Bikol languages

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This article is about the various sociolinguistic dialects of Bikol. For the standardized dialect of Bikol based on the Canaman variant, see Bikol language.
Bicol Region
Linguistic classification: Austronesian
ISO 639-2 / 5: bik
Glottolog: biko1240[1]
Geographic extent of Bikol languages according to Ethnologue maps. Red represents Bikol Proper languages while green represents Bisakol languages.
Geographic distribution of Bikol languages across Bicol region

The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly on the Bicol Peninsula of the island of Luzon and also parts of Catanduanes and Burias Islands and Masbate province. There is a dialect continuum between the Visayan languages and the Bikol languages; the two together are called the Bisakol languages.

Internal classification[edit]


The eight languages of Bikol grouped according to Ethnologue are:

McFarland (1974)[edit]

Curtis McFarland gives the following classification for the Bikol languages.[2]

Bikol Proper 
 North Catanduanes 

Pandan (North Catanduanes)

 Inland Bikol 

Iriga (Riŋkonāda)


Buhi (Buhi'non)


Oas (West Miraya)

Daraga (East Miraya)

 Coastal Bikol 

Naga (Standard Bikol), Legazpi, and Partido

Virac (South Catanduanes)


Southern Sorsogon

Northern Sorsogon


Lobel (2000)[edit]

While McFarland (1974) splits Bikol into 11 dialects, Lobel (2000) splits Bikol into 12 different dialects (including Partido Bikol, which McFarland does not differentiate) and 4 main branches.[3]

  1. Central Standard – Spoken primarily in Naga City. Also recognized (and sometimes understood) in Daet, Camarines Norte and many other areas of Camarines Sur; San Pascual, Masbate on Burias Island; Legazpi City and other cities along the eastern coast of Albay and northeastern Sorsogon.
    1. Daet area variant
    2. Naga City area variant
    3. Eastern Standard Bikol – Spoken in and around Legazpi City and North Sorsogon
  2. Partido – Spoken in the Camarines Sur municipalities of Ocampo, Goa, Tigaon, Lagonoy, Sagñay, and San Jose. This dialect has a mellow intonation and is heavily influenced by Riŋkonāda.
  3. South Catanduanes – Spoken in the southern half of Catanduanes.
    1. Virac area variant
    2. San Miguel variant (transitional to North Catanduanes)
  1. Riŋkonāda – Spoken primarily in Iriga City, Baao; Bula; Balatan; Baao; and Nabua, Camarines Sur. Also in Ocampo, Buhi and Pili in Camarines Sur and in Polangui, Albay.
    1. Lowland Riŋkonāda dialect (lacks /ə/ vowel)
    2. Highland Riŋkonāda dialect (with /ə/ vowel)
  2. Buhinon – Spoken in Buhi, Camarines Sur. Contains features from both Bikol of Polangui and Bikol of Iriga.
  3. Libon – Spoken in Libon, Albay.
  4. West Miraya – Spoken in Ligao City, Polangui, Oas, and Pio Duran, Albay.
  5. East Miraya – Spoken in Guinobatan; Camalig; Daraga; Jovellar, Albay; Donsol and Pilar, Sorsogon.
    1. Central (Guinobatan)
    2. Far East (Camalig, Daraga)
    3. Southeast (Jovellar, Albay, Donsol, Pilar)
  1. Central Sorsogon – Spoken in Sorsogon City; Castilla; Casiguran; and Juban, Sorsogon.
    1. Castilla Sorsogon (mixed with Legazpi Bikol)
    2. Casiguran-Juban variant
  2. Southern Sorsogon – Spoken in Gubat; Barcelona; Bulusan; Santa Magdalena; Matnog; Irosin; and Bulan, Sorsogon.
  3. Masbatenyo – Spoken in Masbate City; Mobo; Uson; Dimasalang; Palanas; Masbate; Aroroy on the island of Masbate, all of Ticao Island, and Claveria on the southern half of Burias Island.
    1. Standard Masbatenyo
    2. Ticao Island variant

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bikol". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ McFarland, Curtis D. The Dialects of the Bikol Area. Ph.D. dissertation. New Haven: Dept. of Linguistics, Yale University, 1974.
  3. ^ Lobel, Jason William, Tria, Wilmer Joseph S., and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.

General references[edit]

  • Lobel, Jason William; Tria, Wilmer Joseph S. and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.

External links[edit]

  • Translate Bikol, an online English-Bikol and Bisakol languages translator.