A bikini is generally a women's two-piece swimsuit. The design is simple: two triangles of fabric on top cover the woman's breasts and two triangles of fabric on the bottom cover the groin and the buttocks, leaving the woman's midriff exposed. What distinguishes the bikini from other swimsuits is its brevity. The size of the panty can range from full coverage to a revealing thong or g-string design.
The modern bikini was introduced by French engineer Louis Réard and separately by fashion designer Jacques Heim in Paris in 1946. Many western countries declared it illegal and Vatican declared it sinful. Popularized by filmstars like Brigitte Bardot and Ursula Andress it became common in most western countries by mid 1960s.
Further variants were added to the bikini family of beachwears and bathing costumes, contributing to the popular lexicon a variety of -kinis and -inis: Monokini, Microkini, Tankini, Trikini, Pubikini, Bandeaukini, Skirtini and Sling bikini. A man's brief swimsuit may also be referred to as a bikini. A variety of men's and women's underwear is also known as bikini underwear.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Bikini variants
- 4 Bikini underwear
- 5 Sports bikini
- 6 Men's bikini
- 7 Bikini body
- 8 Bikini waxing
- 9 Bikini tan
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
While the two-piece swimsuit as a design existed in classical antiquity, the modern design first attracted public notice in Paris on July 5, 1946. French mechanical engineer Louis Réard introduced a design he named the "bikini," taking the name from the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, where, four days earlier, the United States had conducted its first peace-time nuclear weapons test, part of Operation Crossroads. The island's English name is derived from the German name Bikini, given the atoll when it was part of German New Guinea, which itself is transliterated from the Marshallese name for the island, Pikinni, ([pʲi͡ɯɡɯ͡inʲːii̯]), meaning surface of coconuts. Réard hoped his swim suit's revealing style would create an "explosive commercial and cultural reaction" similar to the explosion on the Bikini Atoll, His name for the garment stuck with the media and public.
Through inappropriate analogy with words like bilingual, bifocal and bilateral, which contain the Latin prefix "bi-" (meaning "two" in Latin), the word bikini was first misinterpreted as consisting of two parts, [bi + kini] by Rudi Gernreich when he designed the monokini in 1964. Later swimsuit designs like the tankini and trikini were also named based on the erroneous assumption that the "bi-" in bikini denotes a two-piece swimsuit. These new coinages are results of a back-formation on the mistaken or false assumption that the "bi" in bikini stands for "two".
The origins of the two-piece swimsuit can be traced to antiquity, in Çatalhöyük and the Greco-Roman world. In the Coronation of the Winner, a mosaic in the floor of a Roman villa that dates from the Diocletian period (286–305 AD), young women appear in bikini-like garments playing sports including weight-lifting, discus throwing, running and ball-games. The mosaic, found in the Sicilian Villa Romana del Casale, features ten maidens who have been dubbed the "Bikini Girls". Other Roman archeological finds, particularly in Pompeii, depict the goddess Venus in a bikini. Statues of Venus wearing a bikini were discovered in the Casa della Venere. Other statues of the bikini-clad Venus were recovered from the tablinum of the House of Julia Felix and an atrium in the garden of Via Dell'Abbondanza.
In the 1920s, swimsuits were made from burlap. During the 1920s and 1930s, people shifted from "taking the waters" at spas along the Riviera and in Florida to "taking the sun," and swimsuit designs accommodated this shift. Rayon was used in the 1920s to manufacture tight-fitting swimsuits, but its durability and appearance retention were low, especially when wet. Rayon also had the lowest elastic recovery of any fiber. Jersey and silk were also used in the 1920s. By the 1930s, manufacturers had lowered necklines in the back, removed sleeves, and cut away the sides. Hollywood endorsed the new glamor in films like Neptune's Daughter in which Esther Williams wore provocatively named costumes such as "Double Entendre" and "Honey Child".
With new materials like latex and nylon, by 1934 the swimsuit started hugging the body and had shoulder straps that the wearer could lower to allow more tanning. By the early 1940s, two-piece swimsuits were frequent on American beaches. During World War II, war production required vast amounts of cotton, silk, nylon, wool, leather, and rubber. The War Production Board issued Regulation L-85 in 1942 that rationed the use of natural fibers, reducing the amount of fabric in women's beachwear by 10 percent. To meet the regulations, swimsuit manufacturers produced two-piece suits with bare midriffs.
The modern bikini
The modern bikini was introduced by French engineer Louis Réard and separately by fashion designer Jacques Heim in Paris in 1946. Réard was a car engineer but by 1946 he was running his mother's lingerie boutique near Les Folies Bergère in Paris. Heim was working on a new kind of beach costume. It comprised two pieces, the bottom large enough to cover its wearer's navel. In May 1946, he advertised it as the world's "smallest bathing suit". Réard sliced the top off the bottoms and advertised it as "smaller than the smallest swimsuit". The idea struck him when he saw women rolling up their beachwear to get a better tan.
Réard could not find a model to wear his design. He ended up hiring Micheline Bernardini, a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris. That bikini, a string bikini with a g-string back of 30 square inches (200 cm2) of cloth with newspaper type print, was introduced on July 5 at Piscine Molitor, a public pool in Paris. The bikini was a hit, especially among men, and Bernardini received 50,000 letters. Heim's design was the first worn on the beach, but the design was given its name by Réard. Réard's business soared. In advertisements he kept the bikini alive by declaring that a two-piece wasn't a genuine bikini "unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring."
French newspaper Le Figaro wrote, "People were craving the simple pleasures of the sea and the sun. For women, wearing a bikini signaled a kind of second liberation. There was really nothing sexual about this. It was instead a celebration of freedom and a return to the joys in life." In June 14, 1948 Newsweek wrote about a "1948 countertrend against the skimpy bikini style... which swept French beaches and beauty contests last year." In July 2, 1957 London Times defined bikini as "a small pair of pants and a brassière."
Sales did not pick up around the world as women stuck to traditional one-piece swimsuits. Réard went back to designing orthodox knickers to sell in his mother's shop. In 1950, Time magazine interviewed American swimsuit mogul Fred Cole, owner of Cole of California, and reported that he had "little but scorn for France's famed Bikinis." One writer described it as a "two-piece bathing suit which reveals everything about a girl except for her mother's maiden name." Modern Girl Magazine, a fashion magazine from the United States, was quoted in 1957 as saying, "it is hardly necessary to waste words over the so-called bikini since it is inconceivable that any girl with tact and decency would ever wear such a thing".
In 1951, the first Miss World beauty pageant, originally the Festival Bikini Contest, was organized by Eric Morley as an advertisement for swimwear at the Festival of Britain. The press welcomed the spectacle and referred to it as Miss World, and Morley registered the name as a trademark. When the winner Kiki Håkansson from Sweden was crowned in a bikini, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates. The bikinis were banned from the pageant and evening gowns introduced instead. Håkansson remains the only Miss World crowned in a bikini, a crowning that was condemned by the Pope. The bikini was banned from beauty pageants around the world after the controversy. Belgium, Italy, Spain and Australia also banned the swimsuit that same year.
