Bikaner State

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the princely state during the British Raj. For the natural and historical region, see History of Bikaner.
Bikaner State
बीकानेर
Princely State of British India
1465–1947
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
History
 -  Established 1465
 -  Independence of India 1947
Area
 -  1931 60,391 km2 (23,317 sq mi)
Population
 -  1931 936,218 
Density 15.5 /km2  (40.2 /sq mi)
Bikaner Laxmi Niwas Palace
Maharaja Anup Singh of Bikaner hunting elephants
Honorific insignia in gold offered to the Maharaja of Bikaner by the Mughal Emperor.
Raja Karan Singh of Bikaner, Aurangzeb's ally and enemy.
Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner with his son in 1914
Bikaner Camel Corps
Board of combat daggers at the Darbar Hall

Bikaner State was a princely state in the Bikaner region during the British Raj. Its capital was the city of Bikaner in the northern area of present-day Rajasthan State in India.

Covering an area of 60,391 km2 (23,317 sq mi), Bikaner State was one of the largest states under the Rajputana Agency. Heeding the call of Vallabhbhai Patel to integrate the princely states into the new independent India, Bikaner's last king, Maharaja Sadul Singh, advised by his dewan K. M. Panikkar, a respected historian, was one of the first rulers of a princely state to display willingness to join the Indian Union. By issuing a public appeal in April 1947 to his fellow princes to join the Constituent Assembly of India, the Maharaja of Bikaner set an example for other heads of the native states to follow.[1]

History[edit]

The state of Bikaner was founded in 1465. It became a British protectorate on 9 March 1818. Its rulers were Rajputs belonging to the Rathore dynasty. They were accorded a 17 gun salute by the British authorities.[2] By the time of Indian Independence, the territory of the state of Bikaner shared a border with Pakistan. The accession to the Indian Union was signed by the Maharaja on 7 August 1947.[3]

Maharajas[edit]

  • 19 Jun 1698 - 15 Dec 1700 Sarup Singh (b. 1689 - d. 1700)
  • 15 Dec 1700 - 16 Dec 1735 Sujan Singh (b. 1690 - d. 1735)
  • 16 Dec 1735 - 15 May 1746 Zorawar Singh (b. 1713 - d. 1746)
  • 15 May 1746 - 25 Mar 1787 Gaj Singh (b. 1723 - d. 1787)
  • 25 Mar 1787 - 25 Apr 1787 Raj Singh II (b. 1744 - d. 1787)
  • 25 Apr 1787 - 9 Oct 1787 Pratap Singh (b. 1781 - d. 1787)
  • 25 Apr 1787 - 25 Mar 1828 Surat Singh (Regent to 9 Oct 1787) (b. 1766 - d. 1828)
  • 25 Mar 1828 - 7 Aug 1851 Ratan Singh (b. 1790 - d. 1851)
  • 7 Aug 1851 - 16 May 1872 Sardar Singh (b. 1818 - d. 1872)
  • 16 May 1872 - 19 Aug 1887 Dungar Singh (b. 1854 - d. 1887)
  • 19 Aug 1887 - 2 Feb 1943 Ganga Singh (b. 1880 - d. 1943) (from 24 Jul 1901, Sir Ganga Singh)
  • 19 Aug 1887 - 16 Dec 1898 the British Political Agents -Regent
  • 2 Feb 1943 - 15 Aug 1947 Sadul Singh (b. 1902 - d. 1950) (from 1 Jan 1946, Sir Sadul Singh)

Dewans[edit]

The Dewans and Chief Ministers of the state were:

