Bihar Sharif

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Bihar
बिहार शरीफ़
City
Bihar is located in Bihar
Bihar
Bihar
Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51
Country India
State Bihar
Division Patna
District Nalanda district
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 331,972
Languages
 • Spoken Magahi, Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 8031 XX
Telephone code +91-6112
Vehicle registration BR 21

Bihar Sharif is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India.

History[edit]

The ancient Odantapuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. Also, Bihar was the headquarters of the Magadha kingdom in the medieval period. Later on the headquarters was shifted from Bihar to Patana (current Patna) by Sher Shah Suri and the whole Magadha region was called Bihar.

It served as the capital of the Pala dynasty (10th century AD) and contains a 5th-century AD Gupta pillar also Bihar Sharif was the seat of Muslim Governors during Mughal period. Bihar Sharif is noted for its shrine of the Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri (R.A) and there is Urs happens every year in Badi Dargah. Nearby lie the remains of Odantapuri (q.v.), a great vihara, or college of Buddhist learning, from which the name Bihar was derived. Bihar Sharif is also famous for Langot Fair at Baba Maniram Akhara.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick settled in Bihar Sharif (India) with his family, and ruled over the region until his assassination on Monday, 13th Zul-Hijjah, 753 Hijri (1353 AD). Syed Ibrahim Mallick`s tomb is over a hill known as Pir Pahari in Bihar Sharif. Descendants of Syed Ibrahim Mallick include the Surname title “Mallicks” from Bihar, India, villages and towns in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal, Nawada, Jamui and Sheikhpura. However, the names of these villages are still of historical importance and for the purpose of record and identification of the Syed “Mallicks” whose forefathers hailed from these villages. Syed and Mallick are not different, Syed's family is used surname title "Mallicks" in Bihar.If syed and Mallick are no different then how come the mallicks of Bihar province are notified as Other Backward Caste; and not the Syeds of Bihar province by the provincial government.the Mallicks of Uttar Pradesh have no relation with the Mallicks of Bihar.The Mallick of Uttar Pradesh are actually Teli(banya)from amongst Muslims. Hindus also use surname of Malick with different spellings.

At the time of Sultan Tughlaq (1290 AD-1351 AD), even though the State of Bihar was under the control of Delhi, for all practical purposes, its rulers were autonomous. The Sultan received numerous complaints against the Raja Bithal, he was a rebel against the Sultan of Delhi.

The Sultan sent his general, Syed Ibrahim Mallick, to punish Raja Bithal. After a fierce battle, the Raja was killed and his army was defeated. The conquest of Bihar was a remarkable achievement, and on this occasion, the Sultan conferred upon Syed Ibrahim Mallick the title of “Madarul Mulk” means Mallick or Saif-o-Daulat (Administrator and King of Sword and Wealth). It is recorded that the Sultan was so jubilant by this victory, that in his court he himself came down to receive and greet Syed Ibrahim Mallick. After an exchange of greetings, Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq said to Syed Ibrahim Mallick in Persian (the official language at the time) “Mallick Baya, Be-nashin” meaning “O King come and sit next to me” and led Syed Ibrahim Mallick to his seat. The Sultan bestowed this great honor upon him. Since then, he was called “Mallick Baya”. The Sultan appointed Syed Ibrahim Mallick as the governor of the state of Bihar. He chose to settle with his family and relatives in Bihar Sharif.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick was a distinguished military general, and an eminent Sufi (saint) as well. He was a descendent of Hazrat Ali Murtaza (Karram'Allah Wajhahu) and when the Abbasyds persecuted his ancestors, they escaped to Ghazni. He was born and raised in Ghazni. Syed Ibrahim Mallick received his education and military training in Ghazni and then he came to Delhi to serve under the tutelage of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq, who was famous for his magnificent patronage of intellectuals, scholars, and talented military generals of his time. Besides Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick, Ibn Batuta, the famous traveler and pioneer explorer, and other people like him came from all over the world to serve the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

In Bihar, Syed Ibrahim Mallick led many expeditions such as Deora and Khatangi etc., and defeated Raja Baithal and was appointed Governor of Bihar by Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick also served as Governor of Bihar and general for a few years from 1351- 1357 AD during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Cousin of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. During his reign, he fought his last pitched battles with Raja Hans Kumar and conquer Rohtasgarh Fort.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick or Bayyu one of the Great saints of Bihar. The descendants of the eight children of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya multiplied over 660 years and constituted a significant portion of the Muslim community in Bihar. The tomb is said to have built by Syed Daud Mallick, The eldest of the seven sons of the saint, who is also buried inside the tomb. The tomb of Syed Ibrahim Mallick is located in Bihar Sharif, at the hilltop of Pir Pahari, one mile west of the town. The mausoleum is an extraordinary structure of a rare quality of bricks, which have withstood the ravages of time and the unrelenting devastation of weather for the last 660 years.

After 660 years, the structure stands as if it were built in recent days. Besides Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya’s tomb, there are 10 graves of his wife, sons, daughters, grandson, nephew and brother inside the dome. Names of this sons Badruddin Mallick, Sadaruddin Mallick, Mohammad Mohsin Mallick, Syed Daud Mallick, one daughter Syeda Bibi Munehiya, one Nephew, one Brother, one Grandson, one Wife & two sons of the saint Mohammad Ilyas Mallick or Syed Suleman Mallick are buried out side of the tomb. But Mallick Mohammad Usman is Died in Jalalabad, Kabul (Afghanistan). The tombs of other family members and companions of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya are lying on the east, west and south sides of the mausoleum.

Due to the high respect and reverence given to the tomb of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya for generations, no one is buried on the north side of the dome. The south side of the burial place is still reserved only for the Syed “Mallicks” family members who wish to be buried on Pir Pahari.

Geography[edit]

It is located 75 km from Patna, the capital of Bihar state. It is 13 km from the ruins at Nalanda. It is situated at Hiranya Prabhat Parvat ( recently known as Badi Pahri)and bank of River Panchanan. The land of Bihar Sharif is very fertile. Alluvial soil is mostly deposited by several rivers of this area. There are many local rivers such as Dhoba, Panchanan, Goithva, Zerain, etc.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is the prime activity although tourism in nearby places like Nalanda, Rajgir and Pawapuri boosts economy of this town very much. This town supplies agricultural products like cauliflower, potato, mustard seed and other vegetables to neighbouring states. Although the economy is mainly based on agriculture products, footwear and garments are also manufactured at household industries.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[1] Bihar sharif had a population of 296,889. The sex ratio(per 1000 males) is 916. The overall literacy rate is 74.80% with male literacy rate being 83.42% and female literacy rate being 65.39%.

Transport[edit]

The town is well connected by road to major cities like Patna, Rajgir, Nalanda, Harnaut, Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Dhanbad, koderma, Kolkata, Gaya, Hazaribag, Jahanabad, Bakhtiyarpur, Barh, Ramgarh. Being the district headquarters, there is a regular bus service to all major hubs in the region.

Bihar Sharif is located on the broad gauge branch line connecting Bakhtiyarpur and Tilaiya via Rajgir. The town is served by a direct daily superfast train to New Delhi (Shramjeevi Express). Besides there are numerous passenger connections to the state capital Patna and Rajgir from where rest of India is well connected.
Very recently the Fatuha-Islampur branch line has been connected with this route. Extension of passenger services to inter-link Bihar Sharif with Hilsa, Sheikhpura and Gaya is partially started in 2013.

The nearest airport is Patna Airport. Domestic flights to major Indian cities are available from there.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.