The National Legion of Decency pressured Hollywood to keep bikinis from being featured in Hollywood movies. The Hays production code for US movies, introduced in 1930 but not strictly enforced till 1934, allowed two-piece gowns but prohibited the display of navels. The swimsuit was declared sinful by the Vatican and was banned in Spain, Portugal and Italy, three countries neighboring France, as well as Belgium and Australia, and it remained prohibited in many US states. As late as 1959, Anne Cole, one of the United State's largest swimsuit designers, said, "It's nothing more than a G-string. It's at the razor's edge of decency." Feminist groups published fliers against bikinis in the contest in 1970.
Rise to popularity
Though a success in postwar France, Americans deemed the bikini too risqué until Hollywood stars were photographed wearing them. During the 1950s, Hollywood stars Ava Gardner, Rita Hayworth, Lana Turner, Elizabeth Taylor, Tina Louise, and Marilyn Monroe took advantage of the publicity associated with the swimsuit and were photographed wearing it. Esther Williams, Betty Grable, Marilyn Monroe, and Brigitte Bardot also used the swimsuit as a career prop to their sex appeal. Pin ups of Hayworth and Esther Williams in the costume were widely distributed. Bikinis became more accepted in parts of Europe when worn by fifties "love goddess" actresses such as Bardot, Anita Ekberg, and Sophia Loren.
Brigitte Bardot, who was photographed wearing similar garments on beaches during the Cannes Film Festival (1953), helped popularize the bikini in Europe in the 1950s and created a market in the US. Photographs of Bardot in a bikini, according to The Guardian, turned Saint-Tropez into the bikini capital of the world, with Bardot identified as the original Cannes bathing beauty. Cannes played a crucial role in the career of Bardot, who in turn played a major role in promoting the Festival by starting the trend of being photographed in a bikini at her first appearance at the festival. In 1952, she wore a bikini in Manina, the Girl in the Bikini (1952) (released in France as Manina, la fille sans voiles), a film which drew considerable attention due to her scanty swimsuit. During the 1953 Cannes Film Festival, she worked with her husband and agent Roger Vadim and garnered significant attention when she was photographed wearing a bikini on every beach in the south of France.
Vogue magazine's June 1953 issue featured suits by California companys, including Cole of California, Caltex, Catalina and Rose Marie Reid. Brian Hyland's novelty-song hit "Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini" became a Billboard No. 1 hit during the summer of 1960. The song tells a story about a young girl who's too shy to wear her new bikini on the beach at a time when bikinis were considered risqué. Playboy first featured a bikini on its cover in 1962. The Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted two years later featuring Babette March in a white bikini.
Ursula Andress, appearing as Honey Rider in the 1962 James Bond film, Dr. No, wore a white bikini, which became known as the "Dr. No bikini". It is cited as the most famous bikini of all time and an iconic moment in cinematic and fashion history. Andress said that she owed her career to that white bikini, remarking, "This bikini made me into a success. As a result of starring in Dr. No as the first Bond girl, I was given the freedom to take my pick of future roles and to become financially independent." In 2001, Andress sold the Dr. No bikini she wore in the film at auction for £35,000 ($61,500).
In 1965, a woman told Time it was "almost square" not to wear a bikini. The magazine wrote two years later that "65% of the young set had already gone over." Raquel Welch wore a deer skin bikini in One Million Years B.C. (1966) that made her an instant pin-up girl. Welch was featured in the studio's advertising as "wearing mankind's first bikini", and the bikini was later described as a "definitive look of the 1960s". In 2011, Time listed Welch's B.C. bikini in the "Top Ten Bikinis in Pop Culture".
The film An Evening in Paris (1967), is mostly remembered because Bollywood actress Sharmila Tagore was the first Indian actress to wear a bikini in a film. She also posed in a bikini for the glossy Filmfare magazine. The costume shocked the conservative Indian audience, but it also set a trend of bikini-clad actresses carried forward by Zeenat Aman in Heera Panna (1973) and Qurbani (1980), Dimple Kapadia in Bobby (1973), and Parveen Babi in Yeh Nazdeekiyan (1982).
On September 9, 1997, Miss Maryland Jamie Fox became the first contestant in 50 years to compete in a two-piece swimsuit during the Preliminary Swimsuit Competition at the Miss America Pageant. By 1988 the bikini made up nearly 20% of swimsuit sales, more than any other model in the US, though one-piece suits made a comeback during the 1980s and early 1990s. Réard's company folded in 1988, four years after his death. By the end of the century, the bikini had become the most popular beachwear around the globe. According to French fashion historian Olivier Saillard, this was due to "the power of women, and not the power of fashion". As he explains, "The emancipation of swimwear has always been linked to the emancipation of women", though one survey indicates 85% of all bikinis never touch the water. Actresses in action films like Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle and Blue Crush made the two-piece "the millennial equivalent of the power suit", according to Gina Bellafonte of The New York Times,
Huludao City, Liaoning, China set the world records for largest bikini parade (2012), achieved by 1,085 participants and the largest bikini photo shoot, involving 3,090 women. According to Beth Dincuff Charleston, research associate at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The bikini represents a social leap involving body consciousness, moral concerns, and sexual attitudes." By the early 2000s, bikinis had become a US$811 million business annually, according to the NPD Group, a consumer and retail information company, and had boosted spin-off services like bikini waxing and the sun tanning industries.
While the name bikini was applied to the skimpy fashion that first revealed the wearer's navel, the fashion industry considers any two-piece swimsuit a bikini. Modern bikini fashions today are characterized by a simple, brief design: two triangles of fabric that form a bra and cover the woman's breasts and two triangles of fabric on the bottom forming a panty cut below the navel that cover the groin and the buttocks. The amount of coverage can vary widely, from a string bikini with very little coverage to a full design with maximum coverage. A topless swimsuit may still be considered a bikini.
The "-kini family" (as dubbed by author William Safire), including the "-ini sisters" (as dubbed by designer Anne Cole), has grown to include a large number of subsequent stylistic variations and an array of spinoff styles, often with a humorous lexicon — string bikini, monokini (also numokini or unikini; no top), seekini (transparent bikini), tankini (tank top, bikini bottom), camikini (camisole top, bikini bottom), hikini (also hipkini), "granny bikini" (bikini top, boy shorts bottom), thong, slingshot, minimini, teardrop, and micro.
In one major fashion show in 1985, there were two-piece suits with cropped tank tops instead of the usual skimpy bandeaux, suits that are bikinis in front and one-piece behind, suspender straps, ruffles, and daring, navel-baring cutouts. To meet the fast changing tastes, some manufacturers produce made-to-order bikinis in around seven minutes.
