Nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll

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Aerial view of the Able test, a 23 kilotons of TNT (96 terajoules) device detonated on July 1, 1946 at an altitude of 520 feet (160 m). This bomb consumed the infamous Demon core that caused the death of two scientists in two separate criticality accidents.
The size of the Castle Bravo test on 1 March 1954 far exceeded expectations, causing widespread radioactive contamination. The fallout spread traces of radioactive material as far as Australia, India and Japan, and even the United States and parts of Europe. Though organized as a secret test, Castle Bravo quickly became an international incident, prompting calls for a ban on the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices.[1]

The nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll program was a series of 23 nuclear devices detonated by the United States between 1946 and 1958 at seven test sites on the reef itself, on the sea, in the air and underwater.[2] The test weapons produced a combined fission yield of 42.2 Mt of explosive power. The testing began with the Operation Crossroads series in July 1946. The Baker test's radioactive contamination of all the target ships was the first case of immediate, concentrated radioactive fallout from a nuclear explosion. Chemist Glenn T. Seaborg, the longest-serving chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, called Baker "the world's first nuclear disaster."[3]

The United States was in a Cold War Nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union to build bigger and better bombs.[4] The first series of tests over Bikini Atoll was code named Operation Crossroads. Tests Able and Baker performed as expected, but the first device tested as part of Operation Castle, Castle Bravo, was a new design utilizing a dry fuel thermonuclear hydrogen bomb. It was detonated at dawn on March 1, 1954. The 15 megaton nuclear explosion far exceeded the expected yield of 4 to 8 megatons (6Mt predicted),[5] and was about 1,000 times more powerful than each of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. The scientists and military authorities were shocked by the size of the explosion and many of the instruments they had put in place to evaluate the effectiveness of the device were destroyed.[4]

The military authorities promised the Bikini Atoll's native residents that they would be able to return home after the nuclear tests and they agreed to leave the island. Most were moved to the Rongerik Atoll and later to Kili Island. Both locations proved unsuitable to sustaining life, causing starvation and requiring the residents to receive ongoing aid. The nuclear tests rendered Bikini unfit for habitation, contaminating the soil and water, making subsistence farming and fishing too dangerous. The United States paid the islanders and their descendents $150 million in compensation for damage caused by the nuclear testing program and their displacement from their home island.[6] Though it may be technically possible for the islanders to live on the island, virtually none of those alive today have ever lived there and few want to return.

Preparation[edit]

Residents relocated[edit]

In February 1946, the United States government asked the 167 Micronesian inhabitants of the atoll to voluntarily and temporarily relocate so the United States government could begin testing atomic bombs for "the good of mankind and to end all world wars."[4] Nine of the eleven family heads, or alaps, chose Rongerik as their new home.[7] United States Navy Seabees helped them to disassemble their church and community house and prepare to relocate them to their new home. On March 7, 1946, the residents gathered their personal belongings and saved building supplies. They were transported 125 miles (201 km) eastward on U.S. Navy landing craft 1108 to the uninhabited Rongerik Atoll,[7] which was one-sixth the size of Bikini Atoll.[7] No one lived on Rongerik because it had an inadequate water and food supply and due to deep-rooted traditional beliefs that the island was haunted by the Demon Girls of Ujae. The Navy left them with a few weeks of food and water which soon proved to be inadequate.[4]

Military services[edit]

The Cross Spikes Club, painted by Navy artist Arthur Beaumont.[8]

To conduct the tests, the United States assembled a support fleet of more than 242 ships that provided quarters, experimental stations, and workshops for more than 42,000 personnel. The islands were primarily used as recreation and instrumentation sites.[9] To support the nuclear bomb testing program, Seabees built bunkers, floating dry docks,[10] 75 feet (23 m) steel towers for cameras and recording instruments,[11] and other facilities on the island to support the servicemen. These included the "Up and Atom Officer's Club"[12] and the "Cross Spikes Club", a bar and hangout created by servicemen on Bikini Island between June and September 1946 during the preparation for Operation Crossroads. The "club" was little more than a small open-air building that served alcohol to servicemen and provided outdoor entertainment, including a ping pong table.[13] The "Cross Spikes Club" was the only entertainment the enlisted servicemen had access to during their June to September stay at Bikini.[14]

