Big Society Capital
||It has been suggested that Social Investment Wholesale Bank be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2012.|
Big Society Capital Limited (BSC) is a UK social investment bank started in 2011 which launched a £600m investment fund on 4 April 2012. It was conceived as the Big Society Bank (BSB) by the UK Government to help finance projects under the banner of the Big Society. Big Society Capital (BSC) is the world's first ever social investment institution of its kind, established by the Cabinet Office and launched as an independent organisation in April 2012.
BSC's aim is to grow the social investment market. It invests in bodies that provide finance and other support to social sector organisations – making it easier for social entrepreneurs to access the capital they need, and become sustainable. BSC will have up to £600 million in capital to invest: £400 million from England’s share of unclaimed assets and £200 million invested by four large retail banks.
First year of operations
One year into operation, BSC’s first annual report was published in May 2013 and is available for download on the Big Society Capital website. The report notes that over £56 million in investment has been committed so far to social finance intermediaries, which resulted in the funding of a range of social sector organisations. 
Unlike grants, social investment is given to social enterprises on the basis of both social and financial returns; as a result, longer-term finance streams are created. Over time, BSC is expected to leverage its capital at least three times over and significantly increase the amount of finance available to the social sector.
Big Society Bank
The government policy concept for the bank was known as the Big Society Bank (BSB). Launched by Prime Minister David Cameron in July 2010 the BSB was expected to begin operations in Q3 2011. Minister for the Cabinet Office Francis Maude claims that the BSB will be instrumental in creating new financial products such as social impact bonds and said that "it will be easier for social enterprises to fund themselves so they have cash flow". Its initial capital is to be provided from money from dormant UK bank accounts, and a further £200M from UK banks. The government also plans to encourage some of the £95bn of charitable assets to be invested in the bank.
The Bank's mission will "be to catalyse the growth of a sustainable social investment market, making it easier for social ventures to access the finance and advice they need – at all stages of their development.". It will be independent from Government and will act as a wholesaler, not investing directly in projects but "will invest in products developed by intermediaries and encourage others to do likewise"
The principle of the Big Society Bank has met with criticism from diverse groups including banks and charities. Giving evidence to the Public Administration Select Committee, Thomas Hughes-Hallett, chief executive of the Marie Curie Cancer Care said: "it is potentially setting up a system to encourage vulnerable charities to borrow money." In January 2011 Banco Santander who have major retail banking interests in the UK, withdrew from Project Merlin negotiations with the Government and is expected not to make any direct payments to the BSB.
The FT suggests that it is "a tiny acorn from which it is far from certain that a giant oak will grow. But there are some very exciting ideas ...which could help society and government tackle issues that have always struggled to obtain funding in the past"
The Big Society Trust is the holding company, and The Big Society Foundation is for charitable donations.
- Big Society fund launches with £600m to invest BBC news 4 April 2012
- Big Society Capital FAQ [www.bigsocietycapital.com] 4 April 2012
- Prime Minister launches the Big Society Bank Cabinet Office 19 July 2010
- Big Society Bank to give out first funds by next April Civil Society 16 June 2010
- Patrick Wintour, political editor. "Francis Maude vows to unlock £78bn in charitable assets for big society | Society". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Big Society Bank could back social ISAs for everyday savers Cabinet Office 14 February 2011
- Growing the Social Investment Market Cabinet Office 14 February 2011
- Philanthropy Review chair slams Big Society Bank Civil Society 19 January 2011
- David Ainsworth (17 January 2011). "Santander quits talks affecting the Big Society Bank". Third Sector. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Big Society Bank: Just the facts Financial Times 14 February 2011
- Big Society Bank faces awkward commercial questions Management Today 14 February 2011