||A bandeaukini (alternatively called a bandini) is any bikini bottom worn with a bandeau as the top (no straps going over the shoulders). It is the oldest form of bikini, with earliest examples found in Sicilian Villa Romana del Casale (dubbed the "Bikini Girls) dating back to 4th century AD. Reintroduced, its appeal grew fast among young women, with bandeau tops edging into the sales of the classic tankini. Sometimes the same design has been called a bandeaukini and a tankini. Actress Halle Berry wore a skimpy bikini top with matching pants to the MTV Video Music Award, fueling the trend of wearing a bandeau top as an out-of-home dress.|
|Microkini||1995||A microkini is an extremely skimpy bikini. The designs for both women and men typically use only enough fabric to cover the genitals and, for women, the nipples. Any additional straps are merely to keep the garment attached to the wearer's body. Some variations of the microkini use adhesive or wire to hold the fabric in place over the genitals. Microkinis keep the wearer just within legal limits of decency and fill a niche between nudism and conservative swimwear.|
|Monokini||1964||A monokini (also called unikini or numokini) is a women's one-piece garment equivalent to the lower half of a bikini. The term monokini is also now used for any topless swimsuit, particularly a bikini bottom worn without a top. In 1964, Rudi Gernreich designed the original monokini in the US. His version looked like a bikini bottom suspended from two halter straps between breasts that were left bare. Peggy Moffitt, who modeled the suit for Gernreich, said it was a logical evolution of Gernreich's avant-garde ideas in swimwear design. The modern monokini, which is less racy than Gernreich's original design, and is also described as "more of a cut-out one-piece swimsuit," with designers using various materials to link the top and bottom sections together.|
|Pubikini||1985||Designer Rudi Gernreich unveiled the pubikini, a bathing suit designed to expose the wearer's pubic region, in 1985. It featured a thong-style bottom  while the front portion of the pubikini is a tiny V-shaped strip of fabric that dips below the woman's mons pubis, exposing her pubic hair and portions of her vulva.|
||The skirtini, which features a bikini top and a small, skirted bottom, is also an innovation for bikini-style clothes with more coverage. Two-piece swimsuits with usual skirt panels were popular the US before the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in woman's swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing. In 2011, The Daily Telegraph identified the skirted bikini as one of the top 10 swimwear design of the season.|
||The sling bikini (also known as sling-kini, suspender bikini or sling swimsuit) is an unbroken suit, technically one-piece, which leaves the entire sides of the torso and, like a thong most of the buttocks uncovered. There are monokini types, too. When designed for or worn by a men, it is has been called a mankini. Usually, a slingshot resembles a bikini bottom with the side straps extending upwards to cover the breasts and go over the shoulders, or encircling the neck while a second set of straps pass around the midriff (also known as pretzel bikini or pretzel swimsuit). Corresponding to the advent of Lycra, sling swimsuits first emerged in the early 1990s, and are more popular on the beaches of Europe. Sling bikinis were introduced in the mainstream in 1994, and became an instant hit for New York's major stores.|
|String bikini||1974||A string bikini (or a tie-side) gets its name from its design that consists of two triangular shaped pieces connected at the groin but not at the sides, where a thin "string" wraps around the waist tied together to connect the two parts. The first formal presentation of string bikini was done by Glen Tororich, a public relations agent, and his wife Brandi Perret-DuJon, a fashion model, for the opening of Le Petite Centre, a shopping area in the French Quarter of the New Orleans, Louisiana in 1974. String bikinis are one of the most popular variations of bikini.|
|Tankini||1998||The tankini is a swimsuit combining a tank top, mostly made of spandex-and-cotton or Lycra-and-nylon, and a bikini bottom introduced in the late 1990s. Tankini has rendered its name to things ranging from a lemonade-based martini (Tankini Martini) to server architecture (Tankini HipThread). Designer Anne Cole was the originator of this style, When her label introduced the tankini in 1998 it became and instant hit, and she scored the biggest hit of her career. Tankinis can be made of spandex-and-cotton or Lycra-and-nylon. A variation is named camkini, with spaghetti straps instead of tank-shaped straps over a bikini bottom.|
|Trikini||1967||The trikini appeared briefly in 1967, defined as "a handkerchief and two small saucers." It reappeared a few years ago as a bikini bottom with a stringed halter of two triangular pieces of cloth covering the breasts. The trikini top comes essentially in two separate parts. The name of this woman's bathing suit is formed from bikini, replacing "bi-", meaning "two", with "tri-", meaning "three". Dolce & Gabbana designed trikinis in summer 2005 as three scintillating sequined fabric pieces that barely covered the essentials. In a variation the three pieces are sold as part of one continuous garment. A variation called a strapless bikini or a no string bikini by various manufacturers, this swimwear is often a combination of pasties with a matching maebari-style bottom.|
Modern bikinis were first made of cotton and jersey. When DuPont introduced Lycra (spandex), it completely changed how suits were designed and who could wear them. "The advent of Lycra allowed more women to wear a bikini," said Kelly Killoren Bensimon, a former model and author of The Bikini Book. "It didn't sag, it didn't bag, and it concealed and revealed. It wasn't so much like lingerie anymore."
The fabrics and other materials used to make bikinis are an essential element of their style and crucial modifiers of swimsuit design. Bikinis have been made out of almost every material known. The use of cotton made the swimsuit more practical, and the increased reliance on stretch fabric after 1960 simplified construction; alternative swimwear fabrics such as velvet, leather, and crocheted squares surfaced in the early 1970s. Bikinis also now include the use of hardware, metal or stone jewelry pieces, to dress up the look and style of the bikini. The world's most expensive bikini was designed in February 2006 by Susan Rosen. The bikini, made up of over 150 carats (30 g) of flawless diamonds, was worth £20 million.
Types of underwear worn by both men and women are identified as bikini underwear because they are similar in size and form to the bottom half of a bikini bathing suit. For women, bikini underwear can refer to virtually any tight, skimpy, or revealing undergarment that provides less coverage to the midsection than traditional underwear, panties or knickers. For men, a bikini is a type of undergarment that is smaller and more revealing than men's briefs. Bikini briefs can be low- or high-side bikini briefs but are usually lower than true waist, often at hips, and usually have no access pouch or flap, legs bands at tops of thighs. String bikini briefs have front and rear sections that meet in the crotch but not at the waistband, with no fabric on the side of the legs.
Swimwear design always had close connections with underwear because of their shared proximity to the body. The difference is that swimwear takes underwear into the public arena. The swimsuit was and is closely aligned to underwear in terms of styling, and with the move from the private to public spaces. As underwear became more minimal and comfortable, unboned, unconstructed and the attitude towards the bikini changed. Between 1900 and 1940, the swimming costume became shorter and shorter, imitating the trend of underwear. Swimwear evolved from weighty wool to high tech second skin, eventually cross-breeding with sportswear, underwear and exercise wear, resulting in the interchangeable fashions of the 1990s.
As the swimsuit was evolving, the underwear started to change. In the 1920s women started discarding the corset, while the Cadole company of Paris started developing something they called the "breast girdle". During the Great Depression, panties and bras became softly constructed and were made of various elasticized yarns making underwear fit like a second skin. By 1930s underwear styles for both women and men were influenced by the new brief models of swimwear from Europe. Although the waistband was still above the navel, the leg openings of the panty brief were cut in an arc to rise from the crotch to the hip joint. The brief served as a template for most all variations of panties for the rest of the century. Warner standardized the concept of Cup size in 1935. The first underwire bra was developed in 1938. Beginning in the late thirties skants, a type of skanty men's briefs, were introduced, featuring very high-cut leg openings and a lower rise to the waistband. Howard Hughes designed the push-up bra worn by Jane Russell in The Outlaw in 1943. In 1950 Maidenform introduced the first official bust enhancing bra.
