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Town council logo and de facto town arms
Biggleswade town centre
Biggleswade shown within Bedfordshire
|OS grid reference|
|Unitary authority||Central Bedfordshire|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
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Biggleswade is a market town and civil parish located on the River Ivel in Bedfordshire, England. It has grown in population by nearly 10% over the past decade, primarily due to good transport links, being situated along the A1 road between London and the North, as well as having a railway station on the main rail link North from London (the East Coast Main Line). New housing developments mean that expansion is predicted to continue into the foreseeable future.
Located about 40 miles (60 km) north of Central London and 20 miles (30 km) west-south-west of Cambridge, the fastest train to London, King's Cross, takes 35 minutes, while a car journey to central Cambridge also takes about 35 minutes. In 2011 the population of the town was about 16,550. The Biggleswade civil parish also includes the nearby hamlet of Holme, Bedfordshire.
The area around Biggleswade is thought to have been inhabited from around 10,000 BC, with arrowheads dating from this period found in the region. In Roman times, a loop road known as the White Way passed through Biggleswade (possibly along the course of the present-day Drove Road), linking up with the Ermine Way at Godmanchester.
Biggleswade is mentioned in the Domesday Book. The entry reads Bichelesuuade/Pichelsuuade: Ralph de l'Isle. 2 mills
In the 5th century AD, Saxon invaders settled here – the name Biggleswade is thought to be derived from Biceil, an Anglo-Saxon personal name and Waed, the Saxon word for ford. The spelling "Bykleswade" and its variations occur in Law records of the 15th century, e.g. in 1430.
In 2001 a gold coin bearing the name Coenwulf was discovered at Biggleswade on a footpath beside the River Ivel. The 4.33 g (0.15 oz) mancus, worth about 30 silver pennies, is only the eighth known Anglo-Saxon gold coin dating to the mid to late Anglo-Saxon period. The coin's inscription, "DE VICO LVNDONIAE", indicates that it was minted in London. Initially sold to American collector Allan Davisson for £230,000 at an auction held by Spink auction house in October of that year, the British Government subsequently put in place an export ban in the hope of saving it for the British public. In February 2006 the coin was bought by the British Museum for £357,832 with the help of funding from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the British Museum Friends making it the most expensive British coin purchased until that date.
In 1132, Henry I granted the manor of Biggleswade to Bishop Alexander – Alexander the Magnificent – of Lincoln to help endow Lincoln Cathedral. The town was granted a charter to hold a market during the reign of King John (1196–1216) – a market is still held in the market place in the centre of the town every Saturday. The church is dedicated to St. Andrew. Biggleswade Castle existed in earlier times.
On 16 June 1785 there was a large fire in the town. The fire started at the Crown Inn and spread rapidly through the neighbouring streets. By the time the fire had been brought under control, nearly one-third of the town had been destroyed, including 103 houses leaving 332 people homeless. A national appeal was launched to raise funds for the many people who had lost their homes and their livelihoods. In the local parish church there is a stained glass window depicting the fire.
The Great Northern Railway opened in 1850, and Biggleswade was for a time the first and only town in Bedfordshire to have a mainline station. Later it was one of three towns in the county to have one (on the East Coast Main Line), along with Bedford and Dunstable.
The town was bypassed by road in 1961.
Buses in the town were provided by Eastern National until 1952 when the western division of Eastern National was handed over to United Counties. The company had a garage in Shortmead Street opposite Ivel Gardens until 1989 when it was sold for redevelopment into flats. United Counties was acquired by Stagecoach in November 1987 and moved to the current site in Hitchin Street in 1989, which was acquired from Charles Cook. Other bus operators based in Biggleswade included Charles Cook European Travel who operated in the area between 1947 and 1998 and Fairway Coaches although both of these operators have ceased to operate.
Traditionally, Biggleswade has been a vegetable- and produce-growing area with trains often taking daily loads of vegetables to London's produce markets. Even though much of this has now stopped, Bedfordshire Growers, based on the outskirts of the town, still supplies major supermarkets with UK-grown potatoes and onions.
Biggleswade is also the base of the Jordan's cereals business who produce their own brand of breakfast Muesli, Country Crisp and Crunchy Oats and Frusli cereal bars which are sold across Europe as well as in Canada. There used to be a Felix cat food factory located on Potton Road. However, this moved away in 1970. There also used to be a glass bottle factory on Brunts Lane which was destroyed by fire in 2000.
Other goods which have been made in Biggleswade include Berkeley Caravans and Sportscars, who had a factory in the town, which was later used by Kayser Bondor who made ladies' underwear and stockings in the town until the mid-1990s. The factory was demolished and is now a housing estate, with roads named Berkeley Close and Kayser Court after the businesses that used the factory.
Other large factories included Maythorns who were coach builders. Their large site in the town centre was acquired by Deleney Galley and was latterly Gloster Saro, who made heat insulation materials for aircraft (including Concorde). Gloster Saro was renamed Insumat and relocated to London Road trading estate. It has now left the area. The original factory, which was owned by Mid Beds Council was demolished in 1987. The site of this factory was converted into shops and a car park.
