Segregated cycle facilities
Segregated cycle facilities, are a form of cycling infrastructure consisting of marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists and from which motorised traffic is generally excluded. The term includes bike lanes, cycle tracks, separated bike lanes, road shoulders and side paths located within a road right-of-way.
Some segregated cycle facilities are separated from motor traffic by physical constraints (e.g. barriers, parking or bollards), but others are separated only by painted markings. Different types of segregated cycle facility have different names in different regions, but the usual distinction is between the physically-separated type and the rest.
Bike lanes and road shoulders demarcated by a painted marking are quite common both in many European and American cities. Segregated cycle facilities demarcated by barriers, bollards or boulevards are quite common in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. They are also increasingly being installed in other major cities such as New York City, Melbourne, Ottawa, Vancouver and San Francisco. Montreal and Davis, California, which have had segregated cycling facilities with barriers for several decades, are among the earliest examples in North American cities.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Segregated facilities and safety
- 3.1 Studies showing greater benefits
- 3.2 Studies not supporting segregation
- 3.3 Crash types at arterials and junctions
- 3.4 Roundabouts and cycle lanes/tracks
- 3.5 Indirect benefits
- 3.6 "Shared space" as an alternative approach to safety
- 4 Legal significance of segregated cycle facilities
- 5 Controversies & criticism
- 6 Bikeways that use independent rights-of-way
- 7 Other bikeways
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Various guides exist to define the different types of bikeway infrastructure, including UK Department for Transport manual The Geometric Design of Pedestrian, Cycle and Equestrian Routes, the Danish Road Authority guide Registration and classification of paths, the Dutch CROW, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide to Bikeway Facilities, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), and the US National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) Urban Bikeway Design Guide.
On road: bike/cycle lanes
Cycle lanes (UK) or bike lanes (USA) are lanes for cyclists only, marked on an existing portion of a carriageway (UK) or roadway (USA).
- In the UK, an on-road cycle-lane can be restricted [to cycles] (marked with a solid white line, entry by motor vehicles is prohibited) or advisory (marked with a broken white line, entry by motor vehicles is permitted).
- In the U.S., a designated bicycle lane (1988 MUTCD) or class II bikeway (Caltrans) is always marked by a solid white stripe on the pavement and is for 'preferential use' by bicyclists. There is also a class III bicycle route, which has roadside signs suggesting a route for cyclists, and urging sharing the road.
- In France, segregated cycling facilities on the carriageway are called bande cyclable, those beside the carriageway or totally independent ones piste cyclable, all together voie cyclable.
- In Belgium, traffic laws do not distinguish cycle lanes from cyclepaths. Cycle lanes are marked by two parallel broken white lines, and they are defined as being "not wide enough to allow use by motor vehicles". Note that there is some confusion possible here: both in French (piste cyclable) and in Dutch (fietspad) the term for these lanes can also denote a segregated cycle track, marked by a road sign; the cycle lane is therefore often referred to as a "piste cyclable marquée" (in French) or a "gemarkeerd fietspad" (in Dutch), i.e. a cycle lane/track which is "marked" (i.e. identified by road markings) rather than one which is identified by a road sign. In the Netherlands, however, such confusion does not exist, as the cycle lane is normally called "fietsstrook" instead of "fietspad".
Cycle lane can be seen as part of the road on both sides separated by a solid white line (Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada).
Utrecht has specially painted bicycle-only lanes.
Cycle lane in Počernická street in Prague 10, Czech Republic
On road: cycle track
A cycle track, or protected bike lane, is an exclusive bike facility that has elements of a separated path and on-road bike lane. A cycle track is physically separated from the roadway and its motor traffic and is distinct from the sidewalk.
Cycle tracks may be one-way or two-way, and may be at road level, at sidewalk level, or at an intermediate level. They all share in common some separation from motor traffic with bollards, car parking, barriers or boulevards.
In the UK, cycle track is a roadway constructed specifically for use by cyclists, but not by any other vehicles. In Ireland cycle track also covers cycle lanes marked on the carriageway but only if accompanied by a specific sign. In the UK, a cycle track may be alongside a roadway (or carriageway) for all vehicles or it may be on its own alignment. The term does not include cycle lanes or other facilities within an all-vehicle carriageway.
Cycle tracks with concrete barriers in downtown Ottawa, Canada in 2011.
Cycle track with green lanes through intersection in Ottawa, Canada in 2011.
Off road: shoulder
A road shoulder is a reserved area outside of a roadway, but within the road right-of-way. Road shoulders (a) are a buffer area between the roadway and possible off-road hazards intended to prevent accidents in the event of a temporary loss of vehicle control, (b) provide emergency access for ambulances and police cars and (c) provide a space for inoperable vehicles so that they do not block the traveled way. In addition, road shoulders are used by bicyclists when other bicycle-specific facilities are absent, or inferior.
In the US, a sidepath, typically referred to as a shared use path, is a path or sidewalk that has been designated for use by cyclists within the right of way of a public road but outside of the roadway. It is usually not immediately adjacent to the portion of the way for vehicular traffic, that is, the traveled portion of the roadway. It may or may not have a center divider or stripe to prevent head-on collisions.
In the UK, a shared-use footway or multi-use path is for use by both cyclists and pedestrians. Whilst cyclists may be required to yield right of way to foot traffic on a shared-use footway which is unsegregated (that is, where both types mix freely), cyclists are considered to be the primary users on cycle tracks. Note that the design standards and recommendations for shared-use footways and cycle tracks in the UK are different from those for shared-use paths in the U.S.
Segregated facilities and safety
Segregated cycling facilities are controversial, in particular concerning safety. Proponents say that segregation of cyclists from fast or frequent motorized traffic is necessary to provide a safe and welcoming cycling environment. A 2010 Montreal study found that cycle tracks resulted in fewer injuries when compared to comparable parallel roads with no cycling facilities.
There have been a number of studies of research into the risks and benefits of segregated cycling facilities that have drawn different conclusions. Recent research, such as the 2010 Montreal study, suggests a lower risk for cyclists using cycling-specific infrastructure in certain traffic dynamics, though there has also been research suggesting that cycling-specific infrastructure raises the risk for cyclists. A 2006 report by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program in the US concludes that "bicycle safety data are difficult to analyze, mostly because bicycle trip data (and thus accident probability per trip) are hard to uncover". One major reason for the inability to draw definite conclusion may be that facilities with different risks are often categorized together so that off-road paths – paved or unpaved, bicycle-only or multi-use – were lumped together, as found by research at the Cycling in Cities program at the University of British Columbia.
Studies showing greater benefits
A 1997 study by Moritz of North American bicycle commuters calculated a relative danger of different facilities based on the survey results of "[fraction of crashes] divided by the [fraction of miles ridden on that facility]". Moritz calculated a relative danger of 1.26 on a major street with no cycling facilities, 1.04 on a minor street with no cycling facilities, 0.5 for streets with bike lanes, and 0.67 for mixed use/"bike" path. The "other" category which mostly included sidewalks had a relative danger of 5.32. Moritz made it clear that this was "[n]ot a statistical or random sample of BCs [bicycle commuters]."
