Bill Haslam

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Bill Haslam
Governor Bill Haslam crop.jpg
49th Governor of Tennessee
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 15, 2011
Lieutenant Ron Ramsey
Preceded by Phil Bredesen
80th Mayor of Knoxville
In office
December 20, 2003 – January 10, 2011
Preceded by Victor Ashe
Succeeded by Daniel Brown (acting)
Personal details
Born William Edward Haslam
(1958-08-23) August 23, 1958 (age 55)
Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Crissy Garrett Haslam
Children Will
Annie
Leigh
Residence Governor's Mansion
Alma mater Emory University[1]
Religion Presbyterian[1]

William Edward "Bill" Haslam[2] (born August 23, 1958) is an American politician who is the 49th and current Governor of Tennessee. A member of the Republican Party, Haslam was elected Governor in 2010 and was sworn in on January 15, 2011.

Born in Knoxville, Tennessee, Haslam is a graduate of Emory University. He began his career in business, joining his father, Jim Haslam, who was the founder of Pilot Corporation. Haslam rose to the rank of President of Pilot Corp in the 1990s after his brother Jimmy became the company's CEO. Haslam then left Pilot and from 1999 to 2001 was the CEO of the E-Commerce and Cataloging division at the high-end department store chain Saks Fifth Avenue. He then became a consultant at Saks, served on the board of directors at Harold's Stores, Inc. and still remains a co-owner of the minor league baseball team the Tennessee Smokies.

Entering a career in politics, Haslam was elected to serve as Mayor of Knoxville, Tennessee in 2003 with 52% of the vote. He was then elected to a second term in 2007, winning with 87% of the vote, and serving as Mayor from 2003 to 2011. After incumbent Governor Phil Bredesen was term-limited and prevented from running for reelection, Haslam declared his candidacy for Governor in January 2009. He defeated Representative Zach Wamp and Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey in the Republican primary with 47% of the vote, and went on to defeat Democratic businessman Mike McWherter with 65% of the vote in the general election.

Early life, education, and business career[edit]

Haslam was born in Knoxville in 1958, the third child of Jim Haslam, the founder of Pilot Corporation, the parent company of the convenience store and travel center chain, Pilot Flying J, and his wife, Cynthia (Allen). Jim Haslam has been a Republican Party fundraiser and University of Tennessee donor and trustee for several decades.[3]

Haslam was educated at the Webb School of Knoxville, where he became active in the Christian group, Young Life.[4] He later attended Emory University, graduating with a bachelor's degree in history in 1980.[1] He is a member of the Beta Sigma chapter of the Sigma Chi International Fraternity.[5]

As a teenager, Haslam began working part-time in his father's corporation.[1] He had made plans to teach history and eventually become a minister.[5] Following his university graduation, he returned to Knoxville to work for Pilot in hopes of learning more about the business world before entering the seminary, and eventually decided to stay with the company.[5] He was elevated to president of the company (with his brother, Jimmy, as CEO, and father as chairman) in 1995.[5]

In 1999, Haslam joined Saks Fifth Avenue as the chief executive officer of the e-commerce and catalog division.[6] He left Saks in 2001, and joined the board of the Dallas-based clothing chain, Harold's Stores Inc., later that year.[5]

Haslam is one of the owners of the Tennessee Smokies, a minor league baseball team in East Tennessee.[6] His brother, current Pilot Flying J CEO Jimmy Haslam, became majority owner of the Cleveland Browns in 2012.[7]

Mayor of Knoxville[edit]

In 2002, Haslam announced he was running for Mayor of Knoxville, inspired in part by a conversation he had had with then-Chattanooga mayor (and current United States Senator) Bob Corker. Knoxville's mayoral elections are nominally non-partisan,[8] but Haslam was known to be a member of the Republican Party when he ran for the office. His opponent in the race, Knox County commissioner Madeline Rogero, criticized Haslam as an oil company puppet, and blamed his father for the appointment of controversial U.T. president John Shumaker, an attack Haslam dismissed as "petty, personal politics". On September 30, 2003, he defeated Rogero by a 52% to 46% margin.[9][10]

In 2006, Haslam appointed Rogero director of community development, later stating he had read Doris Kearns Goodwin's Team of Rivals, and was inspired by President Abraham Lincoln's decision to appoint former campaign rivals to his cabinet.[10] He was reelected in 2007, winning 87% of the vote against challengers Isa Infante and Mark Saroff.[11]

Haslam identifies several successful historic preservation initiatives among his accomplishments as mayor, including saving the historic S&W Cafeteria in downtown Knoxville, building a new cinema (the Regal Riviera) in the city's downtown, and revitalizing the historic Bijou Theatre. In 2008, he was appointed to a four-year term on the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation by U.S. President George W. Bush.[6]

Along with historical preservation efforts, Haslam helped spur residential and retail growth in the downtown area, mainly by offering developers tax subsidies. He helped implement a master plan for the development of the South Knoxville riverfront, which was given an Outstanding Planning Award by the Tennessee Chapter of the American Planning Association. The Haslam administration operated under a balanced budget policy, which helped to double the city's savings during his first term.[11]

2010 gubernatorial election[edit]

Haslam addressing supporters before the Highlands Town Hall Debate during the 2010 campaign

On January 6, 2009, Haslam declared his intention to run for Tennessee governor in 2010.[12]