Ship graveyard[edit]

The Bikini Atoll lagoon was designated a ship graveyard by the United States Navy. The United States brought in 95 ships[15] including carriers, battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, attack transports, landing ships, and auxiliary vessels from across the world to test the durability of ships to withstand a nuclear impact. These including the USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), USS New York (BB-34), USS Arkansas (BB-33), USS Nevada (BB-36), USS Saratoga (CV-3), USS Independence (CVL-22), and Admiral Yamamoto's 708 feet (216 m) former flagship, the Japanese battleship Nagato. Aircraft were positioned on the USS Saratoga (CV-3), their wings loaded with ordnance.[10] Military equipment including tanks and other armor was positioned on some of the ships to see how well they survived the nuclear blast. Amphibious craft were berthed on Bikini Island for similar purposes.[9] Live animals including goats were positioned on the ships and shore to test for the impact on living creatures.

The Navy positioned the ships in the lagoon to help assess the damage to vessels, equipment, and material from a nuclear explosion.[9] The task force placed tanks, bulldozers, and other military machinery on the island, along with 150 airplanes on the island's airstrip, to test the effect of a nuclear weapon. The proxy fleet if active would have comprised the sixth largest naval fleet in the world. All carried varying amounts of fuel and some carried live ordnance.[10]

Weapons tests[edit]

Map of Bikini Atoll as of 2008. The islands of Bokonijien, Aerokojlol, and Nam were vaporized by the nuclear tests.[16]

Operation Crossroads[edit]

The U.S. light aircraft carrier USS Independence (CVL-22) afire aft, soon after the "Able Day" atomic bomb air burst test at Bikini on 1 July 1946.
The Wilson cloud from test Baker, situated just offshore from Bikini Island at top of the picture.
View of the USS Independence's port quarter, showing severe blast damage caused by the "Able Day" atomic bomb air burst over Bikini Atoll on 1 July 1946.
Main article: Operation Crossroads

Crossroads consisted of two detonations, each with a yield of 23 kilotons of TNT (96 terajoules). Able was detonated over Bikini on July 1, 1946 and exploded at an altitude of 520 feet (160 m) but had drifted about 1,500 to 2,000 feet (460 to 610 m) off target.[9] It sank only five of the ships in the lagoon. The second, Baker, was detonated underwater at a depth of 90 feet (27 m) on July 25, sinking eight ships.[9] The second, underwater blast created a large condensation cloud and contaminated the ships with more radioactive water than was expected. Many of the surviving ships were too contaminated to be used again for testing and were sunk. The air-borne nuclear detonation raised the surface seawater temperature by 55,000 °C (99,000 °F), created blast waves with speeds of up to 8 metres per second (26 ft/s), and shock and surface waves up to 30 metres (98 ft) high. Blast columns reached the floor of the lagoon which is approximately 70 metres (230 ft) deep.[2] The Bikini Island King visited Bikini Atoll in July after the second atomic bomb test code-named Baker and found it apparently in good condition.[citation needed]

A third burst, Charlie, planned for 1947, was canceled primarily because of the United States Navy's inability to decontaminate the target ships after the Baker test. Charlie was rescheduled as Operation Wigwam, a deep water shot conducted in 1955 off the California coast.

Castle Bravo test[edit]

Main article: Castle Bravo

The United States was in a Cold War Nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union to build bigger and better bombs.[4] The next series of tests over Bikini Atoll was code named Operation Castle. The first test of that series was Castle Bravo, a new design utilizing a dry fuel thermonuclear hydrogen bomb. It was detonated at dawn on March 1, 1954.

