all non-football sports. The football program was independent until the football-only Pioneer League began play with the 1993-94 season.
  3. ^ Grinnell joined the Midwest Collegiate Athletic Conference beginning with the 1939-40 season; their affiliation from 1928-1939 is unclear.[27] The MCAC merged with the Midwest Athletic Conference for Women to form the Midwest Conference beginning with the 1994-95 season.
  4. ^ Missouri left the Big 12 for the SEC beginning with the 2012-13 season.
  5. ^ Nebraska left the Big 12 for the Big Ten beginning with the 2011-12 season.
  6. ^ Washington-St. Louis left the MVC in 1946; it joined the College Athletic Conference from 1962 through 1971, and became a charter member of the University Athletic Association, which began play with the 1986-87 season. It was independent in all other years.[28]

Commissioners[edit]

Conference champions[edit]

Men's basketball[edit]

Following are the MVIAA/Big Eight regular-season conference champions from 1908 to 1996 (showing shared championships in italics):[1][34]

Men's basketball regular-season championships (1908–1996)
School Total titles Outright titles Years
Colorado 5 3 1954 · 1955 · 1962 · 1963 · 1969
Drake 0 0
Grinnell 0 0
Iowa State 4 2 1935 · 1941 · 1944 · 1945
Kansas 43 32 1908 · 1909 · 1910 · 1911 · 1912 · 1914 · 1915 · 1922 · 1923 · 1924 ·
1925 · 1926 · 1927 · 1931 · 1932 · 1933 · 1934 · 1936 · 1937 · 1938 ·
1940 · 1941 · 1942 · 1943 · 1946 · 1950 · 1952 · 1953 · 1954 · 1957 ·
1960 · 1966 · 1967 · 1971 · 1974 · 1975 · 1978 · 1986 · 1991 · 1992 ·
1993 · 1995 · 1996
Kansas State 17 14 1917 · 1919 · 1948 · 1950 · 1951 · 1956 · 1958 · 1959 · 1960 · 1961 ·
1963 · 1964 · 1968 · 1970 · 1972 · 1973 · 1977
Missouri 15 12 1918 · 1920 · 1921 · 1922 · 1930 · 1939 · 1940 · 1976 · 1980 · 1981 ·
1982 · 1983 · 1987 · 1990 · 1994
Nebraska 7 2 1912 · 1913 · 1914 · 1916 · 1937 · 1949 · 1950
Oklahoma 13 8 1928 · 1929 · 1939 · 1940 · 1942 · 1944 · 1947 · 1949 · 1979 · 1984 ·
1985 · 1988 · 1989
Oklahoma State 2 1 1965 · 1991
Washington (St. Louis) 0 0

Football[edit]

Shared championships are shown in italics:[1][35]

Football conference championships (1907–1995)
School Total titles Outright titles Years
Colorado 5 3 1961 · 1976 · 1989 · 1990 · 1991
Drake 0 0
Grinnell 0 0
Iowa 1 0 1907
Iowa State 2 0 1911 · 1912
Kansas 5 2 1908 · 1930 · 1946 · 1947 · 1968
Kansas State 1 1 1934
Missouri 12 10 1909 · 1913 · 1919 · 1924 · 1925 · 1927 · 1939 · 1941 · 1942 · 1945 ·
1960* · 1969
Nebraska 41 32 1907 · 1910 · 1911 · 1912 · 1913 · 1914 · 1915 · 1916 · 1917 · 1921 ·
1922 · 1923 · 1928 · 1929 · 1931 · 1932 · 1933 · 1935 · 1936 · 1937 ·
1940 · 1963 · 1964 · 1965 · 1966 · 1969 · 1970 · 1971 · 1972** · 1975 ·
1978 · 1981 · 1982 · 1983 · 1984 · 1988 · 1991 · 1992 · 1993 · 1994 ·
1995
Oklahoma 33 26 1920 · 1938 · 1943 · 1944 · 1946 · 1947 · 1948 · 1949 · 1950 · 1951 ·
1952 · 1953 · 1954 · 1955 · 1956 · 1957 · 1958 · 1959 · 1962 · 1967 ·
1968 · 1973 · 1974 · 1975 · 1976 · 1977 · 1978 · 1979 · 1980 · 1984 ·
1985 · 1986 · 1987
Oklahoma State 2 1 1926 · 1976
Washington (St. Louis) 0 0

* Kansas would have won the 1960 title, but after found to be using an ineligible player they were forced to forfeit their victories over Missouri and Colorado, which meant that Missouri was awarded the 1960 Big Eight title.
** Oklahoma would have won the 1972 title, but after found to be using an ineligible player they were forced to forfeit their victories over Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma State, which meant that Nebraska was awarded the 1972 Big Eight title.