A large study undertaken by S.U. Jensen et al. into the safety of Copenhagen cycle tracks before and after they were constructed concludes "The construction of cycle tracks in Copenhagen has resulted in an increase in cycle traffic of 18–20% and a decline in car traffic of 9–10%. The cycle tracks constructed have resulted in increases in accidents and injuries of 9–10% on the reconstructed roads." The number of accidents and injuries increased at intersections but decreased mid-block. These changes in road safety have been estimated taking both general trends in safety and changes in car and cycle traffic into account. The Copenhagen study also found accident and injury rates were related to the amount of car parking, turn lanes, blue cycle crossing markings, and raised exits at non-signalised intersections, suggesting that risk is dependent on making various improvements to the cycle tracks. For instance, recent planning guidelines in the US advise that cycle tracks drop to a bike lane before arriving at an intersection to increase the visibility of cyclists.
In 2009, the University of British Columbia Cycling in Cities Research Program looked at injury and crash data separated by bicycle facility type and found that "purpose-built bicycle-only facilities have the lowest risk of crashes and injuries". They found such bike-only facilities had lower risk than cycling on-road with motor traffic as well as off-road with pedestrians on sidewalks or multi-use paths. The highest risk of crashes and injuries were found to be on sidewalks and unpaved off-road trails. A 2010 study in Montreal, Canada authors found 2.5 times as many cyclists rode on the cycle tracks (physically separated bicycle-exclusive paths along roads) compared to the reference roads (a parallel road with approximately the same intersection frequency and cross traffic) and that the relative risk of injury was lower on a cycle track than on the comparable reference road (the average being 0.72 the relative risk). They concluded that "[c]ycle tracks lessen, or at least do not increase, crash and injury rates compared to bicycling in the street" A final report from Cycling in Cities in 2012 found that that cycling on segregated tracks had approximately one ninth the risk of cycling on major streets with parked cars and no cycle infrastructure, concluding that, "Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling."
The New York City Department of Transportation implemented a bicycle path and traffic calming pilot project for Prospect Park West in Brooklyn in 2010 and published their results in early 2011. It created a two-way bicycle path with a three-foot parking lane buffer and the removal of one lane from motor vehicles. They found that weekday cycling traffic tripled after the implementation; cyclists riding on the sidewalk fell to 3% from 46% (the count included children who are legally allowed to ride on the sidewalk); speeding dropped from 74% to 20% of all vehicles; crashes for all road users were down 16% and injuries to all road users were down 21%.
Transportation engineers Ian Hallett, David Luskin, and Randy Machemehl, by studying the interactions of drivers and bicyclists on Texas roads, have discovered that having painted bike lanes on streets and roads helps both commuters stay in safer, more central positions in their respective lanes. Without a marked bike lane, there appears to be a lot of uncertainty about how much space each person needs—even when adequate road space is provided.
Studies not supporting segregation
In the 1970s, the California Statewide Bicycle Committee commissioned Kenneth D. Cross to study car-bike collisions. The Committee had supposed that many collisions would occur when cars overtook bicycles and that such a finding would help to justify their plans to offer segregation between junctions. Unexpectedly, Cross found that only 0.5% of car-bike collisions had occurred between straight-ahead cyclists and overtaking straight-ahead motorists. Cross in 1977 had a contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to produce an improved study (on a pseudo-random national sample), and the results were much the same. In second study by Cross, he argues that, "although a reduction in overtaking accidents may not be sufficient justification for the widespread use of on-street bicycle lanes, it is possible that their cost could be justified when considering all the problem types that might be positively affected by such facilities. There is virtually no doubt that off-street bicycle lanes would reduce the incidence of overtaking accidents, if such facilities were available and used by bicyclists who would otherwise be riding on roadways."
A 1994 study in Palo Alto, California by A. Wachtel and D. Lewiston concluded that "Bicyclists on a sidewalk or bicycle path incur greater risk than those on the roadway (on average 1.8 times as great), most likely because of blind conflicts at intersections. Wrong-way sidewalk bicyclists are at even greater risk, and sidewalk bicycling appears to increase the incidence of wrong-way travel." and "Separation of bicycles and motor vehicles leads to blind conflicts at these intersections." It concluded "the aim of a well-designed roadway system should be to integrate bicycles and motor vehicles according to the well-established and effective principles of traffic law and engineering, not to separate them. This conclusion is in accord with the 1981 and 1991 AASHTO Guides and the California Highway Design Manual". Anne C. Lusk et al. noted that the study by Wachtel and Lewiston only considered intersection crashes, "omitting non-intersection crashes that include being hit from behind, sideswiped, or struck by a car door." If the non-intersection crash data is included, as Lusk et al. calculated in their study, it appears that sidewalk bikeways carry half the risk of the street, for bicyclists riding in the same direction as traffic. Lusk et al. claim that the "Wachtel and Lewiston data, when corrected to include non-intersection crashes, corroborate our findings that separated paths are safer or at least no more dangerous than bicycling in the street."
Aultman-Hall et al. produced a 1998 study based on a survey of Ottawa commuter cyclists and a survey of Toronto commuter cyclists. The surveys were conducted to create "estimates of travel exposure on roads, off-road paths and sidewalks". They found that "the relative rates for falls and injuries suggest it is safest to cycle on-road followed by off-road paths and trails, and finally least safe on sidewalks." The relative rates of collisions on the three different facility types, however, were not statistically significant in the Ottawa study. Aultman-Hall et al. admitted that the limitations to the data and a fuller analysis needed "bicycle travel exposure information and the use of more than just collision databases".
A Danish study by Agerholm et al. in 2008 concluded that "Through the years many studies have shown that bicycle paths in built-up areas impair traffic safety. A new Danish study presented in this article confirms these results... the main results are that bicycle paths impair traffic safety and this is mainly due to more accidents at intersections, and that there has been no improvement in the design of new bicycle paths compared to the older ones."
Researchers in other countries have pointed to risk implications of cycle tracks. In Germany, for instance, the Berlin police conducted a 1987 study which came to a negative conclusion about cycle tracks. The German Cycling Federation at the 1990 Vélo Secur conference on cycling claimed "Because the separation of different types of traffic by means of sidepaths behind curbs makes excessive demands on users and leads to crashes, other solutions are being increasingly recommended for channeling bicycle traffic." The cycle tracks in Berlin, however, were not removed and Berlin continues to have an extensive network of bicycle facilities on- and off-road, including cycle tracks.
Studies that also found negative safety aspects of cycle tracks also come from Linderholm, Sweden, 1984 and from Jensen et al., Denmark 1997. In the United Kingdom, the UK Cycle Campaign Network made a 2007 statement that they know "of no evidence that cycle facilities and in particular cycle lanes, generally lead to safer conditions for cycling".
British cycling safety educator John Franklin has argued that the vast majority of research implies increases in the rate and severity of car-bicycle collisions due to such segregation, based on an overview of studies published up to 1999.
Crash types at arterials and junctions
Motorist overtaking cyclist on arterial crashes
One benefit of cycle tracks is the reduction of motorist-overtaking collisions. There are more rear impacts with cyclists in arterial/rural-type roads. When they occur in such circumstances, they are also associated with significantly increased risk of fatality. Rear-end type collisions by overtaking motorists who didn't see the cyclist (Type 13 in the Cross-Fisher study) have been characterized as negligibly few in one analysis by John Forester and another analysis by Kenneth Cross characterized them as being the most deadly of crashes – three times the fatalities of other crash types (both used the same data). All motorist overtaking crashes were combined by Cross into a category called "Problem Class D–Motorist Overtaking/Overtaking Threat" accounting for 37.8% of fatal crashes and 10.5% of non-fatal crashes in their study. One possible explanation for the low overall number of collisions is that motorists coming from behind have plenty of time to see and avoid the collision, but another "possible explanation for the low number of overtaking collisions is that, as noted earlier, bicyclists fear and avoid roads where the overtaking threat seems greatest". Though such crashes were not in the majority they both had a perception of being quite dangerous by the majority of cyclists as well as having a high percentage of the fatal crashes.