By the 1960s, the bikini swimsuit influenced panty styles and coincided with the cut of the new lower rise jeans and pants. In the seventies, with the emergence of skintight jeans, thong versions of the panty became mainstream, since the open, stringed back eliminated any tell-tale panty lines across the rear and hips. By 1980s the design of the French-cut panty pushed the waistband back up to the natural waistline and the rise of the leg openings was nearly as high (French Cut panties come up to the waist, has a high cut leg, and usually are full in the rear). As with the bra and other type of lingerie, manufacturers of the last quarter of the century marketed panty styles that were designed primarily for their sexual allure. This decade marks the sexualization and eroticization of the male body through advertising campaigns for brands such as Calvin Klein, particularly by photographers Bruce Weber and Herb Ritts. Male bodies and men's undergarments were commodified and packaged for mass consumption, and swimwear and sportswear were influenced by sports photography and fitness.
There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing Expulsim Ludere, an early version of handball, wearing a costume that has been identified as bikinis. Skimpy bikinis have become a major component of marketing various women's sports, raising some objections.  The bikini is an official uniform for beach volleyball and is widely worn in athletics. Towns like Porto Seguro in Brazil have become tourist attractions because of beach athletics in which bikinis are worn.
In 1994, the bikini became the official uniform of women's Olympic beach volleyball, although some sports officials consider it exploitative and impractical in colder weather. Competitors such as Natalie Cook and Holly McPeak agree with the FIVB's statements that the uniforms are practical for a sport played on sand during the heat of summer, but British Olympian Denise Johns argues that the regulation uniform is intended to be "sexy" and to attract attention.
In 1999, the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) standardized beach volleyball uniforms, with the swimsuit becoming the required uniform both for men and women. This drew the ire of some athletes. According to FIVB rules, female beach volleyball players have the option of playing in shorts or a one-piece swimsuit, but most players prefer the bikini. In early 2012, the International Volleyball Federation announced it would allow shorts (maximum length 3 cm (1.2 in) above the knee) and sleeved tops at the London 2012 Olympics. Richard Baker, the federation spokesperson, said that "many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible". At the time of the event, the weather at the evening games in London during 2012 was so cold that the players sometimes had to wear shirts and leggings. At the 2006 Asian Games at Doha, Qatar, only one Muslim country fielded a team in the beach volleyball competition because of concerns that the uniform was inappropriate. The Iraqi team refused to wear bikinis.
Dancers, sex appeal and bikinis worn by women players as much as athletic ability made beach volleyball the fifth largest television audience of all the sports at the Games at Bondi Beach in Australia in 2000 Olympics. Kimberly Bissell conducted a study on the camera angles used during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games beach volleyball games. Bissell found that 20% of the camera angles were focused on the women's chests, and 17% on their buttocks. Bissell theorized that the appearance of the players draws fans attention more than their actual athleticism. The popularity of Dead or Alive: Xtreme Beach Volleyball, a video game for Xbox, was attributed to the scantily clad women. In 2007, fans voted for contestants in the WWE Diva contest after watching them playing beach volleyball in skimpy bikinis.
During the 2004 Olympics, an exotic dance team from the Canary Islands entertained fans but drew some criticism from female competitors. During breaks in between points and matches, the group, wearing bikinis, raced on to the sand and danced to techno-pop music. Australian athlete Nicole Sanderson commented, "It's kind of disrespectful to the female players. I'm sure the male spectators love it, but I find it a little bit offensive."
Women in athletics often wear bikinis the same size as those worn in beach volleyball. Amy Acuff, a US high-jumper, wore a black leather bikini instead of a track suit at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Runner Florence Griffith-Joyner mixed bikini bottoms with one-legged tights at the 1988 Summer Olympics, earning her more attention than her record breaking performance in the Women's 200 meters event.
In the 2004 and 2008 Olympic Games, inclusion of bikini-clad athletes raised eyebrows. In the 2007 South Pacific Games, the rules were adjusted to allow players to wear less revealing shorts and cropped sports tops instead of bikinis. At the West Asian Games in 2006, organizers banned bikini-bottoms for female athletes and asked them to wear long shorts.
During 1950s to mid-1970s men's contest formats was often supplemented with women's beauty contests or bikini shows. The winners earned titles like Miss Body Beautiful, Miss Physical Fitness and Miss Americana, and also presented trophies to the winners of the men's contest. In the 1980s, the Ms Olympia competition started in the USA and in UK the NABBA (National Amateur Body Building Association) renamed Miss Bikini International to Ms Universe. In 1986, Ms Universe competition was divided in to two sections – "physique" (for a more muscular physique) and "figure" (traditional feminine presentation in high hills). In November 2010 IFBBF (International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness) introduced women's bikini contest for women who do not wish to build their muscles to figure competition levels.
Costumes are regulated – posing trunks (bikini briefs) for men and bikini for women. Female bodybuilders in America are prohibited from wearing thong or T-back swimsuits in contests filmed for television, though they are allowed to do so by certain fitness organizations. For men, the dress code specifies "swim trunks only (no shorts, cut-off pants, or Speedos)." A similar policy by Virginia FCCLA bans "skimpy bikini or thong type suits" for women and specifies "swim trunks" for men ("no speedos").
The Bikini Basketball Association is an American women's basketball league, created by Cedric Mitchell and A. J. McArthur in 2012. The players wear sports bras and boy shorts, during games. Commentators found it variously funny, offensive, and smart business. String bikinis and other skimpy clothes are also common in surfing. In 2001, Vicky Botwright, then 16th seeded in women's squash circuit and dubbed as the 'Lancashire Hot Bot', was prohibited by Women's International Squash Players Association (WISPA) from wearing her trademark outfit, a thong and a sports bra, in the British Open Championships. In 2004, Alexander Putnam competed in the London Marathon in a green thong and painted as a tropical tree to protest against logging in Congo.
The term men's bikini is used to describe types of men's swimsuits and underwear or similar garments. Men's bikinis can have both high or low side panels, string sides or tie sides, and most lack a button or flap front. Unlike swim briefs, bikinis are not designed for drag reduction and generally lack a visible waistband. Suits less than 1.5 inches wide at the hips are less common for sporting purposes and are most often worn for recreation, fashion, and sun tanning. An example of this style, known as the posing brief, is the standard for bodybuilding competitions. Male punk rock musicians have performed on the stage wearing women's bikini briefs. The 2000 Bollywood film Hera Pheri shows men sunbathing in bikinis, who were mistakenly believed to be girls from a distance.
Swimsuits shown in men's wear collections by Giorgio Armani, Dolce & Gabbana or Paul Smith have tended to be black and snug fitting, throwbacks to the designs of the 1930s and '40s. Gianni Versace's ads contain heroic depictions of Miami bathers in contrast to popular, sports-inspired beach wear—bright and baggy Bermudas or boxer shorts. The Greek designer Nikos Apostolopoulos put a different spin on his bathing suits (for both sexes, but with the focus on the male), making them anatomical creations, cut and stitched to outline the body and its sexual characteristics. Bikini tops for men are often seen as humorous.
As early as in 1950, American swimsuit mogul Fred Cole, owner of Cole of California, told Time magazine that bikinis were designed for "diminutive Gallic women", because "French girls have short legs" and "swimsuits have to be hiked up at the sides to make their legs look longer."  The New York Times reported the opinion that the bikini is permissible for people are not "too fat or too thin." In the 1960s Emily Post decreed, "(A bikini) is for perfect figures only, and for the very young." In The Bikini Book by Kelly Killoren Bensimon, swimwear designer Norma Kamali says, "Anyone with a tummy" should not wear a bikini. Since then, a number of bikini designers including Malia Mills have encouraged women of all ages and body types to take up the style. The 1970s saw the rise of the lean ideal of female body and figures like Cheryl Tiegs, who possessed the figure that remains in vogue in the 21st century.
