Bihar Sharif

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Bihar
बिहार शरीफ़ (विहार श्री)
City
Bihar is located in Bihar
Bihar
Bihar
Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51
Country India
State Bihar
Division Patna
District Nalanda district
Elevation 60 m (200 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 331,972
Languages
 • Spoken Magahi, Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 8031 XX
Telephone code +91-6112
Vehicle registration BR 21

Bihar Sharif (Vihar Shree) is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India.

History[edit]

The city name owes it to its Budhhist origin, Vihar(meaning Buddhist Monastery). On there travelogue to Nalanda University, Buddhist monks and scholars had a last stop in Vihars here, and City was called Vihar Shree ( meaning place of greatest monastery). The ancient Odantapuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. City still has remains of old Buddhist heritage, which can be found in Broken Idols of Buddha and Mahavira in Nalanda Museum and several temples. Nalanda College in Bihar Sharif and Garhpar Locality are the areas where monastery was located.

Also, Bihar was the headquarters of the Magadha kingdom in the medieval period. Later on the headquarters was shifted from Bihar to Patana (current Patna) by Sher Shah Suri and the whole Magadha region was called Bihar.

Four kms sauth from City is Pawapuri, the Nirwan sthal of Lord Mahavira.

In 1193 when Ikhtiyar ad-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji was on conquest of Bihar, he came to dsetroy Nalanda University. On en-route he destroyed Buddhist monastries of Bakhtiyarpur, and muslim soldiers he left there named place Bakhtiarpur. After Bakhtiarpur he came to Bihar Sree. He completely destroyed Odantpuri and Buddhist Viharas before leaving for Nalanda. He converted small group of people to Islam and left few of his men here. They renamed place as Bihar Sharif. Khilji moved to Bengal and Assam after conquering Bihar.

Later local Bundela Rajputs regained control of city from muslims few years after Khilji left. Bundela Rajputs ruled area until Delhi Sultan sent Syed Ibrahim Mallik with an Army of afghans.

It served as the capital of the Pala dynasty (10th century AD) and contains a 5th-century AD Gupta pillar also Bihar Sharif was the seat of Muslim Governors during Mughal period. Bihar Sharif is noted for its shrine of the Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri (R.A) and there is Urs happens every year in Badi Dargah. Nearby lie the remains of Odantapuri (q.v.). Bihar Sharif is also famous for Langot Fair at Baba Maniram Akhara.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick settled in Bihar Sharif (India) with his family, and ruled over the region until his assassination on Monday, 13th Zul-Hijjah, 753 Hijri (1353 AD). Syed Ibrahim Mallick`s tomb is over a hill known as Pir Pahari in Bihar Sharif by Muslim residents of city. Descendants of Syed Ibrahim Mallick include the Surname title “Mallicks” from Bihar, India, villages and towns in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Jehanabad, Arwal, Nawada, Jamui and Sheikhpura.

At the time of Sultan Tughlaq (1290 AD-1351 AD), even though the State of Bihar was under the control of Delhi, for all practical purposes, its Bundela Rajput rulers were autonomous. Local muslims called upon Sultan of Delhi to destroy Rajputs and Raja Baithal.

The Sultan sent his general, Syed Ibrahim Mallick. After a fierce battle, outnumbered Raja army lost, Raja was killed and his army was defeated. The conquest of Bihar was a remarkable achievement, and on this occasion, the Sultan conferred upon Syed Ibrahim Mallick the title of “Madarul Mulk” means Mallick or Saif-o-Daulat (Administrator and King of Sword and Wealth). It is recorded that the Sultan was so jubilant by this victory, that in his court he himself came down to receive and greet Syed Ibrahim Mallick. After an exchange of greetings, Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq said to Syed Ibrahim Mallick in Persian (the official language at the time) “Mallick Baya, Be-nashin” meaning “O King come and sit next to me” and led Syed Ibrahim Mallick to his seat. The Sultan bestowed this great honor upon him. Since then, he was called “Mallick Baya”. The Sultan appointed Syed Ibrahim Mallick as the governor of the state of Bihar. He chose to settle with his family and relatives in Bihar Sharif.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick was a distinguished military general, and an eminent Sufi (saint) as well. He was a descendant of Hazrat Ali Murtaza (Karram'Allah Wajhahu) and when the Abbasyds persecuted his ancestors, they escaped to Ghazni. He was born and raised in Ghazni. Syed Ibrahim Mallick received his education and military training in Ghazni and then he came to Delhi to serve under the tutelage of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq, who was famous for his magnificent patronage of intellectuals, scholars, and talented military generals of his time. Besides Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick, Ibn Batuta, the famous traveler and pioneer explorer, and other people like him came from all over the world to serve the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