In the UK, cycling collision data recorded by police indicates that at non-junction locations, where a cyclist was struck directly from behind there was an overall fatality rate of 17%. The rate of fatality increases with speed limit of the road:
- 5% on 30 mph (48 km/h),
- 13% on 40 mph (64 km/h),
- 21% on 60 mph (97 km/h) and
- 31% on 70 mph (110 km/h) roads.
The use of appropriately designed segregated space on arterial or interurban routes appears to be associated with reductions in overall risk. In Ireland, the provision of hard shoulders on interurban routes in the 1970s reportedly resulted in a 50% decrease in accidents. It is reported that the Danes have also found that separate cycle tracks lead to a reduction in rural collisions.
Crashes at intersections/junctions
Various remedial measures have been developed in an attempt to reduce the risk of junctions for cycle tracks. In some environments these represent established engineering practice while in others they may have to be retroactively applied in response to complaints and safety concerns. Examples include the addition of a separate system of traffic signals for bicycle traffic; markings – either coloured or sharrows continued through the intersection; bike boxes with no right turn on red lights for motorists, raised intersections, and elimination of car parking or the barrier as the cycle track approaches the intersection.
Some treatments involve raising the cycle track onto a speed ramp-type structure where it crosses side roads. In addition, various road markings have been developed in an attempt to remedy the issue of increased junction collisions. Examples of these include the use of special road markings, e.g. "sharks teeth" or "elephants footprints", and treatments using red, green or blue coloured tarmac. Other approaches include efforts to "traffic calm" the bicycle traffic by introducing tight curves or bends to slow the cyclists down as they near a junction. Alternatively, traffic engineers may remove priority from the cyclists and require them to yield to turning traffic at every side road. In 2002, engineers proposing a sidepath scheme in the Irish university city of Galway stated that cyclists would be required to dismount and "become pedestrians" at every junction on the finished route.
A common Dutch model for improving the safety of cycle tracks at junctions involves blocking the outside lane of a 2-lane road at junctures. Cars must merge into the inner lane to continue. Cars turning right are separated by a car length from crossing cyclists and pedestrians, providing increased reaction times and visibility. Alta Planning & Design popularized this as the "protected intersection" model.
The majority of crashes take place at junctions so there is a risk of crashes where cycle paths meet roads. In the Crash-Type Manual by Tan (following a similar categorization to Cross-Fisher) the majority (approximately 2/3) of all crashes on urban roads occurred at junctions.
When the path entrance is set back from the road, motorists often have difficulty seeing cyclists approaching from the path. Research presented at a conference at Lund University in 1990 found that "crash risk" for cycle users crossing the intersection on a set-back path are up to 11.9 times higher than when cycling on the roadway in a bike lane (see diagrams).
Roundabouts and cycle lanes/tracks
See also Cycle facilities at roundabouts.
In the United Kingdom and Germany there is some concern to the use of cycle lanes in large urban roundabouts, though it is still common to see such facilities in the Netherlands and elsewhere. In 2002, cycle lanes were removed from a roundabout in the English town of Weymouth after 20 months because the casualty rate had increased significantly, according to the local cycling campaign. German research has indicated that cyclists are safer negotiating roundabouts in traffic rather than on separate cycle lanes or cycle paths. A recent paper on German roundabout design practice states "Cycle lanes at the peripheral margin of the circle are not allowed since they are very dangerous to cyclists".
In the Netherlands, researchers focused on separating bicycle tracks from motorised traffic. They found that "roundabouts with separate bicycle tracks have a much lower number of casualties per roundabout than roundabouts with bicycle lanes, van Minnen (1995)". This meant that Dutch planners focused more on designing roundabouts and cycle tracks with appropriate priority rather than mix cyclists with other traffic or put them on cycle lanes at the edge.
For adults, the standard advice in the vehicular cycling philosophy for handling roundabouts is to try to maintain a prominent position while circulating. The use of cycle lanes runs counter to this vehicular cycling approach and places cyclists outside the main "zone of observation" of entering motorists, who represent the major source risk.
Safety in numbers effect
There is evidence that one of the main factors influencing the individual safety of cyclists is the number of cyclists using the roads, commonly called the safety in numbers effect. Cycling facilities increase the perception of safety, leaving aside the evidence supporting or detracting from their actual risk. Cycling increases on routes with cycling facilities, particularly if they are separated cycle tracks. With greater numbers of cyclists in relation to motorists, the safety in number effect is seen.
A wide ranging study by P L Jacobsen found that as cycling and walking increase, the chance that a given cyclist will be struck by a motor vehicle actually decreases. This pattern is consistent across communities of varying size, from specific intersections to cities and countries, and across time periods. Jacobsen found that doubling the number of cyclists on the road tends to bring about a 1/3 drop in the per-cyclist frequency of a crash with a motor vehicle. By the same token, tripling the rate of cycling cuts the crash rate in half. A study of the accident impacts of re-engineering bicycle crossings in the Swedish city of Gothenburg appears to corroborate those findings by attributing collision rate reductions in part to significant increases in cyclist volumes at the treated sites.
Detractors argue that the most prominent examples of "successful" cycle networks were implemented in towns that already had significant numbers of cyclists. In such cases, it is speculated that an existing large cycling population might already exert a "safety in numbers" effect, and it is this, rather than their diversion onto off-road tracks, that accounts for the better safety record. More people might start cycling if the perceived safety of doing so improved sufficiently.
In addition, it has been shown that in western countries the health benefits of regular cycling significantly outweigh the risks due to traffic danger. Therefore, notwithstanding their effect on crashes and injuries, measures that promote cycling should produce an overall societal health benefit.
Dutch analysts have argued as a statistical exercise that given that three times as many cyclists as car occupants are injured in collisions, and that cars harm about three times the number of other road users that bicycles do, in situations where casualties due to car traffic predominate, increasing the number of cycling journeys and reducing the number of car journeys will reduce the total number of casualties
With the number of cyclists growing due to the bike lanes, it would create less pollution in the air, reducing health problems such as asthma, especially for those most at risk such as children.
Proponents of shared space push for a different approach to increasing safety for cyclists. They claim to improve safety in part by decreasing the difference between real and perceived safety. The proponents point to shared space redesigns of urban streets in Denmark and the Netherlands as an examples of having achieved significant improvements in safety (as well as congestion and quality of life) by replacing segregated facilities with integrated space. Traffic reform advocates including David Engwicht and John Adams suggest that the added perception of risk among all road users – motorists, cyclists and pedestrians – in shared facilities increases safety. See the Utility cycling article for other examples of measures to improve both actual and perceived safety.
Legal significance of segregated cycle facilities
One of the potential pitfalls for observers trying to interpret the operation of segregated cycle facilities is that the same legal assumptions do not apply in all environments. For instance, in contrast to most English speaking countries, some European countries, including Germany, France, Denmark, Belgium, and the Netherlands have defined liability legislation. Thus there is a legal assumption that motorists are automatically considered liable in law for any injuries that occur if they collide with a cyclist. This may hold regardless of any fault on the part of the cyclist and may significantly affect the behaviour of motorists when they encounter cyclists.