The 15 megaton nuclear explosion far exceeded the expected yield of 4 to 8 megatons (6Mt predicted),[5] and was about 1,000 times more powerful than each of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. The nuclear weapon was the most powerful device ever detonated by the United States (and just under one-third the energy of the Tsar Bomba, the largest ever tested). The scientists and military authorities were shocked by the size of the explosion and many of the instruments they had put in place to evaluate the effectiveness of the device were destroyed.[4]

Castle Bravo contamination[edit]

The unexpectedly large yield, combined with other factors, led to the most significant accidental radiological contamination caused by the United States. A few minutes after the detonation, Fallout began to fall on Eneu/Enyu Island on Bikini atoll where the U.S firing crew that triggered the device were stationed, this was detected by their geiger counter, and as they were aware of the hazard, they were forced to shelter in place indoors for a number of hours before it was safe enough for an airlift rescue operation to be carried out.[17] After arriving at Eneu, the fallout, being carried by the wind, then began to settle on the inhabited islands of the Rongelap and Utrik Atolls, arriving a few hours after the detonation, the fallout continued to spread around the world being diluted as it went. The inhabited Rongelap and Rongerik atolls were evacuated by US servicemen[18] 48 hours after the detonation, and those on the more distant Utrik atoll, 72 hours post detonation.[19] Many of the inhabitants soon began to show signs of radiation sickness. They were returned to the islands three years later but were removed again when their island was found to be unsafe.[20]

The fallout spread traces of radioactive material as far as Australia, India and Japan, and even the United States and parts of Europe. Though organized as a secret test, Castle Bravo quickly became an international incident, prompting calls for a ban on the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices.[1]

Local populations affected[edit]

The Rongelap Atoll was coated with up to 2 centimetres (0.79 in) of snow-like irradiated calcium debris and ash over the entire island. Virtually all the inhabitants experienced severe radiation sickness, including itchiness, sore skin, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Their symptoms also included burning eyes and swelling of the neck, arms, and legs.[21][22] The inhabitants were forced to abandon the islands, leaving all their belongings, three days after the test. They were relocated to Kwajalein for medical treatment.[22][23][24]

Six days after the Castle Bravo test, the U.S government set up a secret project to study the medical effects of the weapon on the residents of the Marshall Islands.[25]

The United States was subsequently accused of using the inhabitants as medical research subjects, without obtaining their consent, to study the effects of nuclear exposure.[21] Until that time, the United States Atomic Energy Commission had given little thought to the potential impact of widespread fallout contamination and health and ecological impacts beyond the formally designated boundary of the test site.

Japanese fishermen contaminated[edit]

Main article: Daigo Fukuryū Maru
The head of one of the crew members of Daigo Fukuryū Maru, showing radiation burns on 7 April 1954, 38 days after the nuclear test.

Ninety minutes after the detonation, 23 crew members of the Japanese fishing boat the Daigo Fukuryū Maru ("Lucky Dragon No. 5")[26] also were contaminated by the snow-like irradiated debris and ash. They had no idea what the explosion they'd seen meant nor any inkling of the deadly debris raining down on them. But they all soon became ill with the affects of acute radiation poisoning. One fisherman died shortly after the ship reached shore. Edward Teller, father of the hydrogen bomb and architect of the Marshall Island tests, upon learning of the death of the fisherman, commented, “It’s unreasonable to make such a big deal over the death of a fisherman.”[citation needed] Eleven of the crewmen eventually died of radiation-related illnesses.[27][better source needed] The unexpected size of the explosion and the accidental fallout that contaminated a wide area sparked international criticism of atmospheric thermonuclear testing.[28]

Later tests[edit]

