Bikaner

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This article is about the city Bikaner in Rajasthan, India. For its namesake district, see Bikaner district. For other uses, see Bikaner (disambiguation).
Bikaner
बीकानेर
City
Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner
Laxmi Niwas Palace, Bikaner
Nickname(s): bkn
Bikaner is located in Rajasthan
Bikaner
Bikaner
Coordinates: 28°01′00″N 73°18′43″E / 28.01667°N 73.31194°E / 28.01667; 73.31194Coordinates: 28°01′00″N 73°18′43″E / 28.01667°N 73.31194°E / 28.01667; 73.31194
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Bikaner
Founded by Rao Bikaji
Government
 • Body Municipal corporation
Area
 • Total 28,466 km2 (10,991 sq mi)
Elevation 242 m (794 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 647,904
 • Density 3,887.8/km2 (10,069/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, English
 • Regional Marwari
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 3340XX
Telephone code +91 151
Vehicle registration RJ-07
Website www.bikaner.nic.in

Bikaner (Hindi: बीकानेर(About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan in northern India. It is located 330 kilometres (205 mi) northwest of the state capital, Jaipur. Bikaner city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner District and Bikaner division. It was formerly the capital of the princely state of Bikaner. The city was founded by Rao Bika.[1][2][3] in 1486 and from its small origins it has developed into the fifth largest city in Rajasthan. The Ganges Canal, completed in 1928, and the Indira Gandhi Canal, completed in 1987, facilitated its development.

History[edit]

Further information: History of Bikaner

Prior to the mid 15th century, the region that is now Bikaner was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh.[4] In 1488 Rao Bika established the city of Bikaner. According to James Tod, the spot which Bika selected for his capital, was the birthright of a Nehra Jat, who would only concede it for this purpose on the condition that his name should be linked in perpetuity with its surrender. Naira, or Nera, was the name of the proprietor, which Beeka added to his own, thus composing that of the future capital, Bikaner. Rao Bika was the first son of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathor clan, the founder of Jodhpur and conquered the largely arid country in the north of Rajasthan. As the second son of Joda he had no chance of inheriting Jodhpur from his father or the title of Maharaja. He therefore decided to build his own kingdom in what is now the state of Bikaner in the area of Jungladesh. Though it was in the Thar Desert, Bikaner was considered an oasis on the trade route between Central Asia and the Gujarat coast as it had adequate spring water. Bika’s name was attached to the city he built and to the state of Bikaner (“the settlement of Bika”) that he established. Bika built a fort in 1478, which is now in ruins, and a hundred years later a new fort was built about 1.5 km from the city centre, known as the Junagarh Fort.[5][6][7]

Around a century after Rao Bika founded Bikaner, the state's fortunes flourished under the sixth Raja, Rai Singhji, who ruled from 1571 to 1611. During the Mughal Empire’s rule in the country, Rai Singh accepted the suzerainty of the Mughals and held a high rank as an army general at the court of the Emperor Akbar and his son the Emperor Jahangir. Rai Singh's successful military exploits, which involved winning half of Mewar kingdom for the Empire, won him accolades and rewards from the Mughal emperors. He was given the jagirs (lands) of Gujarat and Burhanpur. With the large revenue earned from these jagirs, he built the Junagarh fort on a plain which has an average elevation of 760 feet (230 m). He was an expert in arts and architecture, and the knowledge he acquired during his visits abroad is amply reflected in the numerous monuments he built at the Junagarh fort.[5][7][8]

Karan Singh, who ruled from 1631 to 1639, under the suzerainty of the Mughals, built the Karan Mahal palace. Later rulers added more floors and decorations to this Mahal. Anup Singh, who ruled from 1669 to 1698, made substantial additions to the fort complex, with new palaces and the Zenana quarter, a royal dwelling for women and children. He refurbished the Karan Mahal with a Diwan-i-Am (public audience hall) and called it the Anup Mahal. Gaj Singh, who ruled from 1746 to 1787 refurbished the Chandra Mahal (the Moon palace).