In some countries it is legal for cyclists to overtake motor-vehicles on the inside, and cyclists doing so may enjoy the protection of the law. In this case, the use of segregated cycle facilities conforms to existing traffic law. In other jurisdictions similar "undertaking" manoeuvres by cyclists are illegal. Such distinctions form the basis of the claim by John Forester that segregated cycle facilities encourage behaviours that flout existing traffic law and in which cyclists enjoy no legal protection.
Cyclists in some countries are also given separate rules and light phases at traffic signals and cyclist-specific traffic lights. For instance, in Germany and elsewhere at junctions with segregated facilities all the traffic in a given direction (motorists, pedestrians and cyclists) may get a green signal at the same time. Turning motor traffic is obliged to wait for cyclists and pedestrians to clear the junction before proceeding. In this situation all the transport modes get equal green time. In contrast, UK and Irish practice restricts pedestrians to a dedicated signal phase, separate from and usually much shorter than the green phase for motorists (e.g. 6–12 seconds, vs. signal cycle times of up to 120 seconds). If cyclists were to be segregated and treated in a similar manner this would imply a significant reduction in green time for cycle traffic at every junction. In the English city of Cambridge the use of cyclist-specific traffic signals is reported to have resulted in increased delays for cyclists, leading some to ignore the cycle-facilities and stay on the road. A similar example occurred in a Parisian bikepath scheme in 1999. Cyclists faced twice the number of traffic signals as motorised traffic and were expected to wait over one minute to get seven seconds of green time. Conversely, in Copenhagen cyclist-specific traffic signals on a major arterial bike lane have been linked to provide "green waves" for rush hour cycle-traffic, which time the lights so cyclists going an average speed are much more likely to encounter green lights on their trip.
Legal significance of on-road cycle facilities for various countries
|Marked and reserved||Marked limit, but not reserved||Shared cycle facilities|
|Description||Motorists are typically excluded from driving or parking, and cyclists might be obligated to use if available.||Motorists allowed to drive or park, cyclists not obligated to use.||No lane marked, typically a painted symbol or sign with legal access for cyclists and motorists|
|USA||The use of bikelanes is obligatory for cyclists in Alabama, California, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, New York, Oregon. In the other U.S.-states the use of bikelanes is not obigatory for cyclists.||Dashed cycle lanes still only have an "experimental" status. In contrast to shared lanes, the equality of rights for cyclists here is limited to a lane-in-lane.||shared lanes, car lanes with shared lane markings ("sharrows")|
|Canada||The use of bikelanes is obligatory for cyclists in Quebec. In the other Provinces the use of bikelanes is not obigatory for cyclists.||shared lanes, car lanes with shared lane markings ("sharrows").|
|United Kingdom||mandatory cycle lane, reserved but not obligatory, limited by a continuous line||Advisory cycle lane, not reserved, limited by a dashed line|
|Netherlands||fietsstrook met doorgetrokken streep, "bicycle lane with continuous line". Fietsstrook met onderbroken streep, "bicycle lane with dashed line", also obligagtory for cyclists but shared by motorists||fietssuggestiestrook ("suggested cycle lane"), no obligation nor reservation, no bicycle pictograms, red ground (and mostly a dashed line) or distinctive texture|
|Belgium ||fietspad (Flemish) = piste cyclable (French), no distinction from cycletrack in Belgian legal terminology, marked by dashed lines on both sides||fietssuggestiestrook= bande cyclable suggérée (suggested cycle lane), coloured ground (but never in red) with pictograms||sharrows on a shared lane|
|France||bande cyclable obligatoire ("obligatory cycle lane"), continuous line, traffic sign "obligatory cycleway". bande cyclable conseillée et réservée (recommended & reserved cycle lane), non-oblligatory, dashed line, sign "facultative cycleway", pictograms like on shared lanes||voies partagées (shared lanes) with shared lane markings.|
|Germany||Radfahrstreifen ("cycle lane"), continuous line, traffic sign "(obligatory) cycleway"||Schutzstreifen ("protective lane"), dashed line and simple bicycle pictograms: Normally cars have to keep left, cyclists right of the border, but for certain reasons it may be traversed, mutually.||The traffic laws provide shared use only in bus lanes, but do not forbid shared lane markings in ordinary lanes; simple bike pictograms|
|Austria||Radfahrstreifen ("cycle lane"), continuous line, traffic sign "obligatory cycleway"||Mehrzweckstreifen ("multi-purpose lane", similar to shoulder)|
|Switzerland||Radstreifen, colloqially Velostreifen (both mean "cycle lane"), limited by yellow continuous lines (only exceptional)||Radstreifen, colloqially Velostreifen (both mean "cycle lane"), limited by yellow dashed lines||rare use because disapproved by federal law|
|Czech Republic||vyhrazený (cyklistický) jízdní pruh or "reserved (cycle-) lane", limited by a continuous line, signed "cycletrack"||cyklistický jízdní pruh = "cycle lane", limited by a dashed line, simple bicycle pictograms||files of shared lane markings are called piktogramový koridor or cyklopiktokoridor, they have sharrows and no marked border|
|Italy||corsia ciclabile (cycle path)|
Legal signifiance of cycle tracks in European countries
Cycle tracks typically exclude all motorized vehicles for most countries. Some exceptions are made, such as in the Netherlands, for light motorbikes. Some jurisdictions require cyclists to use cycle tracks if present (obligatory cycle tracks) or allow cyclists to either use the cycle track or a parallel roadway (facilitative cycle tracks).
- In the United Kingdom, cycletracks are defined as cycleways physically separated from the carriageway. Their usage is not obligatory, I. e. cyclists may also ride on the parallel cariageway. They may not ride on the sidewalk, but pedestrians are allowed to walk on the cycletrack, if there is no sidewalk.
- In the Netherlands, most major roads have cycletracks and most cycletracks (fietspaden) exclude motorized vehicles and cyclists are required to use them if available. Light motorbikes are allowed and obliged to use some cycle tracks marked as fiets- en bromfietspaden. Non-obligatory cycletracks are rare but where they exist, they are indicated by signs using the word fietspad instead of a bicycle logo.
- In Belgium, the traffic law does not distinguish roadside cycletracks from cyclelanes on the carraigeway. All roadside cycletracks exclude motorized vehicles and cyclists are obliged to use them.
- In France, cyletracks and cycle lanes exclude all motorized traffic. Until 2009 cyclists were obligated to use them if present, but currently cycle tracks and cycle lanes are marked as "conseillée et réservée" (reserved and recommended). By law, most cycletracks ought to be facilitative, but most local authorities are delaying the replacement of round panels (obligatory) by rectangular ones (advisory).
- Germany's cycle track network is much less dense than that of the Netherlands, with the exception of the northwestern states which border the Netherlands. At the same time their cycle track network is still is higher than in other neighbouring countries such as France or southern Belgium. In 1998, Germany changed the law so that cyclists were no longer obligated to use cycleways if they were present. The non-obligatory ones have to be visible by design, but no panel sign existed. Since beginning of 2014, there is the possibility to signpost bidirectional non-obligatory roadside cycletracks using additional panels. There are big differences among the local applications of these laws. Extreme cases are the two cities with the highest cycling rates: in Münster, on almost all cycletracks cyclists are obligated to use them if present, in Bremen more than 75% are not. In Bremen, some cycle tracks have been displaced by traffic calming on the carriageway or by cycle lanes. Also Berlin, Cologne, Munich and Hamburg are making campaigns to convert obligatory cycletracks to facilitative ones or to displace them by cycle lanes (especially Hamburg)
- In Poland cycle tracks exclude motorized vehicles and can be marked as obligatory or facilitative cycletracks.