  • 17.. - 26 Feb 1733 Anand Ram Khawas (d. 1733)
  • 1735? - Feb 1751 Mohata Bakhtawar Singh (1st time) (b. 1707 - d. 1779)
  • Feb 1751 - 1752 Amar Singh Chaturbhujani
  • 1752 - 1756 Mohata Bakhtawar Singh (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1756 - Dec 1757 Mohata Prithvi Singh
  • 1757 - 1762 Mohata Bakhtawar Singh (3rd time) (s.a.)
  • 1762 - Sep 1765 Shah Mool Chand Bardiya
  • Sep 1765 - 1779 Mohata Bakhtawar Singh (4th time) (s.a.)
  • 1779 - 178. Mehta Swaroop Singh
  • 178. - 1787 Mehta Thakursi
  • 1787 - 1791 Mohata Madho Rai
  • 1791 - 1794 Pratap Mal Baid
  • 1794 - 1805 Mohata Rao Sahib Singh Gun Roop
  • Apr 1805 - Apr 1815 Amar Chand Surana
  • Apr 1815 - Feb 1816 Mohata Bhomji
  • Feb 1816 - 1828 Abhai Singh Mohata
  • 1828 - 184. Hindu Mal Baid
  • c.1841 Sri Narayan Singh Bhati
  • 1844 - 1852? Sarana Shri Lakshmichand
  • 1852 - 1853 Guman Singh Baid (1st time)
  • 1853 - 1853 Leeladhar Mohata + Jalam Chand Kochar
  • 1853 - 1854 Lachhi Ram Rakhecha
  • 1854 - 1856 Guman Singh Baid (2nd time)
  • 1856 Pandit Dojainant
  • 1856 - 1863 Ram Lal Dwarkani (1st time)
  • 1864 - 1865 Guman Singh Baid (3rd time)
  • 1865 - 1866 Ram Lal Dwarkani (2nd time)
  • 1866 Man Mal Rakhecha
  • 1866 (3 months) Sheo Lal Nahata
  • 1867 (15 days) Fateh Chand Surana
  • 1867 Ganga Ram Purohit
  • 1867 Shah Mal Kochar
  • 1868 Man Mal Rakhecha
  • 1868 Sheo Lal Mohata
  • 1868 Lakshmi Chand Nahata
  • Jun 1868 - Aug 1869 Visayat Hussain
  • Aug 1869 - 13 Dec 1873 Pandit Manphool
  • Dec 1873 - 188. Maharaj Lal Singh
  • 188. - 1884? Maharao Hira Singh Baid
  • 1884 - 11 Oct 1888 Amin Muhammad
  • 12 Dec 1888 - 1896 Sodhi Hukam Singh
  • 1896 - 1898 Raghubar Singh Chauhan
  • 1898 - 1903 Hamidu Zafar Khan
  • 1903 - 1916 -Post abolished-

Chief ministers[edit]

  • 1916 - 19.. Shri Bhairon Singh
  • 7 Sep 1920 - Jan 1925 Prince Kunwar Sardul Singh (s.a.)

Dewans[edit]

The post of Dewan was reinstated in 1927.

  • 1927 - 1934 Manubhai Nandshankar Mehta (b. 1868 - d. 1946)
  • 3 Oct 1932 - 31 Oct 1934 Ram Prasad Dube (acting)
  • 1 Nov 1934 - Jan 1936 Maharaj Shri Bhairun Singh
  • Jan 1936 - Dec 1936 Thakur Sadul Singh
  • Dec 1936 - 1938? V.N. Mehta
  • Dec 1938 - Jul 1939 Kailash Narain Haksar (b. 1878 - d. 1954)
  • Jul 1939 - 1944? Sire Mal Bapna (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
  • 1944 - 13 Mar 1948 Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (b. 1895 - d. 1963)
  • 14 Mar 1948 - Oct 1948 Kanwar Jaswant Singh
  • Oct 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 Cadambi Sheshachar Venkatachar (b. 1899 - d. 1999)

Family tree of the rulers of Bikaner[edit]