A much larger employer in the town was Cincinnati Milacron who had a large site between Dells Lane and the Railway, the demolition of this factory took place in the mid-1980s and it now forms the 'Poets' estate (Tennyson Ave etc.).
Biggleswade had four long-serving motor dealers, A. W. Watkin were agents for locally made Vauxhall cars and Bedford lorries for many years and had a large showroom and repair site in Shortmead Street, but the dealership closed in 2002 and the site was redeveloped into houses which are in a road named Watkin Walk. The other dealer was the Mantle's business which originally had a site for Austin cars near the old Swan Hotel in the town. Mantle's moved to a larger site opposite the old work house on London Road where they sold British Leyland and later Austin Rover cars. They also had a caravan dealership. Mantle's still sell cars here, but since the collapse of MG Rover now sells Mitsubishi and Ford cars. The caravan business closed in the early 1990s. Ford cars were sold by Jack Bygraves from their dealership on the junction of Drove Road & London Road. Jack Bygraves ceased to be Ford agents in the early 1990s, although the showroom changed little and they continued to trade as a Ford specialist selling 2nd hand Ford cars.
Other car franchises in the town included Saffron Road Motor Co (Renault) who ceased in the early 1990s, Owen Godfrey established as an Austin agent but latterly a Fiat dealer before the company ceased trading in the 1980s. Biggleswade Motor Co owned the petrol station and car garage opposite Owen Godfrey and were Peugeot/Talbot main agents before closing down in the late 1990s. The sites used by these main agents have all been used by second hand motor dealers. A Hyundai dealer traded on London Road and also had a small petrol franchise, the car dealership closed and the site became a larger petrol station in the late 1990s.
The town has two petrol stations, a Texaco garage on London Road and the Sainsburys filling station at the other end of town. Previously petrol stations had been established on the Owen Godfrey site, Biggleswade Motor Co (Total franchise) plus Shell franchises at either end of the town on the A1 and a site next to the block of offices by the rail station.
The town had one motorbike dealer, Bryants who were based in Shortmead Street. Their site was also shared by Sid Skinner who sold caravans and briefly imported Mahindra vehicles before closing down.
Sport and leisure
The town is mentioned twice in the diaries of Samuel Pepys. On 22 July 1661, Pepys stopped off in Biggleswade (called 'Bigglesworth' by Pepys) to buy a pair of warm woollen stockings. John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington often refers to the town and the Sun Inn. There are six churches in Biggleswade, which are represented by the umbrella organisation Churches Together in Biggleswade.
Nearby is the Shuttleworth Collection of vintage aeroplanes, sometimes referred to as Biggleswade Airfield.
Biggleswade, as part of Central Bedfordshire, has a three-tier schooling system with lower schools catering for ages between 5 to 9, middle schools from 9 to 13 and Stratton Upper School continuing education up and into Sixth Form. Two of the local schools, Stratton Upper School and Biggleswade Academy, attained Academy status in 2011.
List of schools:
- Stratton Upper School and Community College (formerly Stratton Grammar Technical School)
- Biggleswade Academy (formerly Holmemead Middle School)
- Edward Peake Middle School
- St Andrew's Lower School 
- Lawnside Lower School
- Southlands Lower School
- Ivel Valley School, a special school for children with moderate or severe learning difficulties
- Erlensee, Germany since 2000.
- Dan Albone, inventor, manufacturer and cyclist, credited with making the first practical farm tractor, 'The Ivel Agricultural Motor'.
- Chris Roycroft-Davis, journalist
- Philip E. High, science fiction writer
- Charles Penrose, radio comedian and singer of The Laughing Policeman.
- Henry Ryland, Pre-Raphaelite painter born in Biggleswade in 1856.
- Mary Tealby, one of the founders of the Battersea Dogs Home, is buried in St. Andrew's Churchyard.
- Stevie V, dance act famous for the song Dirty Cash (Money Talks), that reached No. 2 in the UK Top 40 in 1990.
- Richard Walker, angling journalist, author and photographer.
- John Buglass, archaeologist
- Pam Rhodes, novelist and BBC Songs of Praise presenter
- Gurpareet Bains, chef and food writer, attended Stratton Upper School in the town
- National Statistics Online
- Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40 / 677, http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT1/H6/CP40no677/aCP40no677fronts/IMG_0138.htm; 7th entry, mentioned as the place where William Derlynge lived
- "Museum's £350,000 deal for coin", BBC.
- EMC Number 2004.167, Early Medieval Corpus, Fitzwilliam Museum.
- "Ancient coin could fetch £150,000", BBC.
- Healey, "Museum Buying Rare Coin to Keep It in Britain".
-  'Gold mancus of Coenwulf' on the British Museum website
-  Purchase of the Coenwulf coin in The Guardian
- Bedfordshire Growers website
- Jordans: What we're about
- Biggleswade Swimming Club website
- Members Guide 2012, published by CPRE, 2012
- "Churches Together in Biggleswade". Churches Together in Biggleswade. Retrieved 18 March 2012.