- In Italy, all cycle tracks exclude motorized vehicles and require cyclists to use them if present  as is also the case in Switzerland.
- In Austria, cycle tracks exclude motorized vehicles and since 2014 have made them optional for cyclists, with rectangular signs to differentiate from the typical round signs. A similar rectangular version was created for combined foot-and-cycleways and for cycleway and adjacent footway.
- Austrian cycletrack signs
Controversies & criticism
Some detractors argue that one must be careful in interpreting the operation of segregated cycle facilities across different designs and contexts; what works for the Netherlands won't necessarily work elsewhere. Proponents argue that segregated cycle facilities have been implemented and are both popular and safe.
The Netherlands, detractors argue, is a flat country and the compact design of Dutch towns keeps cycling distances short as reflected in the Dutch people's choice of bicycle, i.e. the typical Dutch roadster, which has either no gears or a three-speed hub gear and back pedal brakes. Other countries may have different common urban designs, such as sprawling suburbs, and different cycling cultures where riders may ride bicycles with a wider range of gears and like to travel more quickly, such as those who cycle regularly for sport and exercise, who may choose to ride to incorporate some aerobic exercise into their day. So, while a sidepath system may work for slower cyclists, detractors argue, they might not work for cyclists using faster bicycle types who cannot use such a system safely at their higher normal cycling speeds. However, this is contradicted by members of the Royal Dutch Cycling Union, who state that Dutch competitive cyclists have no problems with training in the Netherlands. The Danish Roads Directorate state that the cycle track system "functions best when cyclists travel at relatively low speeds" but what is meant by 'relatively low speeds' is not made clear. There are instances where cycle tracks / sidepaths can accommodate fast cycling as evidenced in this video of a velomobile on a Dutch cycle track.
As more cycle tracks are built in North American cities, more research is being conducted on the uptake and safety of cycle tracks. North American cities that have recently installed cycle tracks have seen significant growth in cyclists using these roads. It is useful, therefore, to use North American examples of cycle tracks/side paths and compare them to similar roads used by cyclists. This will provide better data using cyclists on similar terrain and presumably similar bicycles and experience.
Cycling activists in favour of vehicular cycling have opposed cycle tracks and paths on the principle that they might be created with the "fast cyclist type" in mind. The UK’s Sustrans guidelines for the National Cycle Network are based on recreational use with a design user who is an unaccompanied twelve-year-old. The Dublin Transportation Office has advertised their cycle facilities as being based on an unaccompanied ten-year-old design user. This raises the issue of what happens if different cyclist types find themselves forced onto such devices either by legal coercion or as a result of motorist aggression. This issue is captured in a 1996 review of the Sustrans approach from the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
The fast cycle commuter must not be driven off the highway onto a route that is designed for a 12-year-old or a novice on a leisure trip, because if that happens, the whole attempt to enlarge the use of the bicycle will have failed
Facilities must be made wide enough for the street sweepers and snow plows typically used in a locale, or the locale will need to ensure that they are regularly swept or plowed by machines that will fit.
Some locales have issues with debris in the cycle paths, such as Milton Keynes, UK, finding that cycle path users are seven times more likely to get punctures than are road cyclists. In Ireland some cyclists have demanded simultaneous commitment to maintenance and sweeping as cycle paths are built.
In areas subject to high leaf-fall in autumn, or high snowfall in winter, any cycle facilities must be subject to regular clearing if they are to remain usable. Danish guidance specifies three different categories of cycle track. Category "A" tracks must be kept clear of snow 24 hours a day, category "B" tracks are swept or cleared daily, and category "C" receive less regular winter maintenance. In 2007 the city of Copenhagen spent DKK 9.9 million (US$1.72 million, €1.33 million) annually on maintaining its cycle track network. German federal law requires local authorities to declassify cycle tracks that do not conform to strict design and maintenance criteria. In the UK, facilities for non-motorized traffic are not normally salted or gritted in icy conditions, potentially making them dangerous or unrideable.
Cycle lanes avoid this problem, as they are part of the road and can be easily accessed by maintenance vehicles operating on that road, incuring no extra cost. They only becomes filled with debris if the road is not maintained or the lane is purposely avoided.
Tracks used at night can be illuminated by conventional means, or by paving with glowing material.
There are many factors, such as cycle tracks and other cycling infrastructure, which contribute to cycling levels. A number of cities have demonstrated that particular cycle tracks will increase bike traffic on those routes, as shown, for example, in Montreal, New York City and Copenhagen. Bike usage increased by 40% in areas of Montreal where the city invested in bike paths and lanes. In Copenhagen bike traffic increased by about 20% because of the construction of cycle tracks. The construction of separated bike lanes on Dunsmuir Street and Viaduct in Vancouver, Canada, saw bike traffic volumes on the street more than double from before the construction. NYC likewise saw cycling rates nearly triple on weekdays and doubled on weekends when the bike path was installed alongside Prospect Park West.
Seville, Spain, is an example of what is possible on a city scale when a large investment is made in cycling infrastructure over a short period of time. In 2006 there were around 6000 bike trips made daily in the city of around 700,000. By 2009 there were about 50,000 daily bike trips. During those three years 8 urban bike paths totaling 70 km were built; the city centre was closed to motorised traffic; school projects were funded to create safe school paths; traffic calming measures were provided in school districts and the bicycle sharing system ‘Sevici’ was launched. The combination of all these factors helped to create a dramatic change in cycling rates.
After a certain trip modal share it may take more than just installing cycle tracks to create large increases in cycle rates. Cycling rates in the Netherlands peaked in the 1960s and dropped dramatically until the mid-1970s. The decline in bicycle use was "not only caused by mass motorization but also by the related, fairly unco-ordinated process of urbanization and by scores of social, spatial and economic developments", such as a decrease in population density and increased travel distances. The bicycle was almost completely left out of the national government's vision. Certain cities, however, such as Amsterdam and Eindhoven, were slowly implementing more bicycle-positive policies: for example, bike-only streets and allowing cyclists to ignore one way streets. Throughout the 70s cycling rates increased, but the investments in bike paths made in the subsequent period had less effect. Between the late 1980s and early 1990s the Netherlands spent 1.5 billion guilders (US$945 million) on cycling infrastructure, yet cycling levels stayed practically the same.
When the flagship Delft Bicycle Route project was evaluated, the Institute for Road Safety Research claimed that the results were "not very positive: bicycle use had not increased, neither had the road safety. A route network of bicycle facilities has, apparently, no added value for bicycle use or road safety". The study by Louisse, C.J. et al. however, did find that "[a]lthough the total number of victims among cyclists did not decline, the percentage of fatalities and severely injured did drop dramatically." A more comprehensive policy change in addition to bicycle routes, on the other hand, helped to raise the cycling rates in Groningen where 75% of all traffic is by bike or foot. Groningen focused on land use policy, city planning and economic policy changes to achieve very high cycling rates.