The fitness boom of the 1980s led to one of the biggest leaps in the evolution of the bikini. According to Mills, "The leg line became superhigh, the front was superlow, and the straps were superthin." Women's magazines used terms like "Bikini Belly", and workout programs were launched to develop a "bikini-worthy body". The tiny "fitness-bikinis" made of lycra were launched to cater to the hardbodied ideal. The ideal was carried further by Elle Macpherson, who was featured six times on the cover of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue. One survey commissioned by Diet Chef, an UK home delivery service, reported by Daily Mail and The Today Show and ridiculed by More magazine showed that women should stop wearing bikinis by the age of 47. In 1993, Suzy Menkes, then Fashion Editor of the International Herald Tribune, suggested that women had begun to "revolt" against the "body ideal" and bikini "exposure." She wrote, "Significantly, on the beaches as on the streets, some of the youngest and prettiest women (who were once the only ones who dared to bare) seem to have decided that exposure is over." Nevertheless, professional beach volleyball player Gabrielle Reece, who competes in a bikini, claims that "confidence" alone can make a bikini sexy.
Bikini waxing is the epilation of pubic hair in and around the pubic region (also known as bikini line), commonly by women, by the use of wax. With certain styles of women's swimwear, pubic hair may become visible around the crotch area of a swimsuit. The bikini line delineates the part of a woman's pubic area which would normally be covered by the bottom part of a swimsuit. In the context of waxing, it is generally understood to describe any pubic hair visible beyond the boundaries of a swimsuit. Visible pubic hair is widely culturally disapproved of and, considered to be embarrassing, is often removed.
The bikini line delineates the part of a woman's pubic area which would normally be covered by the bottom part of a swimsuit. In the context of waxing, it is generally understood to describe any pubic hair visible beyond the boundaries of a swimsuit. With the reduction in the size of swimsuits, especially since the advent of the bikini after 1945, the practice of bikini waxing has also come into vogue.
Waxing or shaving pubic hair "removes a cushion against friction, leaves microscopic open wounds and exposes you to infections" - says Emily Gibson, MD. People who wax or shave their bikini areas face the risk of folliculitis, commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, an infection around the hair follicle,
Wearing a bikini exposes large amounts of skin to potentially dangerous UVB light.[notes 1] Overexposure to UVB radiation can cause sunburn and some forms of skin cancer, among other harmful effects. In humans, prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye, and immune system. Moreover, UVC radiation can cause adverse effects that can be mutagenic or carcinogenic. As a result, medical organizations recommend that bikini-wearers protect themselves from UV radiation by using sunscreen, which contain ingredients that have been shown to protect mice against skin tumors. However, some sunscreen chemicals produce potentially harmful substances if they are illuminated while in contact with living cells, and the quantity of sunscreen that penetrates the skin may be sufficient to cause damage. Chemical company BASF has incorporated nanotechnology into bikinis for better UV protection as wet clothes have reduced protection against UV light. Made of Day-Glo leopard skin polyamide (nylon)-6 these bikinis have titanium dioxide embedded and provide a variable sunblock factor-80 for the beach and 15 for a spring day.
- Menkes, Suzy (July 18, 1993). "Runways: Remembrance of Thongs Past". The New York Times. "The freedom of flesh and spirit symbolized by half-naked bodies romping on the shore has now lost its innocence. Skin cancer hangs like a baleful black cloud on the not-so-distant horizon. In southern England, health workers patrol beaches toting sunscreen sprays."
- Charleston, Beth Duncuff (October 2004). "The Bikini". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- "Bikini". Merriam-Webster. February 13, 2014.
- Agrawala, P.K. (1983). Goddesses in Ancient India (first ed.). Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-391-02960-6.
- Kathryn Westcott, "The Bikini: Not a brief affair", BBC News, 2006-06-05
- "Bikini Introduced". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
- Cocozza, Paula (June 10, 2006). "A little piece of history". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on September 27, 2008. Retrieved September 17, 2008.
- "Anatomy of an A-Bomb Test, 1946". Time Magazine. October 31, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2012. "In July 1946, the United States conducted two atomic tests at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific."
- Abo, Takaji; Bender, Byron; Capelle, Alfred; Debrum, Tony (1976). "Marshallese-English Dictionary". Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "The History of the Bikini". Time. July 3, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Tiny Swimsuit That Rocked the World: A History of the Bikini". Randomhistory.com. May 1, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- "Swimsuit Trivia – The Surprising History of the Bikini". Swimsuit-style.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011.[dubious ]
- Brij V. Lal; Kate Fortune (2000). The Pacific Islands: an Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-8248-2265-1. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Ruth Foster (June 2007). Nonfiction Reading Comprehension: Social Studies, Grade 5. Teacher Created Resources. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4206-8030-0. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Gold, David L. (2009). Studies in Etymology and Etiology. Universidad de Alicante. p. 101. ISBN 84-7908-517-7.
- Gurmit Singh; Ishtla Singh (2013). The History of English. Routledge. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-4441-1924-4.
- "the bi in bikini". Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Harper, Douglas. "bikini". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Verena Theile and Linda Tredennick, "New Formalisms and Literary Theory, page 45"
- "John Ayto, "Movers and Shakers: A Chronology of Words that Shaped Our Age"
- James, Peter J.; Thorpe, I. J.; Thorpe, Nick (1994). Ancient Inventions. Ballantine Books. p. 279. ISBN 0-345-40102-6.
- "Villa Romana del Casale". Val di Noto. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Guttmann, Allen (1991). Women's Sports: A History. Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-231-06957-X.
- Villa Romana del Casale. World Heritage Sites.
- Pompeian Households.
- "Stoa Image Gallery".
- "The Stoa Consortium".
- Beard, Mary; Henderson, John (2001). Classical Art. Oxford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-19-284237-4.
- MacDougall, Elisabeth B.; Feemster, Wilhelmina Mary (1979). Ancient Roman Gardens. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 38. ISBN 0-88402-100-9.
- Sydelle, John. "The Swimsuit Industry". The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Kadolph, Sara J. and Langford, Anna L. (2001). Textiles (9 ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-025443-6.
- "Vintage Swimwear Timeline". Glamoursurf.com. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Sandhu, David (August 4, 2003). "Nottingham: Bathed in nostalgia". London: The Telegraph.
- "History of the Bikini". Carnival.
- "World War II". The Price of Freedom: Americans at War. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- "Bikini". Fashion Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Adam Sage, "Happy birthday: the 'shocking and immoral' bikini hits 60", The Times, 2006-04-16
- Paula Cocozza, "A little piece of history", The Guardian, 2006-06-10
- The Bikini Turns 60, 1946 to 2006: 60 Years of Bikini Bathing Beauties, Lilith E-Zine
- Rosebush, Judson. "Michele Bernadini: The First Bikini". Bikini Science. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- Hoover, Elizabeth D. (July 5, 2006). "60 Years of Bikinis". American Heritage Inc. Archived from the original on September 9, 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2007.