During the 18th century, there was internecine war between the rulers of Bikaner and Jodhpur and also amongst other thakurs, which was put down by British troops.[7]

Following Gaj Singh, Surat Singh ruled from 1787 to 1828 and lavishly decorated the audience hall (see illustration) with glass and lively paintwork. Under a treaty of paramountcy signed in 1818, during Surat Singh's reign, Bikaner came under the suzerainty of the British, after which the Maharajas of Bikaner invested heavily in refurbishing Junagarh fort.[9]

Left: Lalgarh Palace, built (Indo-Saracenic style) for Maharaja Ganga Singh and named after his father, presently a heritage hotel and also a residence of the Bikaner Royal Family. Right: Ganga Singh as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet at No. 10 Downing Street, 1917.

Dungar Singh, who reigned from 1872 to 1887, built the Badal Mahal, the 'weather palace', so named in view of a painting of clouds and falling rain, a rare event in arid Bikaner.

General Maharaja Ganga Singh, who ruled from 1887 to 1943, was the best-known of the Rajasthan princes and was a favourite of the British Viceroys of India. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, served as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet, represented India at the Imperial Conferences during the First World War and the British Empire at the Versailles Peace Conference. His contribution to the building activity in Junagarh involved separate halls for public and private audiences in the Ganga Mahal and a durbar hall for formal functions. He also built the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the entrance patio. This palace was designed by Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob, the third of the new palaces built in Bikaner. He named the building Lalgarh Palace in honour of his father and moved his main residence there from Junagarh Fort in 1902. The hall where he held his Golden Jubilee (in 1938) as Bikaner's ruler is now a museum.[7][9][10]

Ganga Singh's son, Lieutenant-General Sir Sadul Singh, the Yuvaraja of Bikaner, succeeded his father as Maharaja in 1943, but acceded his state to the Union of India in 1949. Maharaja Sadul Singh died in 1950, being succeeded in the title by his son, Karni Singh (1924-1988).[6] The Royal Family still lives in a suite in Lalgarh Palace, which they have converted into a heritage hotel.[7][9]

Transport[edit]

The internal transport system in Bikaner consists of autorickshaws and city buses. Bikaner railway station is on the Jodhpur-Bathinda line. Bikaner is connected to some of major Indian cities via broad gauge railway. The city has direct rail connections to Delhi, Mumbai, Alwar, Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur, Bilashpur, Kanpur, Agra, Jalandhar, Baroda, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Guwahati, Jaipur, Surat, Jalandhar, Puri, Coimbatore, Thiruvananthapuram, Chandigarh, Kota, Kollam, Jammu, Jodhpur and Ahmedabad. However, there is no rail connectivity for other major Indian cities like Silchar, Indore, Jhansi, Ranchi, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Kurukshetra, Pune, Faridabad.

Bikaner is well served with roads and is linked directly to Delhi, Jaipur, Agra, Alwar, Ludhiana, Bhatinda, Ambala, Ahmedabad, Haridwar, Jodhpur, Indore and many other cities. National highways 11, 15, and 89 meet at Bikaner. There is an under construction domestic airport at nal 14 km from city which will start its flights for Delhi and Mumbai in 2014.

Climate[edit]

Sand dunes near Bikaner, Rajasthan

Bikaner is situated in the middle of the Thar desert and has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very little rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summer temperatures can exceed 45 °C, and during the winter they may dip below freezing.

