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The bigha (Hindi: बीघा, Assamese: বিঘা, Bengali: বিঘা) is a unit of measurement of area of a land, commonly used in Nepal, Bangladesh and in a few states of India including Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan etc. The precise size of a bigha appears to vary considerably. Sources have given measurements ranging from 1,500 to 6,771 square metres (16,150 to 72,880 sq ft), but in several smaller pockets, it can be as high as 12,400 square metres (133,000 sq ft).
Uses in India
The bigha is a traditional unit of land in several parts of India, with land purchases still being undertaken in this unit. However, it varies in size from one part of India to another. It is usually less than one acre (0.4 hectares), but can extend up to 3 acres (1.2 hectares). Various states and often parts within states have different sizes attributed to the bigha.
- In Assam, a bigha is 14,400 square feet (1,340 m2), subdivided into five katha. Each katha consists of 20 lecha with a lecha covering 144 square feet (13.4 m2) in area, and hence each katha is 2,880 square feet (268 m2) in area, although this may vary.
- In Bihar, different areas use different sizes to define the bigha. Near the capital, Patna, one katha is equivalent to 20 lecha, equating to 1,361 square feet (126.4 m2). One katha is further subdivided in 20 dhur, hence, each dhur is approximately 68.06 square feet (6.323 m2).
- In Himachal Pradesh, five bigha is equal to one acre (0.0809 hectare).
- In Punjab, six bigha is equal to one acre (0.1012 hectare).
- In central India, bighas were standardized at 3025 yd2((2529.3 m2) or 5/8 acre (0.2529 hectare).
- In Madhya Pradesh, one Katha = 600 square feet (56 m2).
- In Rajasthan, one bigha is equal to 1,618.7 square metres (17,424 sq ft).
- In Uttar Pradesh, one bigha can mean different things to people in different areas of the state. In the more developed western areas of the state one bigha is either equal to five biswa (one biswa is 125 square metres (1,350 sq ft) or 6.75 biswa. In the remainder of Uttar Pradesh, 1 bigha is divided into 20 biswas. Each Biswas is 125 m2 or 154.32 yd2 (hence one Bigha is 0.25 Hectare (or 2500 m2 or 301 yd2(). 7 Bisa ~ 1 Bigha (Kaccha)(In Western UP)IN u.p 1 acres = 2 biga
- In Uttar Pradesh (West) the measurements are slightly different: one Bigha=20 20 bishwa=60 Decimal=2428.80 m2
- In Uttarakhand, 1 Bigha is subdivided into 19 Bissas or 12 Nali. In Imperial and SI Units, each Bigha is 968 yd2 or 800 m2.
- In West Bengal, the Bigha was standardized under British colonial rule at 1600 yd2 (0.1338 hectare or 0.3306 acre); this is often interpreted as being 1/3 acre (it is precisely 40⁄121 acre). In metric units, a bigha is hence 1333 m2.
Uses in Bangladesh
Measurements of area in terms of bigha
- 1 Bigha (বিঘা) = 20 katha (কাঠা) (14,400 sq ft or 1,337.8 sq m)
- 1 Katha (কাঠা) = 720 sq ft (66.89 sq m)
- 1 Acre (একর) = 3 bigha (বিঘা) 0.5 katha (কাঠা) (4,840 sq yd or 43,560 sq ft)
Use in Nepal
A Bigha is a customary unit of measurement in Nepal, equal to about 6,773 square meters. Officially, most measurement of lands use units of either Bigha (in Terai region) or Ropani (Nepali: रोपनी) (in Hilly regions). Metric system is very seldom used officially in measuring area of Land.
Measurement of area in terms of bigha
- 1 Bigha (बिघा)= 20 Kattha (कठ्ठा) (about 6,772.63 m² or 72900 sq.ft.)
- 1 Kattha (कठ्ठा) = 20 Dhur (धुर) (about 338.63 m² or 3,645 sq.ft.)
- 1 Dhur (धुर) = 16.93 m² or 182.25 sq.ft.
- 1 Kanwa (कनवा) = 1/16 Dhur (धुर)
- 1 Kanaee (कनई) = 1/16 Kanwa (कनवा) [Kanwa is largely obsolete and is used only when tiny lands are very precious]
- 1 Bigha = 13.31 Ropani (रोपनी)
- 1 Ropani = 16 aana (आना) (about 508.72 m² or 5476 sq. ft.)
- 1 aana = 4 paisa (पैसा) (about 31.80 m² or 342.25 sq.ft.)
- 1 paisa = 4 daam (दाम) (7.95 m²)
- 1 Bigha = 6,772.63 m²
For the different Ropani system from the one above
- 1 Bigha = .677263 hectare = 1.6735 acre = 13.31 Ropani
- 1 Hectare = 19.965 Ropani
- 19.965 Ropani = 1 Hectare
- 1 Ropani = 508.83771 m²
Uses in Bihar, India
The following measure of land existed in Bihar:
A Kattha (also spelled Cottah) is a unit of area approximately equal to 1/20th of a Bigha (1361.25 ft² or 126.46 m²).
A Kattha is approximately 1361.25 square foot or 1/20 of a Bigha. It is still in use in much of Bangladesh and India.
1 Kattha=3.125 decimal
1 decimal=435.6 sq ft/436 sq.ft
1 Kattah (or Cottah) = 1361.25 Sq ft
1 Kattah (or Cottah) = 126.46 Sq meter
20 Kattah (or Cottah) = 1 Bigha
1.6 Bigha = 1 Acre approx. (154,880 sq yards)
And related with Gonda measure of land in Noakhali, Bangladesh:
4 Kora = 1 Gonda
20 Gonda = 1 Kani
80 Kora = 1 Kani
120 Decimal = 1 Kani
Use in Fiji