In the UK, a ten-year study of the effect of cycle facilities in eight towns and cities found no evidence that they had resulted in any diversion from other transport modes. The construction of 320 kilometres (200 mi) of "Strategic cycle network" in Dublin has been accompanied by a 15% fall in commuter cycling and 40% falls in cycling by second and third level students.
In some locales bike traffic increases first and bike paths and lanes are installed in order to catch up to the demand. For instance, bike planning in Davis, California was driven by the prior existence of a "dramatic volume" of cyclists in the 1960s. Research on the German bicycle boom of the 1980s paints a picture of German local authorities struggling to keep up with the growth of cycling rather than this growth being driven by their interventions. In relation to the UK, it has been argued that locally high levels of cycling are more likely to result from factors other than cycle facilities. These include an existing cycling culture and historically high levels of cycle use, compact urban forms, lack of hills and lack of barriers such as high speed intersections.
However, Pucher and Buehler, U.S.-based researchers, have stated that "the provision of separate cycling facilities" appears to be one of the keys to the achieving of high levels of cycling in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.
Segregating cyclists controversy
In some cases, cycle paths have been constructed so bicycles could be prohibited from the main roadway. There is a debate among cyclists as to whether this is for the benefit of motorists or bicyclists.
In 1996 the UK Cyclists' Touring Club and the Institute of Highways and Transportation jointly produced a set of Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure guidelines that placed segregated cycling facilities at the bottom of the hierarchy of measures designed to promote cycling. Planners at the Directorate Infrastructure Traffic and Transport in Amsterdam place cyclists and motorists together on roads with speed limits at or below 30 km/h (19 mph), and segregate them through bicycle lanes at higher limits. This is in a context where most of the measures prioritised by Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure (HGV restrictions, area-wide traffic calming, speed limit enforcement etc.) are already in place – see Utility cycling for more detail.
Bikeways that use independent rights-of-way
Bike paths that follow independent rights-of-way are less controversial. Such paths are often used to promote recreational cycling. In Northern European countries, cycling tourism represents a significant proportion of overall tourist activity. Extensive interurban bike path networks can be found in countries such as Denmark or the Netherlands, which has had a national system of cycle routes since 1993. These networks may use routes dedicated exclusively to cycle traffic or minor rural roads whose use is otherwise restricted to local motor traffic and agricultural machinery. The UK has recently implemented the National Cycle Network.
Where available these routes are often rail trails making use of abandoned railway corridors. A prominent example in the UK is the Bristol & Bath Railway Path, a 13 miles (21 km) bike path that is part of National Cycle Route 4. Other UK examples include The Ebury Way Cycle Path, The Alban Way, the Hillend Loch Railway Path and the Nicky Line. In 2003 the longest continuous bike path in Europe was opened, along the Albacete-Valdeganga highway in Spain, a distance of 22 kilometres (14 mi). Bogota's Bike Paths Network (Ciclorutas de Bogotá in Spanish), designed and built during the administration of Mayor Enrique Peñalosa attracts significant recreational use.
The relative safety of bike paths that follow independent rights-of-way closed to motorized traffic is difficult to assess. In terms of car/bicycle collisions, this is clearly mediated by how the bike path network rejoins the main road network. In the English town of Milton Keynes, a study showed that cyclists using the off-road Milton Keynes redway system had on a per-journey basis a significantly higher rate of fatal car-bicycle collisions at path/roadway crossings than cyclists on ordinary roads.
The consequences of other risks — falls, cyclist–cyclist collisions and cyclist–pedestrian collisions — are frequently not recorded in official accident figures and may be available only via local hospital surveys. As a general rule those bike paths with the highest perceived safety tend to be those engineered on the assumption of vehicular rather than pedestrian traffic. Thus the most popular examples tend to be converted road or railway alignments or constructed to the same standards used by road and railway engineers.
Rail trail on a converted railway corridor between Daun and Wittlich, Eifel, Germany
California Cycleway in 1900
Bicycle path in Portugal
Bicycle path in Pocuro, Chile
Chicago's lakefront bicycle path, USA
Separated by running underneath the motorway
Other types of bikeway infrastructure are also in use by cities. They are often used for different reasons: the locale may have a different planning philosophy, for example, officials may conclude that the balance of evidence is that segregated facilities are unsafe; the street may be too narrow for bike lanes or cycle tracks; the location may be inappropriate; or for political reasons it may be easier to install something other than a segregated cycle facility. They include:
- Shared space – Urban design concept that removes traditional segregation among motor vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists and replaces with more "people-oriented" infrastructure.
- Sharrows – Usually a bike symbol with chevrons painted in a regular lane to demarcate where cyclists should ride.
- Bicycle boulevard – a low speed street where through-traffic by motor vehicles is restricted while bicycle traffic is encouraged.
- List of cycling topics
- Motorcycle lane – similar facilities intended for motorcycle segregation from other vehicles.
- Department for Transport: The Geometric Design of Pedestrian, Cycle and Equestrian Routes
- NACTO: Urban Design Guide
- French bicycle assiciation FUBi, Pistes et bandes cyclables
- UK Department of Transport Legal Definition
- Code of Practice[dead link]
- Federal Highway Administration
- Lalonde, Michelle. "Bike paths reduce injuries: study" 10 February 2011.[dead link]
- Lusk, A. C.; Furth, P. G.; Morency, P.; Miranda-Moreno, L. F.; Willett, W. C.; Dennerlein, J. T. (2011). "Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street". Injury Prevention 17 (2): 131–5. doi:10.1136/ip.2010.028696. PMC 3064866. PMID 21307080.
- NCHRP Report 552, 2006, "Guidelines for Analysis of Investment in Bicycle Facilities", National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation research Board of the National Academies, page F-1
- Reynolds, Conor CO; Harris, M; Teschke, Kay; Cripton, Peter A; Winters, Meghan (2009). "The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: A review of the literature". Environmental Health 8: 47. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-8-47. PMC 2776010. PMID 19845962.
- http://www.bicyclinglife.com/Library/Moritz1.htm[full citation needed]
- Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen, S.U. Jensen, C. Rosenkilde, N Jensen, Road & Park, City of Copenhagen, Presentation to European Cycling Federation AGM 2006
- Bicycle Tracks and Lanes: a Before - After Study, Søren Underlien Jensen, Trafitec ApS 2007
- "Cycle Tracks: Lessons Learned" (PDF). Alta Planning. February 4, 2009.
- Teschke, Kay; Harris, M. Anne; Reynolds, Conor C. O.; Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Chipman, Mary; Cusimano, Michael D.; Brubacher, Jeff R.; Hunte, Garth; Friedman, Steven M.; Monro, Melody; Shen, Hui; Vernich, Lee; Cripton, Peter A. (2012). "Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study". American Journal of Public Health 102 (12): 2336–43. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300762. PMC 3519333. PMID 23078480. Lay summary – University of British Columbia (February 14, 2013).
- Prospect Park West Bicycle Path and Traffic Calming NYC Department of Transportation. Accessed on 7 February 2011
- Rische, Becky. "Bike lanes prevent over-correction by drivers, bicyclists reducing danger for both even when sharing narrow roads". University of Texas. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Hallet, Ian. "Evaluation of On-Street Bicycle Facilities Added to Existing Roadways". University of Texas. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Kenneth D. Cross (19 June 1974). "Identifying Critical Behavior Leading to Collisions Between Bicycles and Motor Vehicles". Anacapa Sciences, Inc. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
- Kenneth D. Cross (September 1977). "A study of bicycle/motor vehicle accidents: Identification " problem types and countermeasure approaches" (PDF). United States, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
- Galway Cycling Campaign http://www.eirbyte.com/gcc, compiled Wachtel and Lewiston and other studies
- Risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections, A. Wachtel and D. Lewiston, Journal of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, pp 30–35, September, 1994.