The climate in Bikaner is characterised by significant variations in temperature. In the summer season it is very hot when the temperatures lie in the range of 28–48.5 °C (82.4–119.3 °F). In the winter, it is fairly cold with temperatures lying in the range of 5–23.2 °C (41.0–73.8 °F).[11] Annual rainfall is in the range of 260–440 millimetres (10–17 in).[11][12]

Climate data for Bikaner
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
35.5
(95.9)
41.4
(106.5)
45.8
(114.4)
47.3
(117.1)
47.5
(117.5)
44.2
(111.6)
42.9
(109.2)
42.3
(108.1)
40.4
(104.7)
36.8
(98.2)
31.3
(88.3)
47.5
(117.5)
Average high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
25.5
(77.9)
31.8
(89.2)
38.2
(100.8)
41.7
(107.1)
41.6
(106.9)
37.8
(100)
36.6
(97.9)
36.7
(98.1)
36.2
(97.2)
30.7
(87.3)
25.3
(77.5)
33.76
(92.78)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
17.1
(62.8)
23.4
(74.1)
30.2
(86.4)
34.3
(93.7)
35.2
(95.4)
32.8
(91)
31.7
(89.1)
30.7
(87.3)
27.7
(81.9)
21.5
(70.7)
16.1
(61)
26.25
(79.26)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
8.8
(47.8)
15.0
(59)
22.1
(71.8)
26.8
(80.2)
28.8
(83.8)
27.7
(81.9)
26.8
(80.2)
24.7
(76.5)
19.1
(66.4)
12.1
(53.8)
6.9
(44.4)
18.7
(65.66)
Record low °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.7
(38.7)
12.0
(53.6)
15.8
(60.4)
19.8
(67.6)
20.3
(68.5)
20.4
(68.7)
16.3
(61.3)
10.2
(50.4)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 5.7
(0.224)
7.8
(0.307)
6.3
(0.248)
11.9
(0.469)
15.9
(0.626)
33.0
(1.299)
91.1
(3.587)
82.6
(3.252)
40.8
(1.606)
10.1
(0.398)
1.9
(0.075)
3.0
(0.118)
310.1
(12.209)
Avg. precipitation days 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.9 2.6 3.2 6.6 5.6 3.0 0.6 0.3 0.5 26.6
 % humidity 49 43 34 25 27 39 58 61 52 36 40 48 42.7
Source: NOAA (1971-1984)[13]

Attractions in Bikaner and nearby[edit]

Junagarh Fort, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Laxmi Niwas Palace[edit]

Laxmi Niwas Palace

The Laxmi Niwas Palace is a former residential palace built by Maharajah Ganga Singh, the ruler of the former state of Bikaner. It was designed by the British architect, Samuel Swinton Jacob in the year 1902. The style of architecture is Indo-Saracenic. It is now a luxury hotel owned by Golden Triangle Fort & Palace P. Ltd. The magnificent structure in red sandstone is one of the most popular destinations for tourists in Bikaner.[14]

Karni Mata Temple[edit]

Main article: Karni Mata Temple

The world famous shrine of Karni Mata can be found in the town of Deshnoke 30 km south from Bikaner on the road to Jodhpur. Karni Mata is worshiped as an incarnation of Goddess Durga.

Demographics[edit]

Population Growth of Bikaner City 
Census Pop.
1891 56,300
1901 53,100 -5.7%
1911 55,800 5.1%
1921 69,400 24.4%
1931 85,900 23.8%
1941 127,200 48.1%
1951 117,100 -7.9%
1961 150,600 28.6%
1971 208,900 38.7%
1981 280,400 34.2%
1991 416,300 48.5%
2001 529,690 27.2%
2011 644,406 21.7%
source:[15]

According to the 2001 India census,[16] Bikaner district had a population of 2,367,745. Males constituted 53% of the population and females 47%. Bikaner has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 74% and female literacy of 57%. 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education in Bikaner[edit]

Notable Universities[edit]

Notable Colleges[edit]

Notable Schools[edit]

1.Army Public School (Inside army campus)

2.R.S.V., JNV Colony

3.K.V. No. 1 (Jaipur Road)

4.K.V. No. 2 Bikaner (inside Army campus).

5.K.V. No. 3 Nal Bikaner (inside Air Force Station Nal Bikaner)

6.Bikaner Boys School

7.Govt City Senior Sec. School

8.Delhi Public School,Bikaner

9.Dayanand Public School.