National championships won by MVIAA/Big Eight members[edit]

The following is a complete list of the 100 AIAW, NCAA and college football championships won by teams that were representing the Big Eight Conference in NCAA- or AIAW-recognized sports at the time of the championship.[23]

Football (11):
1950 – Oklahoma
1955 – Oklahoma
1956 – Oklahoma
1970 – Nebraska
1971 – Nebraska
1974 – Oklahoma
1975 – Oklahoma
1985 – Oklahoma
1990 – Colorado
1994 – Nebraska
1995 – Nebraska

Baseball (4):
1951 – Oklahoma
1954 – Missouri
1959 – Oklahoma State
1994 – Oklahoma

Men's Basketball (2):
1952 – Kansas
1988 – Kansas

Men's Cross Country (3):
1953 – Kansas
1989 – Iowa State
1994 – Iowa State

Women's Cross Country (5):
1975 – Iowa State
1976 – Iowa State
1977 – Iowa State
1978 – Iowa State
1981 – Iowa State

Men's Golf (9):
1963 – Oklahoma State
1976 – Oklahoma State
1978 – Oklahoma State
1980 – Oklahoma State
1983 – Oklahoma State
1987 – Oklahoma State
1989 – Oklahoma
1991 – Oklahoma State
1995 – Oklahoma State

Men's Gymnastics (14):
1971 – Iowa State
1973 – Iowa State
1974 – Iowa State
1977 – Oklahoma
1978 – Oklahoma
1979 – Nebraska
1980 – Nebraska
1981 – Nebraska
1982 – Nebraska
1983 – Nebraska
1988 – Nebraska
1990 – Nebraska
1991 – Oklahoma
1994 – Nebraska

Men's/Women's Skiing (14):
1959 – Colorado
1960 – Colorado
1972 – Colorado
1973 – Colorado
1974 – Colorado
1975 – Colorado
1976 – Colorado
1977 – Colorado
1978 – Colorado
1979 – Colorado
1982 – Colorado (men's)
1982 – Colorado (women's)
1991 – Colorado
1995 – Colorado

Men's Indoor Track (4):
1965 – Missouri
1966 – Kansas
1969 – Kansas
1970 – Kansas

Women's Indoor Track (3):
1982 – Nebraska
1983 – Nebraska
1984 – Nebraska

Men's Outdoor Track (3):
1959 – Kansas
1960 – Kansas
1970 – Kansas

Women's Volleyball (1):
1995 – Nebraska

Wrestling (27):
1928 – Oklahoma State
1933 – Iowa State
1936 – Oklahoma
1951 – Oklahoma
1952 – Oklahoma
1957 – Oklahoma
1958 – Oklahoma State
1959 – Oklahoma State
1960 – Oklahoma
1961 – Oklahoma State
1962 – Oklahoma State
1963 – Oklahoma
1964 – Oklahoma State
1965 – Iowa State
1966 – Oklahoma State
1968 – Oklahoma State
1969 – Iowa State
1970 – Iowa State
1971 – Oklahoma State
1972 – Iowa State
1973 – Iowa State
1974 – Oklahoma
1977 – Iowa State
1987 – Iowa State
1989 – Oklahoma State
1990 – Oklahoma State
1994 – Oklahoma State

National team titles by institution[edit]

The national championships listed below are for the final eight members of the conference, as of July 2014. Football, Helms, and equestrian titles are included in the total, but excluded from the column listing NCAA and AIAW titles.

