|Date||March 18, 1974- June 25, 1975 (emergency)|
|Causes||corruption in public life|
|Goals||dissolution of Bihar legislative assembly|
|Methods||Protest march, Street protest, riot, hunger strike, strike|
|Result||not succeeded in goals, emergency imposed|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian Socialist Jayaprakash Narayan against misrule of and corruption in the government of Bihar. It later turned against Indira Gandhi government at Centre. It was also called Total Revolution Movement and JP Movement later in reference to Jayaprakash Narayan.
When Nav Nirman movement resulted in forced resignation of Gujarat government, student protests had already been started in Bihar. Unlike Nav Nirman movement, political student outfits like Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP)connected with BJP, Samajwadi Yuvajan Sabha (SYS) connected with Samajwadi Party and Lok Dal took active participation. All India Students Federation (AISF) connected with CPI was also involved.
Opposition parties called state wide strike right from 1973, all political parties excluding Congress resulted police firings at Bhopal the capital of Madhya Pradesh caused 8 youth students killed on 17 August 1973 owing to their participation in the JP Movement. The Raina Enquiry Commission also confirm that the action of the then Congress Government in the State of Madhya Pradesh was in excess and the Govt. had not handled the situation properly. on 21 January 1974. On 18 February 1974, Patna University Students Union organised convention which invited student leaders from whole state. They formed Bihar Chhatra Sangharsh Samiti(BCSS) to spearhead the agitation. Lalu Prasad Yadav was chosen as a president. Their demands were related to education and foods in hostels.
BCSS called for a gherao at Bihar Legislative Assembly during budget session on 18 March 1974. They blocked all roads to assembly and damaged government properties, including telephone exchange and the residence of former education minister Ramanand Singh which set on fire. Chief Minister Abdul Ghafoor convinced student leaders that he would look into demands. But students at colleges and universities keep protesting including damaging properties at some places. Three students died in police firing in Patna provoked student across Bihar. BCSS declared state wide strike on 23 March. Meanwhile Jayaprakash Narayan visited Gujarat to witness Nav Nirman movement on 11 February and declared his intension to lead on 30 March 1974. BCSS approached Jayaprakash Narayan to lead the agitation  while he was withdrawing himself from Bhoodan movement.He agreed.
On 1 April 1974, Indira Gandhi attacked Jayaprakash Narayan for demanding outcast of elected government. A silent students procession of 10000 was held in Patna on 8 April. On 12 April more 12 agitator died in police firing at Gaya during Paralyse the Government programme. Students also demanded dissolution of Bihar Legislative Assembly. People demonstrated by blocking roads such as NH 31 and imposing self curfew. Jayaprakash Narayan went to Delhi and attended a conference of Citizen for Democracy, an organization demanding civil righLts, held on 13 and 14 April. During May 1974 various students and peoples organisation kept demanding dissolution of assembly and also tried for forced resignation but not succeed.
On 5 June, he told people at Patna rally to organise protest at Bihar Legislative Assembly resulted in arrest of 1600 agitators and 65 student leaders by 1 July 1974. He advocated a program of social transformation by participation of youth in social activities. He called it Total Revolution (Sampurna Kranti) Movement. Protests and closure of colleges and universities were also happened during 15 July. Some colleges started after that and examinations were held. Jayaprakash Narayan told students to boycott examination but many students appeared in examinations. He called for three day state wide strike starting from 3 October and addressed massive public gathering on 6 October.
Demanding resignation of MLAs started on 4 November same as Nav Nirman movement but 42 out of 318 MLAs had resigned before that including 33 of opposition parties. Many MLAs refused to resign also. Government tried hard to stop people to reach Patna for movement and also laathi charged people.
On 18 November, at massive gathering at Patna, he spoke to outcast Congress government of Indira Gandhi. Indira Gandhi dragged this conflict to election arena and told to wait until next election. He realised the importance of fighting within democratic system rather than party less democracy so he contacted opposition parties which finally resulted in formation of Janata Party.
Movement turned into Satyagraha and volunteer keep protesting at Bihar Legislative Assembly inviting arrest starting from 4 December.Indira Gandhi even did not changed Chief Minister Abdul Ghafoor because she did not want to give in to demand of dissolving assembly as she did in Gujarat.
Jayaprakash Narayan kept travelling all across India strengthening and uniting opposition parties to defeat Congress. Election in Gujarat was delayed until Morarji Desai went on hunger strike demanding election. Election was held on 10 June and result was declared on 12 June 1975 in which Congress lost. The same day, Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on grounds of electoral malpractice. The court thus ordered her to be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running in elections for six years. It effectively removes her from Prime Minister office. She rejected call of resign and moved to Supreme Court. She recommended President VV Giri to appoint A. N. Ray as a Chief Justice to get favour in case. Jayaprakash Narayan opposed such movement in his letters to Indira Gandhi. She imposed the Emergency to safeguard her position on 26 June 1975.
Jayaprakash Narayan called for Indira Gandhi to resign. Instead she proclaimed a national Emergency on the midnight of 25 June 1975, immediately. Jayaprakash Narayan, opposition leaders, and dissenting members of her own party were arrested on that day. Jayaprakash Narayan was kept as detenu at Chandigarh even after he had asked for a month's parole for mobilising relief in areas of Bihar gravely affected by flood. His health suddenly deteriorated on 24 October, and he was released on 12 November; diagnosis at Jaslok Hospital, Bombay, revealed kidney failure; he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life.
After Indira Gandhi revoked the Emergency on 21 March 1977 and announced elections, it was under Jayaprakash Narayan's guidance that the Janata Party (a vehicle for the broad spectrum of the anti-Indira Gandhi opposition) was formed. The Janata Party was voted into power, and became the first non-Congress party to form a government at the Centre in India.
Many leaders of the movement like Morarji Desai, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Lal Krishna Advani, Ram Krishan hedgeLalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav, Charan Singh, Jagjivan Ram, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, H. D. Deve Gowda, Inder Kumar Gujral, Raj Narain, George Fernandes, Satyendra Narayan Sinha and Karpuri Thakur worked together against Indira Gandhi at that time.
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- Tiwari, Lalan (1 December 1987). Democracy and Dissent: (a Case Study of the Bihar Movement - 1974-75). Mittal Publications. p. 260. ISBN 978-81-7099-008-6.
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