10.Sophia Senior Secondary School,Jaipur Road

11.St.N.N R.S.V, Pawan Puri South Extension

12.Central Academy Senior Secondary School {Sadul Ganj}

13.Teresa Children Academy Sr. Sec. School (K.K Colony Bikaner)

14.Bal Bari, Gangashahar

15.Aadarsh Vidhya Mandir, JNV Colony & Gangashahar

16.St. vivekanand sr. sec. school

17.Seth Tolaram Bafna Academy,Gangashahar,Nokha Road

18.Pink Model Senior Sec. School

19.Fort Senior Sec. School

20.Saint Public Sr. Sec. School, Old Ginani

21. Sadul Sports School Bikaner (Only Sports School In Rajasthan)

22. Sadul Sr. Secondary School(Kotegate Bikaner)

23. H.S.R. Vidyaniketan, Bikaner

24. Maharani Kishori Devi Girls School(Jaipur Road Bikaner)

25. Saint Peter's Sec. School,Mukta Parasad,Bikaner

26. Jawahar Navodaya Vidayalaya, Gajner,

27. SHANA International School


28. Bal Bari shikshan Sanstha Sr. Secondary school Jorawarpura, Nokha Bikaner[17]

Notable people from Bikaner[edit]

  • Karni Singh - in full HH Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Narendra Shiromani Maharajah Sri Dr Karni Singh Bahadur, also known as Dr Karni Singh, was from 1950 the last ruler of the princely state of Bikaner State, as part of India. He was also a politician, serving as a member of the Lok Sabha for twenty-five years, from 1952 to 1977, and an international clay pigeon and skeet champion.
  • Rameshwar Lal Dudi - Leader of Opposition. Rajasthan Legislative Assembly 2013
  • Bulaki Das Kalla - Ex Leader of Opposition Rajasthan Legislative Assembly and Ex PCC president.
  • Reshma - Classical Vocal (migrated to Pakistan)
  • Bharat Vyas - Bollywood Lyricist
  • Anuradha Acharya-CEO, Ocimum Bio Solutions Multinational Company with Head office at Hyderabad India.
  • T.D Dogra - Former Director All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi.[18] Vice Chancellor of SGT University,Budhera,Gurgaon,Haryana.[19]
  • Karan Singh Yadav - Cardio-thoracic surgeon turn Politician,a congress MP from Alwar.
  • Mohammed Usman Arif - Politician and former Governor of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Ghulam Mohammad - Music composer, Bollywood
  • Santosh Joshi - Famous Indian classical singer from Bikaner
  • Pannalal Barupal-Indian independence activist,Congress MP from Ganga Nagar.
  • Harish Bhadani- A famous Hindi and Rajasthani Poet.
  • Rao Bika- Son of Jodha Singh founder of Jodhpur, Founder of Bikaner with Neru ji, thus, Bika+Neru=Bikaner.
  • Surajratan Fatehchand Damani-a member of the 2nd Lok Sabha of India from the Jalore constituency of Rajasthan and a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party. He later become member of 4th, 5th and 6th Lok Sabha from the Solapur constituency of Maharashtra.
  • Devi Singh Bhati- a EX member of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from Kolayat in Rajasthan state in India.
  • Raja Hasan- Play back singer, a finalist on Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Challenge 2007.
  • Rafiq Khan- Recipient of a posthumous recipient of the Vir Chakra gallantry medal.
  • Kishan Singh Rathore- is recipient of Mahavir Chakra for bravery displayed in Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 .
  • Sandeep Acharya- was crowned the winner of Indian Idol (season 2) on 22 April 2006.
  • Shiv Kumari of Kotah- an Indian Hindu royal and the daughter of Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner.
  • Rajyashree Kumari-is a former shooter from India. She was conferred the Arjuna Award in shooting in 1968.
  • Sidhi Kumari- a member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from Bikaner East, elected in 2008 on as a candidate of Bharatiya Janata Party.
  • Nand Kishore Achyarya- an Indian playwright, poet, and critic who was born in Bikaner, Rajasthan
  • Arjun Ram Meghwal-He was elected to the 15th Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India from Bikaner constituency, Rajasthan in 2009.
  • Magan Singh Rajvi- a former Indian football player. He hails from Rajasthan. He was given the Arjuna Award in 1973 for his achievements as a football player.
  • Narpat Singh Rajvi - former Minister and MLA