- Will Mari, "Will's Word of the Week: bikini", The Daily, July 1, 2009
- Lena Lenček, The Beach: The History of Paradise on Earth, page 100, Penguin Group (USA) Incorporated, 1999, ISBN 9780140278026
- Sage, Adam (April 16, 2006). "Happy birthday: the 'shocking and immoral' bikini hits 60". London: The Times. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Stein; Meriwether, Lee (2006). Beauty Queen. Chronicle Books. p. 45. ISBN 0-8118-4864-7.
- Dewey, Susan (2008). Making Miss India Miss World. Syracuse University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-8156-3176-6.
- Lovegrove, Keith (2002). Pageant: The Beauty Contest. teNeues. p. 1967. ISBN 3-8238-5569-7.
- Shin, Han (2004). Beauty with a Purpose. iUniverse. p. 193. ISBN 0-595-30926-7.
- Selvedge: The Fabric of Your Life. Selvedge Ltd. 2005. p. 39.
- Surfing USA!: An Illustrated History of the Coolest Sport of All Time. MVP Books. 2005. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-89658-690-1.
- Magnanti, Brooke (June 7, 2013). "Miss World bikini ban: why it's no victory for feminists". London: Telegraph. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "The History of the Bikini". Time. July 3, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Salamone, Frank A. (2001). Popular Culture in the Fifties. University Press of America. p. 76. ISBN 0-7618-2103-1.
- Moseley, Rachel (2005). Fashioning Film Stars: Dress, Culture, Identity. BFI. p. 136. ISBN 1-84457-067-3.
- Johnson, William Oscar (February 7, 1989). "In The Swim". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Wandor, Michelene (1972). The body politic: writings from the Women's Liberation Movement in Britain, 1969–1972. p. 252, Stage 1. ISBN 978-0-85035-014-2.
- Turner, Julia (July 29, 2013). "A Brief History of the Bikini". Slate. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "Photos: On this day–July 5, 1946–the first bikini goes on sale". New Haven Register. July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Photos: On this day–July 5, 1946–the first bikini goes on sale". New Haven Register. July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Photos: On this day–July 5, 1946–the first bikini goes on sale". New Haven Register. July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Suzy Menkes, "Runways: Remembrance of Thongs Past", The New York Times, July 18, 1993
- Frank A. Salamone, Reflections on Theory and History in Anthropology, page 208, University Press of America, 2006, ISBN 0-7618-3454-0
- James Kitchling, "Short History of Bikinis and Swimsuits[dead link]", Articles Central, August 2, 2008
- Cari Beauchamp & Henri Béhar, Hollywood on the Riviera: The Inside Story of the Cannes Film Festival, page 165, W. Morrow and Co., 1992, ISBN 0-688-11007-X
- Vanessa R. Schwartz, It's So French!: Hollywood, Paris, and the Making of Cosmopolitan Film Culture, page 79, University of Chicago Press, 2007, ISBN 0-226-74243-1
- "The History of the Bikini". ELLE. April 23, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Lothrop, Gloria Ricci. "The Californai Bikini". California State University Northridge. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Suddath, Claire (July 5, 2011). "'Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini'". Time. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Bennett, Will (January 13, 2011). "Former Bond girl to sell Dr No bikini". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- Bensimon, Kelly Killoren (June 5, 2006). The Bikini Book. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51316-3. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- Lindner, Christoph (August 4, 2009). The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-8095-1. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- Weekes, Karen (April 5, 2007). Women know everything!: 3,241 quips, quotes, & brilliant remarks. Quirk Books. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-59474-169-2. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- Filmfacts 1967 Vol. 10 No. 4. University of Southern California Division of Cinema, American Film Institute. June 15, 1967. p. 42. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: a pop culture encyclopedia of the late 20th century. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-7407-5118-9. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Gayomali, Chris (July 5, 2011). "Raquel Welch's Fur Bikini in One Million Years B.C. - Top 10 Bikinis in Pop Culture". Time. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Stuff Reporter, "Being Sharmila, all through life", The Hindu, April 3, 2006
- Lalit Mohan Joshi & Gulzar, Derek Malcolm, Bollywood, page 20, Lucky Dissanayake, 2002, ISBN 0-9537032-2-3
- B. K. Karanjia, Blundering in Wonderland, page 18, Vikas Publishing House, 1990, ISBN 0-7069-4961-7
- Sharmila Tagore, First Indian actress to wear bikini
- Various writers, Rashtriya Sahara, page 28, Sahara India Mass Communication, 2002
- Ghosh, Avijit (July 2, 2006). "Bollywood's unfinished revolution". The Times of India.
- "That itsy bitsy thing". Times of India. June 16, 2006.[dead link]
- "Photos: On this day – July 5, 1946 – the first bikini goes on sale". New Haven Register. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- Cornwell, Rupert; John Lichfield (June 17, 2006). "Boom and Bust: The nuclear age and the bikini age". London: The Independent. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Rubin, Sylvia (July 2, 2006). "Fashion shocker of '46: the naked belly button". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2013.[dead link]
- Cornwell, Rupert; John Lichfield (June 17, 2006). "Boom and Bust: The nuclear age and the bikini age". London: The Independent. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Jayne Dawson, "Sexy at 60", July 25, 2006
- Largest Bikini Parade, Official Website: Guinness Book of World Records
- Largest Bikini Photo Shoot, Official Website: Guinness Book of World Records
- Sylvia Rubin, "Fashion shocker of '46: the naked belly button[dead link]", San Francisco Chronicle, July 2, 2006
- Lorna Edwards, "You've still got it, babe, The Age, June 3, 2006
- Patton, Susan Ruiz (September 11, 1997). "A Bikini Isn't The Choice Of Miss Pa. For The First Time In 77 Years, Contestants In Miss America Pageant Can Choose Their Swimwear. Heather Busin Prefers One-piece". McCalls. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "Swimsuit Styles - Bikini". Swimsuit-Style.com.[dubious ]
- William Safire, No Uncertain Terms, page 291, Simon & Schuster, 2003, ISBN 0-7432-4955-0
- Trish Donnally, ""Inis" Are In", San Francisco Chronicle, May 18, 1999
- Barry J. Blake, Playing with Words: Humour in the English Language, page 59, Equinox, 2007, ISBN 1-84553-330-5
- David Diefendorf & James Randi, Amazing ... But False!: Hundreds of "Facts" You Thought Were True, But Aren't, page 33, Sterling, 2007, ISBN 1-4027-3791-2
- Blake, Barry J. (2007). Playing with Words: Humour in the English Language. Equinox. p. 59. ISBN 1-84553-330-5.
- Fashion Correspondent, "Swimsuits take some inspiration from the past", Philadelphia Inquirer, November 10, 1985
- Siobhan Morrissey, "Bikinis made in teeny-weeny time, Palm Beach Post, page 1D, August 28, 1991
- Kelly Killoren Bensimon, The Bikini Book, Assouline, 2006, ISBN 2-84323-825-0
- Becky Homan, "Tankini goes over the top", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 3, 1999
- Patricia Marx, "On and Off the Avenue: Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weeny", page 32, The New Yorker, August 31, 2009, Volume 85, Issues 26, New Yorker Magazine Inc.