- Aultman-Hall, Lisa; Hall, Fred L. (1998). "Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on-and off-road incident rates". Accident Analysis & Prevention 30 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00059-6. PMID 9542542.
- Aultman-Hall, Lisa; Kaltenecker, M.Georgina (1999). "Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates". Accident Analysis & Prevention 31 (6): 675–86. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00028-7. PMID 10487343.
- http://vbn.aau.dk/files/14344951/agerholm_et_al._bicycle_paths.pdf[full citation needed]
- Berlin Police Department study, 1987, in English translation and in the original German, with commentaries (accessed 8 July 2007)
- Vélo Secur 90 – Issues of bicycling Safety. Report from the German Cycling Federation
- "Cycling in Berlin: overview of bicycle routes". Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "This is What a Bike-Friendly City Looks Like". Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Leif Linderholm: Signalreglerade korsningars funktion och olycksrisk för oskyddade trafikanter ─ Delrapport 1: Cyklister. Institutionen för trafikteknik, LTH: Bulletin 55, Lund 1984, In: »Russian Roulette« turns spotlight of criticism on cycleways, Proceedings of conference »Sicherheit rund ums Radfahren«, Vienna 1991.
- Junctions and Cyclists, S.U. Jensen, K.V. Andersen and E.D. Nielsen, Velo-city ‘97 Barcelona, Spain
- Proposed revised Highway Code Response to the further changes to rules 61 and 63, Cycle Campaign Network, June 2006
- Franklin, John (1999). "Two decades of the Redway cycle paths of Milton Keynes". Traffic Engineering & Control (Hemming) (July/August 1999).
- Franklin, John (2001). "Cycling in the wrong direction". Traffic Engineering & Control (Hemming) (May 2001).
- Franklin, John (2002). Achieving Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure. Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure Conference. University of Nottingham.
- Chapter 2 Car-Bike Crashes 1 Those Bothersome Bumps From Behind, Listening to Bike Lanes Jeffrey A Hiles, September 1996. (accessed 12 June 2006)
- Stone, Mervyn; Broughton, Jeremy (2003). "Getting off your bike: Cycling accidents in Great Britain in 1990–1999". Accident Analysis & Prevention 35 (4): 549–56. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00032-5. PMID 12729818.
- Moore, D.F. (1975). The Bicycle: a study of efficiency, usage and safety. Dublin: An Foras Forbatha. OCLC 500673422.[page needed]
- Collection of Cycle Concepts, Danish Roads Directorate, Copenhagen, 2000
- "Cyclists told to get off and walk at oral hearing on Seamus Quirke Rd". Galway Cycling Campaign. July 2002. Retrieved 13 July 2006.[dead link]
- Protected Insersection. Alta Planning & Design http://www.protectedintersection.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015. Missing or empty
- Crash-Type Manual for Bicyclists by Carol Tan, Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center FHWA-RD-96-104, 1996. Individual chapters: types: Motorist Overtaking Failed To Detect, Motorist Overtaking – Counteractive Evasive Actions, Motorist Overtaking – Counteractive Evasive Actions, Motorist Overtaking—Misjudged Passing Space.
- "Russian roulette" on sidepaths – sidepaths are the target of criticism – Rauh, W. (ARGUS Vienna), p. 78 of the proceedings of the Velo Secur 90 conference, Issues of Bicycling Safety, Lund University, 1990
- Cycle lane withdrawn after casualty rise, Cycle Campaign Network News, page 5, Issue No 45, March 2002
- Sicherung von Radfahrern a städtischen Knotenpunkten. Schnüll, R., Lange, J., Fabian, I., Kölle, M., Schütte, F., Alrutz, D., Fechtel, H.W., Stellmacher-Hein, J., Brückner, T. & Meyhöfer, H., Bericht zum Forschungsprojekt 8925 der Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt Nr. 262. Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt, Bergisch Gladbach, 1992
- Roundabouts : A State of the Art in Germany, Werner Brilon, paper presented at the National Roundabout Conference, Vail, Colorado, USA, 22–25 May 2005
- SWOV Factsheet: Roundabouts
- Cyclecraft: Skilled Cycling Techniques for Adults, John Franklin, The Stationery Office Books, UK, 2004 ISBN 0-11-702051-6
- Pedal Cyclists at Roundabouts, Layfield R.E. and Maycock G., Traffic Engineering and Control, June 1986
- Jacobsen, P L (2003). "Safety in numbers: More walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling". Injury Prevention 9 (3): 205–9. doi:10.1136/ip.9.3.205. PMC 1731007. PMID 12966006.
- Leden, Lars; Gårder, Per; Pulkkinen, Urho (2000). "An expert judgment model applied to estimating the safety effect of a bicycle facility". Accident Analysis & Prevention 32 (4): 589–99. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00090-1. PMID 10868762.
- Getting rid of the Cyclists: Frank Urry and the 1938 DoT Advisory Committee by Jeremy Parker, Bikereader.com (accessed 27 January 2007)
- Wardlaw, Malcolm (December 2002). "Assessing the actual risks faced by cyclists". Traffic Engineering & Control 43 (11): 420–4.
- Cycling Towards Health and Safety, Hillman et al., British Medical Association, Oxford University Press, 1992[page needed]
- Andersen, L. B.; Schnohr, P; Schroll, M; Hein, HO (2000). "All-Cause Mortality Associated with Physical Activity During Leisure Time, Work, Sports, and Cycling to Work". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (11): 1621–8. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.11.1621. PMID 10847255.
- Briefing Note: The Health Benefits of Cycling, Adam Coffman, Cyclists Touring Club (accessed 8 June 2007)
- "SWOV Fact sheet: Cyclists" (PDF). NL Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV). 2006.
- Does increasing intrigue and uncertainty compromise safety?, David Engwicht, Accessed 8 June 2007
- Road Safety Needs a New Vision, Road Safety Bill: A Safer Streets Coalition briefing for the House of Commons Standing Committee, Safer Streets Coalition (UK) 2006.