In Bihar, Syed Ibrahim Mallick led many expeditions such as Deora and Khatangi etc., and defeated Raja Baithal and was appointed Governor of Bihar by Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick also served as Governor of Bihar and general for a few years from 1351- 1357 AD during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Cousin of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. During his reign, he fought his last pitched battles with Raja Hans Kumar and conquer Rohtasgarh Fort.

The descendants of the eight children of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya multiplied over 660 years through multiple marriages and forced conversion of population and constituted a significant portion of the Muslim community in Bihar.

Besides Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya’s tomb, there are 10 graves of his wife, sons, daughters, grandson, nephew and brother inside the dome. Names of this sons Badruddin Mallick, Sadaruddin Mallick, Mohammad Mohsin Mallick, Syed Daud Mallick, one daughter Syeda Bibi Munehiya, one Nephew, one Brother, one Grandson, one Wife & two sons of the saint Mohammad Ilyas Mallick or Syed Suleman Mallick are buried out side of the tomb. But Mallick Mohammad Usman is Died in Jalalabad, Kabul (Afghanistan). The tombs of other family members and companions of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya are lying on the east, west and south sides of the mausoleum.

Mountain on which mausoleum is located is now called Bari Pahari and in Govt records also it is Bari Pahari.

Pir Pahari mausoleum was built after destroying Hindu Temple of Sun God on Hilltop. Inside the presincts of Pir Pahari mausoleum is 5th A.D. Gupta pillar. Temple and Later mausoleum which could be seen from ten kms away from city. In 1992 after Babri demolition, there was attempt by Local Hindus to destroy Pir Pahari. Local Hindus built a temple on hilltop nearby to mausoleum.

Geography[edit]

It is located 75 km from Patna, the capital of Bihar state. It is 13 km from the ruins at Nalanda. It is situated at Hiranya Prabhat Parvat ( recently known as Badi Pahri)and bank of River Panchanan. The land of Bihar Sharif is very fertile. Alluvial soil is mostly deposited by several rivers of this area. There are many local rivers such as Dhoba, Panchanan, Goithva, Zerain, etc.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is the prime activity although tourism in nearby places like Nalanda, Rajgir and Pawapuri boosts economy of this town very much. This town supplies agricultural products like cauliflower, potato, mustard seed and other vegetables to neighbouring states. Although the economy is mainly based on agriculture products, footwear and garments are also manufactured at household industries.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[1] Bihar sharif had a population of 296,889. The sex ratio(per 1000 males) is 916. The overall literacy rate is 74.80% with male literacy rate being 83.42% and female literacy rate being 65.39%. Hindu form 63% population of city. Muslims are 37%. Among cast groups Kurmi, Koyri, Yadav, Baniya and Muslim groups have significant population. Koyri and Baniyas are old settlers while others have moved from villages around city.

Transport[edit]

The town is well connected by road to major cities like Patna, Rajgir, Nalanda, Harnaut, Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Dhanbad, koderma, Kolkata, Gaya, Hazaribag, Jahanabad, Bakhtiyarpur, Barh, Ramgarh. Being the district headquarters, there is a regular bus service to all major hubs in the region.

Bihar Sharif is located on the broad gauge branch line connecting Bakhtiyarpur and Tilaiya via Rajgir. The town is served by a direct daily superfast train to New Delhi (Shramjeevi Express). Besides there are numerous passenger connections to the state capital Patna and Rajgir from where rest of India is well connected.
Very recently the Fatuha-Islampur branch line has been connected with this route. Extension of passenger services to inter-link Bihar Sharif with Hilsa, Sheikhpura and Gaya is partially started in 2013.

The nearest airport is Patna Airport. Domestic flights to major Indian cities are available from there.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.