The seventeen-shot Redwing series followed—eleven tests at Enewetak Atoll and six at Bikini. The island residents who had been promised they would be able to return home to Bikini was thwarted indefinitely by the U.S. decision to resume nuclear testing at Bikini in 1954. During 1954, 1956, and 1958, twenty-one more nuclear bombs were detonated at Bikini, yielding a total of 75 megatons of TNT (310 PJ), equivalent to more than three thousand Baker bombs. Only one was an air burst, the 3.8 megaton Redwing Cherokee test. Air bursts distribute fallout in a large area, but surface bursts produce intense local fallout.[29] These tests were followed by the 33-shot Hardtack tests which began in late April 1958.[30] The last of ten tests were detonated on Bikini Atoll on 22 July 1958.[30]

Shipwrecks[edit]

Shipwrecks in the lagoon include:

Nuclear test list[edit]

The following nuclear device tests were conducted on or near Bikini Atoll, comprising 15.1% of total test yield worldwide.

Series Test Date Names Location Yield Range Total Yield
Crossroads 30 June 1946 Able NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll
11°35′N 165°30′E / 11.59°N 165.50°E / 11.59; 165.50 (Able)
21 Kt 42 Kt
24 July 1946 Baker NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll
11°35′N 165°30′E / 11.59°N 165.50°E / 11.59; 165.50 (Baker)
21 kt
1 August 1946 Charlie NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll
11°45′N 165°31′E / 11.75°N 165.51°E / 11.75; 165.51 (Charlie)
Canceled
Castle 28 February 1954 Bravo Artificial island on reef 2,950 feet (900 m)
from Namu Island
11°41′50″N 165°16′29″E / 11.69722°N 165.27486°E / 11.69722; 165.27486 (Bravo)
0.11 - 15.0225 Mt 48.2 Mt
25 April 1954 Union Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°39′59″N 165°23′14″E / 11.6664°N 165.3872°E / 11.6664; 165.3872 (Union)
3-4 Mt 5-10 Mt
4 May 1954 Yankee I Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°39′56″N 165°23′13″E / 11.6656°N 165.3869°E / 11.6656; 165.3869 (Yankee 2)
Canceled
27 April 1954 Yankee II Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°39′56″N 165°23′13″E / 11.6656°N 165.3869°E / 11.6656; 165.3869 (Yankee 2)
8 Mt 9.5 Mt
5 April 1954 Nectar Elugelab (Flora), Enewetak Atoll
11°40′14″N 162°11′47″E / 11.6705°N 162.1964°E / 11.6705; 162.1964 (Nectar)
1.8 Mt 1-3 Mt
27 March 1954 Romeo Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°41′39″N 165°15′55″E / 11.69428°N 165.26519°E / 11.69428; 165.26519 (Romeo)
4 Mt 8 Mt
7 April 1954 Koon Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′14″N 165°22′07″E / 11.50376°N 165.36852°E / 11.50376; 165.36852 (Koon)
1 Mt 1.5 Mt
Redwing 20 May 1956 Cherokee Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°44′23″N 165°20′23″E / 11.73973°N 165.33985°E / 11.73973; 165.33985 (Cherokee)
3.8 Mt 18.265 Mt
27 May 1946 Zuni Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′12″N 165°22′14″E / 11.50325°N 165.37049°E / 11.50325; 165.37049 (Zuni)
3.5 kt
6 June 1946 Flathead Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′12″N 165°22′14″E / 11.50325°N 165.37049°E / 11.50325; 165.37049 (Zuni)
365 Mt
25 June 1956 Dakota NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll
11°36′10″N 165°27′05″E / 11.6028°N 165.4514°E / 11.6028; 165.4514 (Dakota)
1.1 Mt
10 July 1956 Navajo NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll
11°41′15″N 165°22′57″E / 11.68743°N 165.38263°E / 11.68743; 165.38263 (Navajo)
4.5 Mt
11 June 1956 Zuni Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′12″N 165°22′14″E / 11.50325°N 165.37049°E / 11.50325; 165.37049 (Zuni)
3.5 Mt
Hardtack 1 28 April 1958 Yucca Bikini and Enewetak Atolls
12°37′01″N 167°01′30″E / 12.617°N 167.025°E / 12.617; 167.025 (Yucca)
1.7 Mt 12.020 Mt
11 May 1958 Fir Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°41′27″N 165°16′24″E / 11.6908°N 165.2733°E / 11.6908; 165.2733 (Fir)
1.4 Mt
21 May 1958 Nutmeg Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′13″N 165°22′20″E / 11.50355°N 165.3722°E / 11.50355; 165.3722 (Nutmeg)
25.1 kt
31 May 1958 Sycamore Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°41′50″N 165°16′29″E / 11.69722°N 165.27486°E / 11.69722; 165.27486 (Sycamore)
92 kt
10 June 1958 Maple Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°41′29″N 165°24′57″E / 11.6915°N 165.41582°E / 11.6915; 165.41582 (Maple)
213 kt
14 June 1958 Aspen Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°41′27″N 165°16′24″E / 11.6908°N 165.2733°E / 11.6908; 165.2733 (Aspen)
319 kt
27 June 1958 Redwood Yurochi aka Irioj (Dog), Bikini Atoll
11°41′29″N 165°24′57″E / 11.6915°N 165.41582°E / 11.6915; 165.41582 (Redwood)
412 kt
29 June 1958 Hickory Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°29′46″N 162°22′15″E / 11.4961°N 162.3708°E / 11.4961; 162.3708 (Hickory)
14 kt
2 July 1958 Cedar Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°41′50″N 165°16′29″E / 11.69722°N 165.27486°E / 11.69722; 165.27486 (Cedar)
Mt
12 July 1958 Poplar Namu (Charlie), Bikini Atoll
11°41′49″N 165°16′01″E / 11.69704°N 165.26708°E / 11.69704; 165.26708 (Poplar)
9.3 Mt
22 July 1958 Juniper Eninmen (Tare), Bikini Atoll
11°30′13″N 165°22′20″E / 11.50355°N 165.3722°E / 11.50355; 165.3722 (Juniper)
65 kt
August 1958 Piñon Bikini and Enewetak Atolls
12°N 162°E / 12°N 162°E / 12; 162 (Piñon)
Canceled
Total   78.527 Mt