- Safety in Road Traffic for Vulnerable Users, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, OECD 2006
- ETRA apologises for "incorrect" motorist liability press release, Bike biz Breaking News, 4 March 2005
- Driver liability in Newsletter no 57, Dorset Cyclists’ Network, May 2007
- S.I. No. 182/1997: Road Traffic (Traffic and Parking) Regulations, 1997, Irish Statute Book
- The Effect of Bikelane System Design Upon Cyclists' Traffic Errors, John Forester, August 1978; Revised April 1982
- http://galwaycycling.org/archive/paths/paths02.html "Rules of the Road" a la Galway Corporation Galway Cycling Campaign 2002
- Cambridge bike lanes: political statement or road improvement? John S. Allen (accessed 8 June 2007)
- German Traffic Signs & Signals Brian's Guide to Getting Around Germany (accessed 7 June 2007)
- Pedestrian Facilities at Traffic Signal Installations: Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 8 Section 1 Part 1 – TA 15/81, UK DfT, 1981
- General Principles of Control by Traffic Signals Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 8 Section 1 – TA16/81, UK DfT, 1981
- Left Turn Lanes Cambridge Cycling Campaign, Document No. N9814 19 July 1989
- The scandal of Maréchaux, Opinion of bicyclists' organisations concerning the special corridor for the PC1 bus, Mouvement pour la défense de la bicyclette et al., October 1999 (accessed 8 March 2007)
- Green wave for cycles, Cycle Campaign Network News, No 85, November 2006
- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration: Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), 2009 Edition: Chapter 9C. Markings
- Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices: Dashed Bicycle Lanes
- Thunder Bay (Ontario): Informations for motorists and cylists on shared lanes and bike lanes
- The Highway Code, 59–82: Rules for cyclists
- www.gov.uk: Department for Transport: Know Your TRAFFIC SIGNS Official Edition
- Cambridge Cycling Campaign:Cycle lanes
- Dutch RVV, §1 – alphabetical list of terms
- Fietsersbond: Wat is een fietspad en wat is een fietsstrook? (What's a cycletrack and what's a cycle lane – in Dutch)
- 2013 version of German traffic law (in German)
- Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zur Straßenverkehrs-Ordnung (VwV-StVO) (General administrative rule for the application of the traffic law – in German)
- Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim, Kompetenzzentrum Radverkehr und VIA Köln: Die neuen ERA (Empfehlungen für Radverkehrsanlagen) – Radverkehrsführung auf der Strecke und im Verkehrsknoten (PDF), poster 11 – Fahrbahnführung
- Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Straßenverkehrsordnung 1960 Fassung vom 29. Oktober 2014 (Conceise Austrian traffic law of 1960, actually revised edition of 2014, in German)
- Tiefbauamt des Kantons Bern: Auszüge zu Verhaltens- und Verkehrsregeln sowie Markierungs- und Signalisationsvorschriften (Swiss traffic rules – excerpt for cyclists, edited by ths road department of the Canton of Bern (in German)
- Zákon o silničním provozu (The Czech road traffic law – in Chech language)
- Łódź:Pas ruchu czy droga dla rowerów?
- Sejmu RP: Prawo o ruchu drogowym
- Fietsersbond: Wat is een fietspad en wat is een fietsstrook?
- Légifrance (see fr.wiki): Code de la route parties législative et réglementaire
- http://www.codes-et-lois.fr/code-de-la-route/toc Code de la route
- http://www.code-route.org Liste et chronologie des éléments de signalisation routière en France
- http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/stvo_2013/index.html German Straßenverkehrsordnung (traffic law)
- German Verwaltungsvorschriften (rules for administrative application) concerning the traffic law
- TAZ vom 21. Februar 2012: Das Verkehrsressort verringert sukzessive die Zahl benutzungspflichtiger Radwege.
- Tiefbauamt des Kantons Bern: Auszüge zu Verhaltens- und Verkehrsregeln sowie Markierungs- und Signalisationsvorschriften
- Austrian traffic law, continuously actualized web presentation
- The Bikeway Controversy, J Forester, Transportation Quarterly, Vol 55 No 2. Spring 2001
-  Email exchange with Thorvald Veneberg on http://karlmccracken.sweat365.com/
- More people cycling, thanks to bike paths, posted by Monique Beaudin, Montreal Gazette. 24 Dec. 2010.
- Book reviews, The National Cycle Network-guidelines and practical details, M.N. Fargher, Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Transport, 117, p. 239, August 1996
- Two decades of the Redway cycle paths of Milton Keynes, J. Franklin. Traffic Engineering and Control, August 1999.
- Achieving a Cycling-Friendly Ireland: A National Cycling Promotion Policy Version 1.1, Cyclist.ie 19 October 2008.
- Cycle track maintenance, Copenhagen City Commune, accessed January 2007.
- New rights for cyclists, Allgemeine Deutsche Fahrrad Club (ADFC), November, 1997
- Britain Experiments with Glowing Bike Lanes by John Metcalf, Atlantic Cities
- Dunsmuir Results. City of Vancouver. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Promotion of Cycling Directorate General for Internal Policies, Structural and Cohesion Policies. European Parliament, 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- The Dutch Bicycle Master Plan 1999
- The autumn of the Bicycle Master Plan: after the plans, the products. Ton Welleman, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Velo-city conference Basle, 1995
- SWOV Fact sheet Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads, SWOV Institute for Road Safety, Leidschendam, Netherlands, October 2004
- Louisse, C.J.; Grotenhuis, D.H. ten & Vliet, J.M.C. van (1994). Evaluatie Fietsroutenetwerk Delft: lessen en leergeld voor integraal stedelijk beleid. In: J.M. Jager (ed.), Colloquium Vervoersplanologisch Speurwerk 1994. Implementatie van beleid. De moeizame weg van voornemen naar actie. CVS, Delft. pp. 937–956.
- UK: Cycle Routes, Traffic Advisory Leaflet 5/95, UK Department for Transport, 1995
- Comprehensive Bicycle Plan, City of Davis Public Works Department, May, 2001
- Maddox, Heath (2001). "Another look at Germany's bicycle boom: implications for local transportation policy & planning strategy in the USA". World Transport Policy & Practice 7 (3): 44–8.
- Assessing the Impact of Local Transport Policy Instruments Susan Grant-Muller (Editor), ITS Working Paper 549, Institute of Transport Studies, Leeds University, April 2000
- Pucher and Buehler (12 June 2008). "Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany" (PDF).
- Burkhard Horn (translated by Shane Foran) (9 March 1991). "The decline of a means of mass transport to the history of urban cycle planning". Bicycle Research Report 136. Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad Club/European Cyclists Federation (on the Galway Cycling Campaign website). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
- http://www-2.informatik.umu.se/adfc/fdf/fdf-218.html[dead link][full citation needed]
- Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure: Guidelines for Planning and Design, Institution of Highways and Transportation, Cyclists Touring Club, 1996.
- Two decades of the Redway cycle paths of Milton Keynes, J. Franklin (Cycling Skills and Safety Consultant), Traffic Engineering and Control, pp. 393–396, July/August 1999
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bikeways.|
- U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), 2009 MUTCD with Revisions 1 and 2, May 2012 (PDF)
- Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
- NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide
- PRESTO – "Promoting Cycling for Everyone as a Daily Transport Mode" is a project of the EU’s Intelligent Energy – Europe Programme granted by the Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI).]
- Collection of Cycle Concepts, Danish Roads Directorate, 2000.
- Bikeway Planning and Design, Chapter 1000, Caltrans Highway Design Manual, California USA, February 2001.
- The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries & crashes: a review of the evidence
- Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility in Europe by US Department of Transportation
- Bicycle sidepath hazards – at a university campus
- Bicycle infrastructure in the Netherlands video and blog explaining the Dutch approach of addressing cycling infrastructure safety
- Critiques of bikeways The Vehicular Cyclist
- Facility of the Month by the Warrington Cycle Campaign
- Road safety and perceived risk of cycle tracks and lanes in Copenhagen
- Shared Space – a UK TV news piece about an urban alternative to segregated cycling facilities
- Vassar Street critique – a detailed look at a sidepath design in Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Weird cycle lanes of Brighton – short and strange cycle lanes in Brighton
- Mexico City Ciclopista
- Livable Communities Resource Guide
- Cycle path safety: A summary of research
- Nepal needs a bicycle lane, census says