Big Eight National Championships
School Total titles Titles as a member
of the Big Eight
NCAA and AIAW titles[23] Notes
Colorado 26 15 25 CU has 1 recognized football title and 1 AIAW title
Iowa State 18 18 18 ISU has 5 AIAW titles
Kansas 13 11 11 KU has 2 Helms basketball titles
Kansas State 0 0 0
Missouri 2 2 2
Nebraska 23 16 18 NU has 5 recognized football titles and 1 AIAW title
Oklahoma 27 19 20 OU has 7 recognized football titles
Oklahoma State 51 21 51

Racial integration[edit]

The history of the Big Eight Conference straddles the era of racial segregation in the United States, particularly as it relates to African Americans.

Before the formation of the conference, three African-American brothers at the University of Kansas are the first known to have participated in organized sports for a league school: Sherman Haney played baseball for KU beginning in 1888, followed by Grant Haney and then Ed Haney, the last of whom also played football at KU in 1893.[36] At the same time, the University of Nebraska football team had on its roster George Flippin, the son of a slave, beginning in 1891.[36] Nebraska's football team featured three more African-American players over the next 12 years. Notable among these NU players was Clinton Ross, who in 1911 apparently became the first African-American to participate in sport in the MVIAA, following the league's formation in 1907.[37]

Race relations in the United States, however, deteriorated in the early 20th century, and African-American athletes disappeared almost entirely from the conference in the half-century after Ross's final season at NU in 1913. The lone exception during the following decades was Iowa State. In 1923 Jack Trice became the first African-American athlete at Iowa State – and the only one in the conference. Tragically, Trice died two days after playing his second football game with Iowa State, due to injuries suffered during the game (against Minnesota). Jack Trice Stadium at Iowa State is now named in his honor. Trice was followed at Iowa State by Holloway Smith, who played football for ISU in 1926 and 1927. After Smith, the league's teams were all-white for more than two decades. (During this time all of the major professional sports leagues in the U.S. were also segregated.)

Modern era[edit]

The modern era of full integration of league sports began at Kansas State, with Harold Robinson. In 1949, Harold Robinson played football for Kansas State with an athletic scholarship. In doing so, Robinson broke the modern "color barrier" in conference athletics, and also became the first ever African-American athlete on scholarship in the conference.[38] Harold Robinson later received a letter of congratulations from Jackie Robinson, who had reintegrated major league baseball in 1947 while playing with the Brooklyn Dodgers.[38]

In the spring of 1951 the conference's baseball color barrier was broken by Kansas State's Earl Woods, and in the winter of 1951–1952 Kansas State's Gene Wilson and Kansas's LaVannes C. Squires jointly broke the conference color barrier in basketball.

Nebraska was the third league school to (re)integrate its athletic teams, with Charles Bryant joining the football team in 1952.[39] Iowa State would be next, with Harold Potts and Henry Philmon reintegrating the Cyclone football team in 1953.[40] The following season, Franklin Clarke became the first varsity African-American football player at the University of Colorado. In 1955, Homer Floyd became the first African-American to play football for the KU Jayhawks since Ed Haney in 1893. Sports teams at the remaining three conference schools (Oklahoma, Missouri and Oklahoma State) were subsequently all integrated by the end of the 1950s.

Conference facilities[edit]

This is a listing of the conference facilities as of the last year of the conference 1995-1996.

School Football stadium Capacity Basketball arena Capacity Baseball Stadium Capacity
Colorado Folsom Field 51,655 Coors Events Center 11,065 Concluded in 1980 N/A
Iowa State Jack Trice Stadium 43,000 Hilton Coliseum 14,356 Cap Timm Field (Concluded in 2001) 3,500
Kansas Memorial Stadium 50,250 Allen Fieldhouse 16,300 Hoglund Ballpark 2,500
Kansas State KSU Stadium 43,000 Bramlage Coliseum 13,500 Frank Myers Field 2,000
Missouri Faurot Field 62,023 Hearnes Center 13,611 Simmons Field 2,000
Nebraska Memorial Stadium 72,700 Bob Devaney Sports Center 13,595 Buck Beltzer Field 1,500
Oklahoma Owen Field 74,897 Lloyd Noble Center 11,528 L. Dale Mitchell Baseball Park 2,700
Oklahoma State Lewis Field 50,614 Gallagher-Iba Arena 6,381 Allie P. Reynolds Stadium 3,821