Relocation issues[edit]

Strategic Trust Territory[edit]

In 1947, the United States convinced the United Nations to designate the islands of Micronesia a United Nations Strategic Trust Territory. This was the only trust ever granted by the U.N.[30] The United States Navy controlled the Trust from a headquarters in Guam until 1951, when the United States Department of the Interior took over control, administering the territory from a base in Saipan.[31] The directive agreed to by the United States stipulated that it would "promote the economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the inhabitants, and to this end shall... protect the inhabitants against the loss of their lands and resources..."[4]

Despite the promise to "protect the inhabitants," from July 1946 through July of 1947 the residents of Bikini Atoll were left alone on Rongerik Atoll. In January 1948, Dr. Leonard Mason, an anthropologist from the University of Hawaii, visited the temporary home of the relocated islanders on Rongerik Atoll and was horrified when he found the people were starving.[10] A team of U.S. investigators concluded in late 1947 that the islanders must be moved immediately. Press from around the world harshly criticized the U.S. Navy for ignoring the people. Harold Ickes, a syndicated columnist, wrote "The natives are actually and literally starving to death."[4]

The Navy then selected Ujelang Atoll for their temporary home and some young men from the Bikini Atoll population went ahead to begin constructing living accommodations. But U.S. Trust Authorities changed their mind. They decided to use Enewetak Atoll as a second nuclear weapons test site and relocated that atoll's residents to Ujelang Atoll instead and to the homes built for the Bikini Islanders.[4]

In March 1948, 184 malnourished Bikini islanders were temporarily relocated again to Kwajalein Atoll.[30] In June 1948 the Bikini residents chose Kili Island as a long-term home.[4] The small, 200 acres (81 ha) (.036 square miles (0.093 km2)) island, one of the smallest islands in the Marshall Island chain, was uninhabited and wasn't ruled by a paramount iroij, or king. In November 1948, the residents, now totaling 184 individuals, moved there.[4] Living on Kili Island effectively destroyed their culture that had been based on fishing and island-hopping canoe voyages to various islets around the Bikini Atoll.[10] Kili does not provide enough food for the transplanted residents.