- Whitney Friedlander, That's why they're called 'bathing' suits, Los Angeles Times, May 23, 2010
- Villa Romana del Casale, UNESCO
- "Just chillin, This season's swimsuits boast new flirty styles, retro looks", Ocala Star-Banner, June 1, 2005
- Rena Fulka, "Seasonal style", The Star (Tinley Park), June 14, 2007
- Becky Homan, "Tankini goes over the top", Page 42, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 3, 1999
- "Heat relief, what suits are hot - from tops to bottoms", San Jose Mercury News, page 1E, June 8, 2001
- Microkini[dead link] at Merriam-Webster's Open Dictionary
- Mistrík, Erich, Pseudo-Concrete Ideals Of A Good Life, Human Affairs (2/2008), Department of Social & Biological Communication, Slovenská Akadémia Vied, Slovakia
- The Concise Oxford Dictionary (2004 ed.)
- "Everything Bikini". Everything Bikini. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Bikini Science". Bikini Science. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Gernreich Bio". Gernreich.steirischerbst.at. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Monokini". LoveToKnow. Archived from the original on October 26, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
- Wexler, Kathryn (July 17, 2007). "Swimsuit trends for next spring". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
- Elizabeth Gunther Stewart, Paula Spencer & Dawn Danby, The V Book: A Doctor's Guide to Complete Vulvovaginal Health, page 104, Bantam Books, 2002, ISBN 0-553-38114-8
- Ellen Shultz, ed. (1986). Recent acquisitions: A Selection, 1985-1986. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 48. ISBN 978-0870994784.
- Nada Manley, "Beauty & the Beach: The perfect swimsuit is out there - honestly", The Daytona Beach News-Journal, March 17, 2005
- Bikini Introduced, This Day in History, History Channel
- Justine Picardie, The Closet Thinker: bathing beauties, Telegraph Online, July 3, 2011
- Jenny Pate, History of the swimsuit, Article Dashboard
- Slingshot Suspender Bikinis: A History[dead link], Lve to know swimsuits, Glam Publisher Network
- Fashion Correspondent, "Itsy bitsy teenie weenie ... trivia think swimsuits. If two-pieces and t-backs are all that come to mind ... think again", Miami Herald, page 1G, July 15, 1995
- Valerie Steele, Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, page 121, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, ISBN 0-684-31396-0
- "Tankini". Oup.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.[dead link]
- Alisha Davis, "It Rhymes With Bikini[dead link]", Newsweek, May 4, 1998
- Cornelia Schinharl, Sebastian Dickhaut & Kelsey Lane, Party Basics: Everything You Need for the World's Best Party, page 98, Silverback Books, 2002, ISBN 1-930603-91-6
- Don Jones & Mark D. Scott, Using Microsoft Commerce Server 2002, page 211, Que Publishing, 2002, ISBN 0-7897-2763-3
- Laura Avery & Thomson Gale, Newsmakers: Cumulation, page 118, Thomson Gale, 2007, ISBN 0-7876-8091-5
- Anne D'Innocenzio, "Big fish rule a bigger pond[dead link]", Women's Wear Daily, January 24, 2000
- Kathryn Bold, "Summer Sizzle Top to Bottom", Los Angeles Times, page 1, March 21, 1996
- William Safire, No Uncertain Terms, page 291, Simon & Schuster, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-5812-6
- John Ayto, Ian Crofton & Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable, page 78, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006, ISBN 0-304-36809-1
- Robert L. Chapman & Harold Wentworth, New Dictionary of American Slang, page 446, Harper & Row, 1986, ISBN 0-06-181157-2.
- Associated Press, "Free and easy[dead link]", The Age (Australia), 2004 -06-29
- John Karl, "Under cover Designers are wrapping swimsuits with stylish designs[dead link], Sarasota Herald Tribune, 200-02-08
- "Pastease website - Strapless Bikini". Pastease.com.au. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- bikini no string bikinis. "The Bikini website - No String Bikini gallery". The-bikini.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Bikini. Micro (January 8, 2013). "No String Bikini". Bikinidotmicro.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Rubin, Sylvia (July 2, 2006). "Fashion shocker of '46: the naked belly button / But the bikini wasn't a hit until Sixties". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Rosebush, Judson. "Materials". Bikini Science. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Dawson, Jayne (July 25, 2006). "Sexy at 60".
- "The History of Underwear". Boxerbriefs.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Jennifer Craik, The Face of Fashion: Cultural Studies in Fashion, page 133, Routledge, 1993, ISBN 9781134940561
- Christine Schmid, The Swimsuit: Fashion from Poolside to Catwalk, page 6, A&C Black, 2013, ISBN 9780857851246
- Dan Parker, The Bathing Suit: Christian Liberty Or Secular Idolatry, page 170, Xulon Press, 2003, ISBN 9781591607533
- Muriel Barbier, Shazia Boucher, The Story of Lingerie, page 139, Parkstone International, 2012, ISBN 9781780429700
- Christine Schmid, The Swimsuit: Fashion from Poolside to Catwalk, page 102, A&C Black, 2013, ISBN 9780857851246
- Anthony Napoleon, Awakening Beauty", page 130, Virtualbookworm Publishing, 2003, ISBN 9781589393783
- Daniel Delis Hill, As Seen in Vogue: A Century of American Fashion in Advertising, page 158, Texas Tech University Press, 2007, ISBN 9780896726161
- Lisa Cole, Lingerie, the Foundation of a Woman's Life, page 45, Choice Publications, 2005, ISBN 9780971180345
- Christine Schmid, The Swimsuit: Fashion from Poolside to Catwalk, page 19, A&C Black, 2013, ISBN 9780857851246
- John Anthony Cuddon, The Macmillan Dictionary of Sports and Games, page 393, Macmillan, 1980, ISBN 0-333-19163-3
- Laura Grae Kilborn, "The Marketing Of Female Athletes", Denver Post, August 11, 1998
- James Brooke, "In the Land of Lambada", March 10, 1991
- "Aussies opt for bikini cover-up". BBC News. January 5, 2000.
- "Natalie Cook defends bikini".
- "Olympic Uniforms: Less Clothing Means Better Results". ABC News.
- Post (March 13, 2012). "Denise Johns: There is more to beach volleyball than girls in bikinis". London: Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "Bikini blues – Beach volleyball makes the swimsuit standard". CNN.[dead link]
- "Beach Volleyball". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[dead link]
- "FIVB: Official BEACH VOLLEYBALL Rules 2009–2012". "Rule 5.1.1: "A player's equipment consists of shorts or a bathing suit. A jersey or 'tank-top' is optional except when specified in Tournament Regulations"
- "FIVB: Olympic Beach Volleyball Tournaments Specific Competition Regulations Regulations 24.2 and 24.4".
- "London 2012 Olympics: female beach volleyball players permitted to wear less revealing uniforms". Telegraph. March 27, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "Beach volleyball but not beach weather: Aussies lose close match as cold bites". Canberra Times. July 29, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Associated Press, In Doha, beach volleyball bikinis create cultural clash, Ynet News, March 12, 2006; Retrieved: March 12, 2008
- Stuff Writer, "Beach volleyball a popular spectator sport", ESPN, August 16, 2004
- Bissell, Kimberly; Andera Duke (2007). "Bump, Set, Spike: An Analysis of Commentary". Journal of Promotion Management 13: 35–53. doi:10.1300/J057v13n01_04.