  • Abdul Rehman Rana-a Pakistani former politician and soldier from Jaranwala, the city of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Akbar Khan - visually impaired Singer, Composer, Writer and a Banker honored with National Award in 1989.[20]
  • Ambika Dutt Ranga-an Indian footballer. Born in Bikaner, he played for Mohammedan Sporting Club and the Indian national team.
  • Kanwar Sen-also spelt as Kanwar Sain, was an eminent civil engineer from Rajasthan state in India.
  • Indra Chandra Shastri-an Indian author and philosopher from Bikaner in Rajasthan state in India. The government of India issued a postage stamp in his honour.
  • Ahmad Bakhsh Sindhi - was Law and Justice Minister in Rajasthan, India from 1983 till 1985.
  • Colonel Rao Bahadur Thakur Sir Sadul Singh was a senior administrator in Bikaner State.
  • Sudhir Tailang- Famous Cartoonist, started with Illustrated weekly then Nav Bharat Times,Hindustan Times.
  • Shaukat Usmani- a member of the émigré Communist Party of India and Freedom fighter.He was sentenced to a total of 16 years in jail after being tried in the Kanpur (Cawnpore) Case of 1923 and later the Meerut Conspiracy Case of 1929.
  • Hisam-ud-din Usta- a celebrated artisan in the media of Naqqashi and Manoti
  • Vijay Shankar Vyas- is a noted agricultural economist of India. He received Padma Bhushan award in 2006 from the Government of India. He hails from Pushkarna Brahmin community in Bikaner.
  • Shri Harakh Chand Nahata (July 18, 1936 - February 21, 1999) was a prominent Indian businessman and social leader
  • Khemchand Prakash- was a music composer in Hindi film industry.
  • Shiv R. Jhawar Indian origin American, Author,Public Speaker and entrepreneur.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Patnaik, Naveen. (1990). A Desert Kingdom: The Rajputs of Bikaner. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., London.
  1. ^ "bkn.co.in". bkn.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  2. ^ "PRACHINA - Bikaner Cultural Centre & Museum,Prachina - Cultural capital of marwar, Bikaner Museum, Prachina Museum,Bikaner Royal family,Western influence in Bikaner,Contemporary Crafts,Bikaner Period Room,Ritual Crafts,Aristocratic Textile & Costumes,Royal Portraits, Glass and Cut Glass Objects,Decorative Wall Painting,Aristocratic Locomotive, Museum Galleries". Prachinamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  3. ^ kalaloda. "Bikaner History, India". Travelgrove.com. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  4. ^ "Bikaner". Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  5. ^ a b Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Bikaner (Taylor & Francis). p. 129. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  6. ^ a b Ward, Philip (1989). Northern India, Rajasthan, Agra, Delhi: a travel guide. Junagarh Fort (Pelican Publishing Company). pp. 116–119. ISBN 0-88289-753-5. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "History". National Informatics centre, Bikaner district. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  8. ^ "Junagarh Fort, Bikaner". Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  9. ^ a b c Ring p.133
  10. ^ Ring p.132
  11. ^ a b "Bikaner". Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  12. ^ "Climate of Bikaner". Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  13. ^ "Zahedan Climate Normals 1971-1984". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Laxmi Niwas Palace (Bikaner, Rajasthan) - Hotel Reviews". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  15. ^ "Historical Census of India". 
  16. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  17. ^ "Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Bikaner 27. N.D. Modern School  :: Home Page". Jnvbikaner.gov.in. 2013-08-30. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  18. ^ "Venugopal removed, T D Dogra is new AIIMS director,The Times of India". The Times Of India. PTI Nov 30, 2007, 09.17pm IST. Retrieved 19 May 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^ "SGT University". Retrieved 19 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "Information website about Akbar Khan, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India". Akbarkhan.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 

External links[edit]