Return to Bikini Island[edit]

In June 1968, based on scientific advice that the radiation levels were sufficiently reduced, President Lyndon B. Johnson promised the 540 Bikini Atoll families living on Kili and other islands that they would be able to return to their home. But the Atomic Energy Commission learned that the coconut crabs, an essential food source, retained high levels of radioactivity and could not be eaten. The Bikini Council voted to delay a return the island as a result.[4]

In 1987, a few Bikini elders returned to the island to reestablish old property lines. Construction crews began building a hotel on Bikini, and installed generators, desalinators, and power lines. A packed coral and sand runway still exists on Enyu Island. Three extended families, eventually totaling about 100 people, moved back to their home island in 1972 despite the risk. But 10 years later a team of French scientists found some wells were too radioactive for use and determined that the pandanus and breadfruit were also dangerous for human consumption. Women were experiencing miscarriages, stillbirths, and genetic abnormalities in their children.[32][33] The U.S.-administered Strategic Trust Territory decided that the islanders had to be evacuated from the atoll a second time.[20]

Second evacuation[edit]

Following their evacuation from the island, an 11-year-old boy, born on Bikini in 1971, died from cancer that was linked to radiation exposure he received while living on Bikini. The records obtained by the Marshallese Nuclear Claims Tribunal later revealed that Dr. Robert Conard, head of Brookhaven National Laboratory's medical team in the Marshall Islands, understated the risk of returning to the atoll.[34] Dr. Konrad Kotrady was contracted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to treat the Marshall Island residents. In 1977, he wrote a 14-page report to BNL that raised serious questions about the residents' return to Bikini and questioned the accuracy of Brookhaven's prior work on the islands.[34] After they were promised their home was safe, and then being removed after this was found to be wrong, the Bikini Atoll islanders grew to distrust the official reports of the U.S. scientists.[34]

The special International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Bikini Advisory Group determined in 1997 that "It is safe to walk on all of the islands ... although the residual radioactivity on islands in Bikini Atoll is still higher than on other atolls in the Marshall Islands, it is not hazardous to health at the levels measured ... The main radiation risk would be from the food: eating locally grown produce, such as fruit, could add significant radioactivity to the body...Eating coconuts or breadfruit from Bikini Island occasionally would be no cause for concern. Eating many over a long period of time without having taken remedial measures, however, might result in radiation doses higher than internationally agreed safety levels." IAEA estimated that living in the atoll and consuming local food would result in an effective dose of about 15 mSv/year.[35]

After the aborted resettlement in 1978, the leaders of the Bikini community have insisted since the early 1980s that the top 15 inches (38 cm) of soil be excavated from the entire island. Scientists reply that while removing the soil would rid the island of cesium-137, it would also severely damage the environment, turning the atoll into a virtual wasteland of windswept sand. The Bikini Council has repeatedly contended that removing the topsoil is the only way to guarantee future generations safe living conditions.[citation needed]

In 1997, researchers found that the dose received from background radiation on the island was between 2.4 mSv/year—the same as natural background radiation—and 4.5 mSv/year, assuming that residents consumed a diet of imported foods.[36] Because the local food supply is still irradiated, the group did not recommend resettling the island. A 1998 International Atomic Energy Agency report found that Bikini is still not safe for habitation because of dangerous levels of radiation.[32]

A 2002 survey found that the coral inside the Bravo Crater has partially recovered.[37] Zoe Richards of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and James Cook University observed matrices of branching Porites coral up to 8 meters high.[38]

Compensation and reparations[edit]