- Gray, Emma (August 2, 2012). "Beach Volleyball Photos Focus On Women's Body Parts -- Not Their Athletic Skills". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Charles Harold, GAME THEORY; It's Hot-Potato Season: Call In the String Bikinis, New York Times, August 7, 2003; Retrieved: March 12, 2008
- "WWE Diva Search". Propeller News. September 18, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
- Associated Press, Beach volleyball's bikini cheerleaders stir up a storm[dead link], NBC sports, August 17, 2004; Retrieved: March 12, 2008
- "Beach volleyball's bikini cheerleaders stir up a storm". NBC sports. August 17, 2004. Retrieved March 12, 2008.[dead link]
- "Olympic briefs". The Guardian. August 17, 2004. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Staff Correspondent, "Hype Hopes Today's Olympians need more than athletic prowess to win gold", Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 6, 2000
- Anne Marie Balsamo, Technologies of the gendered body, page 46, Duke University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8223-1698-6
- Gordos, Phil (August 25, 2004). "Bikini girls making waves". BBC. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
- "No bikinis for beach volleyball players". The News. August 31, 2007. Retrieved March 12, 2008.
- "Unveiling the spirit of the sporting women". The Economic Times. December 1, 2006.
- Maria R. Lowe, Women of Steel: Female Bodybuilders and the Struggle for Self-definition, page 57, NYU Press, 1998, ISBN 9780814750940
- Sarah Grogan, Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children, page 63, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 9781134245673
- Tanya Bunsell, Strong and hard women: an ethnography of female body building, Routledge, 2013, ISBN 9781136250859
- Francois Fortin, Sports: The Complete Visual Reference, page 360, Québec Amerique, 1996, ISBN 9782764408971
- Maria R. Lowe, Women of steel: female bodybuilders and the struggle for self-definition, page 191, New York University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8147-5094-X
- VCCS FCCLA website[dead link]
- Sentenac, Hannah (September 25, 2012). "Bikini Basketball Exists and It's Coming to Miami". Miami New Times. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Lambiet, Jose (September 28, 2012). "High School to Bikini Basketball: Not in Our Gym!". Gossip Extra (The Miami Herald). Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Grossfeld, Stan (November 2, 2012). "Despite great gains, is there now a Title IX stall?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- IBTimes Staff Reporter (September 28, 2012). "Bikini Basketball League Coming In November After Lingerie Football League Success". International Business Times. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Yandoli, Krystie (October 2, 2012). "Bikini Basketball League Is an Insult to Title IX". The Nation. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- All thong wrong[dead link], BBC Sports Online
- "Mara-thong" Man runs from Congo loggers[dead link], Rainforest Foundation
- A. W. Richard Sipe, A Secret World, page 25, Psychology Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87630-585-0
- Ruth Vanita, Queering India, page 207, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-92950-4
- Menkes, Suzy (July 18, 1993). "Runways: Remembrance of Thongs Past". The New York Times.
- Sarah Karnasiewicz, Here she comes, "Mr. Saugus High School", Salon.com
- Fricker, Martin (August 6, 2013). "Mankini-wearing charity walkers stoned in Birmingham and rescued by police". The Daily Mirror. MGN Ltd, part of Trinity Mirror plc. Retrieved August 15, 2013. "Steven and Jason, wearing the revealing costume made famous by comedy creation Borat ..."
- Willmott, Chris (August 9, 2013). "Pelted with stones as charity bid turns sour". Solihull Observer. Retrieved August 15, 2013. "Two animal lovers who went on a sponsored walk wearing comedy mankinis ... the skimpy outfit made famous in the 2006 film Borat ..."
- Claudia Mitchell, Jacqueline Reid-Walsh, Girl Culture: Studying girl culture : a readers' guide, page 183, ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 978-0-313-33909-7
- Turner, Julia (May 31, 2011). "A Brief History of the Bikini: How the tiny swimsuit conquered America". Slate. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- The Bikini turns 60! from the Lilith Gallery of Toronto. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- Alex Kuczynski, "Looking for Health News? A Bikini Belly? There's More to Read", The New York Times, June 21, 2001
- Jennifer Nicole Lee, "Get A Bikini-Worthy Body", CBS News, Feb 1, February 1, 2007
- Stuart B. Chirls, "Americans head for the water - in, on and under", Daily News Herald, July 31, 1989
- "We're too old to wear bikinis on the beach at 47, and 35 is the cut-off age for a miniskirt, say women". Daily Mail UK (London). May 11, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Stop wearing bikinis after 47? Survey finds age a factor in fashion". Today.com. May 13, 2011. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
- Lesley Kennedy, "Are You Too Old to Rock a Bikini?", More, 2011-03-13
- Heinz Tschachler, Maureen Devine, Michael Draxlbauer; The EmBodyment of American Culture; pp 61–62; LIT Verlag, Berlin-Hamburg-Münster; 2003; ISBN 3-8258-6762-5.
- Emily Gibson. "Pubic hair has a job to do – stop shaving and leave it alone", The Guardian (August 7, 2012).
- Barbara Hackley, Jan M. Kriebs & Mary Ellen Rousseau, Primary Care of Women: A Guide for Midwives and Women's Health Providers, page 833, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2006, ISBN 0-7637-1650-2
- "Health effects of UV radiation".
- C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sunlight. eds. P.saundry & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth.
- Xu, C.; Green, Adele; Parisi, Alfio; Parsons, Peter G (2001). "Photosensitization of the Sunscreen Octyl p-Dimethylaminobenzoate b UVA in Human Melanocytes but not in Keratinocytes.". Photochemistry and Photobiology 73 (6): 600–604. doi:10.1562/0031-8655(2001)073<0600:POTSOP>2.0.CO;2. PMID 11421064.
- Knowland, John; McKenzie, Edward A.; McHugh, Peter J.; Cridland, Nigel A. (1993). "Sunlight-induced mutagenicity of a common sunscreen ingredient.". FEBS Letters 324 (3): 309–313. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)80141-G. PMID 8405372.
- Damiani, E.; Greci, L.; Parsons, R.; Knowland (1999). "Nitroxide radicals protect DNA from damage when illuminated in vitro in the presence of dibenzoylmethane and a common sunscreen ingredient.". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26 (7–8): 809–816. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00292-5. PMID 10232823.
- Chatelaine, E.; Gabard, B.; Surber, C. (2003) Skin Penetration and Sun Protection Factor of Five UV Filters: Effect of the Vehicle, Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol., 16:28–35 doi:10.1159/000068291
- Hanson Kerry M.; Gratton Enrico; Bardeen Christopher J. (2006). "Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin". Free Radical Biology and Medicine 41 (8): 1205–1212. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.06.011. PMID 17015167.
- R. Bissonnette, MD, FRCPC, Innovaderm Research, Montreal, QC, Canada, Update on Sunscreens
- Clodagh O'Brien, "Sunblock without the mess ... wear a nano bikini and hat on the beach", The Daily Telegraph (UK), May 26, 2003
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bikini.|
- Bikini Science: A comprehensive site on the bikini
- Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition—The Bikini
- Photos: On this day – July 5, 1946 – the first bikini goes on sale (Bikinis from 1946 to 2013.)
- The California Swimsuit
- Two-Piece Be With You: LIFE Celebrates the Bikini