  • Simple gold crown.svg I. Bikaji, Rai of Bikaner (1438-1504; Rai: 1488; r. 1488-1504)
    • Simple gold crown.svg II. Naroji, Rai of Bikaner (1468-1505; r. 1504-1505)
    • Simple gold crown.svg III. Lankaraji, Rai of Bikaner (1470-1526; r. 1505-1526)
      • Simple gold crown.svg IV. Jetaji, Rai of Bikaner (1489-1542; r. 1526-1542)
        • Simple silver crown.svg V. Kalyan Mal, Rai of Bikaner (1519-1574; r. 1542-1574)
          • Simple silver crown.svg VI. Raj Singh I, Rai of Bikaner (1541-1612; r. 1574-1612)
            • Simple silver crown.svg VII. Dalpat Singh, Rai of Bikaner (1565-1613; r. 1612-1613)
            • Simple silver crown.svg VIII. Surat Singh, Rai of Bikaner (1594-1631; r. 1613-1631)
              • Simple silver crown.svg IX. Karan Singh, Rai of Bikaner (1616-1669; r. 1631-1667)
                • Simple silver crown.svg X. Anup Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1638-1698; r. 1667-1698; Rao: 1667; Maharaja: 1675)
                  • Simple silver crown.svg XI. Sarup Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1689-1700; r. 1698-1700)
                  • Simple silver crown.svg XII. Sujjan Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1690-1735; r. 1700-1735)
                    • Simple silver crown.svg XIII. Zorawar Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1713-1746; r. 1735-1746)
                  • Anand Singh
                    • Simple silver crown.svg XIV. Gaj Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1723-1787; r. 1746-1787)
                      • Simple silver crown.svg XV. Raj Singh II, Maharaja of Bikaner (1744-1787; r. 1787)
                        • Simple silver crown.svg XVI. Pratap Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1781-1787; r. 1787)
                      • Chhatar Singh (1762-1779)
                        • Dalel Singh
                          • Sagat Singh
                            • Lall Singh (1831-1887)
                              • Simple silver crown.svg XX. Dungar Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1854-1887; r. 1872-1887)
                              • Simple silver crown.svg XXI. Ganga Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, GBE, KCB (1880-1943; r. 1887-1943)
                                • Simple silver crown.svg XXII. Sadul Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner GCSI, GCIE, CVO (1902-1950; r. 1943-1949; titular ruler: 1949-1950)
                                  • XXIII. Karni Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1924-1988; titular Maharaja: 1950-1971; family head: 1971-1988)
                                    • XXIV. Narendra Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1946-2003; family head: 1988-2003)
                                  • Amar Singh (b. 1925)
                                    • Chandra Shekhar Singh (b. 1948)
                                      • XXV. Ravi Raj Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (b. 1977; family head: 2003 - )
                          • Madan Singh
                      • Simple silver crown.svg XVII. Surat Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1765-1828; r. 1787-1828)
                        • Simple silver crown.svg XVIII. Ratan Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1790-1851; r. 1828-1851)
                          • Simple silver crown.svg XIX. Sardar Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner (1818-1872; r. 1851-1872)

[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ramachandra Guha, India after Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. HarperCollins, 2007
  2. ^ Rajput Provinces of India - Bikaner (Princely State)
  3. ^ William Barton, The princes of India. Delhi 1983
  4. ^ Bikaner - family genealogy

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

  • Beny, Roland; Matheson, Sylvia A. (1984). Rajasthan - Land of Kings. London: Frederick Muller. p. 200 pages. ISBN 0-584-95061-6. 
  • Crump, Vivien; Toh, Irene (1996). Rajasthan (hardback). London: Everyman Guides. p. 400 pages. ISBN 1-85715-887-3. 
  • Martinelli, Antonio; Michell, George (2005). The Palaces of Rajasthan. London: Frances Lincoln. p. 271 pages. ISBN 978-0-7112-2505-3. 
  • Tod, James. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II (With a Preface by Douglas Sladen). Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 54, Jhansi Road, New Delhi-1100055. 

Coordinates: 28°01′N 73°18′E / 28.01°N 73.3°E / 28.01; 73.3