In 1975, when the islanders that had returned to Bikini Atoll learned that it wasn't safe, they sued the United States for the first time, demanding a radiological study of the northern islands.[39] In 1975, the United States set up The Hawaiian Trust Fund for the People of Bikini, totaling $3 million. When the islanders were removed from the island in 1978, the U.S. added $3 million to the fund. The U.S. created a second trust fund, The Resettlement Trust Fund for the People of Bikini, containing $20 million in 1982. The U.S. added another $90 million to that fund to pay to clean up, reconstruct homes and facilities, and resettle the islanders on Bikini and Eneu islands.[40]

In 1983, the U.S. and the Marshall islanders signed the Compact of Free Association, which gave the Marshall Islands independence. The Compact became effective in 1986 and was subsequently modified by the Amended Compact that became effective in 2004.[41] It also established the Nuclear Claims Tribunal, which was given the task of adjudicating compensation for victims and families affected by the nuclear testing program. Section 177 of the compact provided for reparations to the Bikini islanders and other northern atolls for damages. It included $75 million to be paid over 15 years.[40] On March 5, 2001, the Nuclear Claims Tribunal ruled against the United States for damages done to the islands and its people.[4]

The payments began in 1987 with $2.4 million paid annually to entire Bikini population, while the remaining $2.6 million is paid into The Bikini Claims Trust Fund. This trust is intended to exist in perpetuity and to provide the islanders a 5% payment from the trust annually.[40]

The United States provided $150 million in compensation for damage caused by the nuclear testing program and their displacement from their home island.[6]

By 2001, of the original 167 residents who were relocated, 70 were still alive, and the entire population has grown to 2800.[10] Most of the islanders and their descendents live on Kili, in Majuro, or in the United States. The opportunity for some Bikini islanders to potentially relocate back to their home island creates a dilemma. Only a few living islanders were born there. Most of the younger generation have never lived there or even visited and do not have a desire to return. Unemployment in the Marshall Islands was as of 2013 at about 40 percent. The population is growing at a four percent growth rate, so increasing numbers are taking advantage of terms in the Marshall Islands’ Compact of Free Association that allow them to obtain jobs in the United States.[15]

In popular culture[edit]

The movies Bikini, The Atomic Cafe, and The Atom Island illustrate preparations for the tests, and the effects of the tests.[42] The documentary Radio Bikini shows another vision of what happened in Bikini. [43] The second movement of the video opera Three Tales of Steve Reich concerns the atomic tests in the Bikini Atoll. The video part of the opera includes images of the US Army presenting the project to the local people of Bikini, the trip of animals for testing and the explosion of the atomic bomb.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b DeGroot 2004, pp. 196-198
  2. ^ a b Zoe T. Richards, Maria Beger, Silvia Pinca, and Carden C. Wallace (2008). "Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing". Marine Pollution Bulletin 56 (3): 503–515. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.11.018. PMID 18187160. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Weisgall 1994, p. ix.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Niedenthal, Jack. "A Short History of the People of Bikini Atoll". Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Operation Castle". 17 May 2006. Retrieved Oct 8, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c "Operation Crossroads - The Official Pictorial Record". New York: W. H. Wise and Co. Inc. 1946. p. 21. 
  8. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Bikini Atoll". Navy Historical Center. Department of the Navy. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Operation Crossroads: Fact Sheet". Department of the Navy—Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Guyer, Ruth Levy (September 2001). "Radioactivity and Rights". American Journal of Public Health 91 (9, issue 9): 1371–1376. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.9.1371. PMC 1446783. 
  11. ^ "Bikini". Newsweek. 1 July 1946. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  12. ^ "Nuclear explosions at Bikini Atoll in 1946". Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  13. ^ "Article on Operation Crossroads mentioning Cross Spikes Club". Newsletter of American Atomic Veterans 25 (1). 
  14. ^ "Operation Crossroads: Bikini Atoll". Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Gwynne, S.C. (5 October 2012). "Paradise With an Asterisk". Outside Magazine. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Bikini Atoll Reference Facts". Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Dr. John C. Clark as told to Robert Cahn (July 1957). "Trapped by Radioactive Fallout, Saturday Evening Post".  accessed Feb 20, 2013
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