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "BigEightSports.com". Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Murphy, Austin (November 28, 2011). "Bordering On Hatred: Rivalry Week will once again deliver must-see matchups, but this year's Kansas-Missouri showdown is like no other: It may very well be the last". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  3. ^ "Big 12 Conference offices to be located in Dallas". Fort Scott, Kansas: The Fort Scott Tribune. Associated Press. February 3, 1996. 
  4. ^ http://www.bigeightsports.com/Schools/Iowa/Iowa.htm
  5. ^ "Oklahoma Refused". Lawrence, Kansas: Lawrence Journal-World, via Google News. May 31, 1919. 
  6. ^ "Oklahoma Aggies in Valley Group". Lawrence Journal-World, via Google News. December 6, 1924. 
  7. ^ "Big Six Grid Squads Take Field Tomorrow". The Milwaukee Sentinel, via Google News. Associated Press. September 16, 1928. 
  8. ^ Fullerton, Jr., Hugh (May 27, 1947). "Sports Roundup". Sarasota Herald-Tribune, via Google News. Associated Press. 
  9. ^ a b "Group To Ask NCAA Opinion". St. Petersburg Times, via Google News. Associated Press. May 19, 1957. 
  10. ^ Maisel, Ivan (February 12, 1994). "SEC OFFICIALLY LEAVES CFA; BIG EAST WILL FOLLOW SOON". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 25, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Politics played big part information of Big 12". The Deseret News. February 28, 1994. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Texas Giants Merge With Big 8". The Nevada Daily Mail, via Google News. Associated Press. February 27, 1994. 
  13. ^ "Presidents Decide on Name: Big 12". Lawrence Journal-World, via Google News. Associated Press. May 13, 1994. 
  14. ^ "Politics played big part in formation of Big 12". February 28, 1994. Retrieved August 26, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2010NCSE_Public_Tables_Endowment_Market_Values_Final.pdf
  16. ^ "Iowa State University fall enrollment soars to a record 28,682 students". Iowa State University. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  17. ^ http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2009_NCSE_Public_Tables_Endowment_Market_Values.pdf
  18. ^ KU Fall 2009 Enrollment
  19. ^ "Kansas State University Fact Book 2010" (English). Retrieved 2011-08-15. 
  20. ^ "New Semester Sets Records". Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  21. ^ "NU enrollment highest in 13 years; up for 5th consecutive year". nebraska.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  22. ^ http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/oklahoma-state-3170
  23. ^ a b c "Summary ALL DIVISIONS/COLLEGIATE TOTAL CHAMPIONSHIPS". Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  24. ^ http://chronicle.com/article/Colleges-Endowments-Earned-12/126071/
  25. ^ http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/21267.aspx
  26. ^ http://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/archives/facts/mascot.html
  27. ^ http://www.grinnell.edu/files/downloads/Grinnell%20College%20Football%20Season-by-Season%20Records_0.pdf
  28. ^ http://bearsports.wustl.edu/about/Pages/default.aspx
  29. ^ "Reaves Peters, Ex-Big 8 Head, Dies of Cancer". Kansas City, Missouri: Lawrence Journal-World. January 31, 1966. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  30. ^ http://www.bigten.org/sports/m-baskbl/spec-rel/022410aaa.html
  31. ^ http://www.neinassports.com/bio.html
  32. ^ http://www.goduke.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=4200&ATCLID=220764
  33. ^ http://www.big12sports.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=10410&ATCLID=1519866
  34. ^ "Big Eight Conference basketball history". Big 12 Conference. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Big Eight Conference football record book". Big 12 Conference. Retrieved August 13, 2013. 
  36. ^ a b http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/blackhistory2008/columns/story?id=3254974
  37. ^ http://unlhistory.unl.edu/xslt/xslt.php?&_xmlsrc=http://unlhistory.unl.edu/legacy/unl.00020/unl.00020.07.xml&_xslsrc=http://unlhistory.unl.edu/xslt/unlhistory.xsl
  38. ^ a b "Athlete Who Broke Big 12 Race Barrier Dies". CBS College Sports. May 13, 2006. Retrieved 2010-03-17. 
  39. ^ http://dataomaha.com/neb100/player/89
  40. ^ http://www.cyclones.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=10700&ATCLID=205377029

External links[edit]