His campaign received contributions of $3.9 million between January and July 1 in 2009, substantially more than his Republican primary rivals. Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey received $1.3 million and U.S. Congressman Zach Wamp received $1.2 million, while Shelby County District Attorney General Bill Gibbons reported $416,000 at that time.[13] Among Democratic candidates, businessman Mike McWherter raised $650,000 at the mid-year, followed by former State House Majority Leader Kim McMillan's $180,000.[14]

Haslam received endorsements from former U.S. Senator Howard Baker and Congressman Jimmy Duncan.[15][16] The Tennessean wrote, "Haslam appears most likely to be able to ride Gov. Phil Bredesen's pro-business coattails, despite the different party affiliation."[16]

On the Republican side from July 1, 2009 until January 15, 2010, Haslam collected $1.8 million, Ramsey raised $1,412,593 including a $200,000 loan, Wamp raised $1,373,078 including a $61,000 loan, and Gibbons raised $225,218. Among Democrats during the six months, State Senate Minority Leader Jim Kyle collected $741,485 including a $300,000 personal loan, McWherter raised $402,868, and McMillan raised $159,981.[17]

Haslam campaigned on his executive experience as both Knoxville's mayor and the president of a major company. His opponents attacked him as an oil executive, especially in the wake of price-gouging allegations levied against Pilot in the wake of the post-Hurricane Katrina fuel shortages, and criticized his refusal to release information related to his income while at Pilot.[10]

On August 5, 2010, Haslam won in the Republican primary for governor with almost 48% of the vote, compared to 29% for Wamp and 22% for Ramsey.[18] Mike McWherter, son of former Governor Ned McWherter, was nominated by the Democrats after several well-known elected officials declined the candidacy.

On November 2, 2010, Haslam won the gubernatorial election over Democratic candidate Mike McWherter, taking 65% of the vote to McWherter's 35%. The Republicans also increased their majorities in both chambers of the state legislature, giving the GOP complete control of state government for the first time since 1869.

Governor of Tennessee[edit]

2011[edit]

Haslam has stated that job creation and long-term economic growth are his top priority as governor, followed by education reform and workforce development. He favors a conservative state budget, keeping taxes low in order to create and maintain a business-friendly environment.[19] On June 16, 2011, Haslam signed a $30.8 billion state budget, a 3.9% decrease from the previous year's budget.[20]

The budget included 1.6% pay raise for state employees (though it also called for over 1,300 positions to be cut), grants to facilitate construction of an Electrolux plant near Memphis and a Wacker Chemie plant near Cleveland, and $10 million for the Memphis Research Consortium.[21] The budget bill also contained an amendment cutting off all state funding to Planned Parenthood, but the measure was negated by an amendment inserted into the same bill by an unknown legislator, something Haslam vowed to correct in 2012.[22]

On May 23, 2011, Haslam signed a bill overturning a Nashville ordinance that barred discrimination against the hiring of homosexuals for any companies awarded city contracts.[23] On June 1, Haslam signed a bill requiring voters to present photo identification at polling places, a measure supporters argue prevents voter fraud, but detractors have derided as an attempt to disenfranchise traditionally-Democratic voting blocs.[24] On June 2, Haslam signed a bill replacing public school teachers' collective bargaining rights with a process called "collaborative conferencing", effectively bypassing the teachers' union, the Tennessee Education Association.[25]

Other legislation signed by Haslam included a tort reform measure that limits non-economic damages in civil suits,[26] a bill that lifted the cap on the number charter schools in the state and opened enrollment in charter schools to more students,[27] and a bill that allows college students to use Hope Scholarship funds during summer semesters.[28]

In October 2011, Haslam approved an order to implement a curfew on Legislative Plaza in downtown Nashville, where several hundred protesters with the Occupy Nashville movement (part of the greater Occupy Wall Street movement) were camping out. In the early morning hours of October 28, 29 protesters were arrested when they refused to comply with the order,[29] and on the following day, 26 were arrested.[30] In both cases, the arrests were thrown out by General Sessions Night Court Commissioner Tom Nelson, who ruled that the state had no authority to set a curfew for Legislative Plaza.[31] Haslam stated the curfew was necessary due to deteriorating sanitary conditions and safety issues on the Plaza,[30][32] though critics, including the American Civil Liberties Union, which filed a lawsuit in federal court on October 31 to halt the arrests, have stated that the curfew is a violation of the protesters' civil rights.[33]

2012[edit]

The $31 billion budget bill signed by Haslam for 2012 included $50 million in tax cuts, $560 million for construction projects, a 2.5% pay raise for state employees, and additional funding to offset anticipated tuition hikes at state colleges. In June, Haslam signed bills that eliminated the state's gift tax and reduced the state's inheritance tax and the sales tax on groceries.[34] He also signed the "Fast Track" bill, which provided cash grants to companies seeking to expand or relocate to Tennessee.[35]

Tennessee was granted a waiver requested by Haslam from certain portions of the federal government's No Child Left Behind standards. Haslam argued that the law's Adequate Yearly Progress model labelled some state schools as failures in spite of these schools having made substantial improvement.[36] In May, he signed a bill providing $37 million in grants for state schools. In July, Haslam called for an overhaul of the state's higher education system, with the intention of generating a higher number of college graduates in high-paying fields.[37]

In March 2012, the legislature passed a bill protecting teachers who challenged scientific theories such as the Theory of Evolution and Global Warming in the classroom. Critics assailed the measure as a "monkey bill" that was little more than an attempt to allow Creationism to be taught in science classes.[38] While Haslam refused to sign the bill, he also refused to veto it, effectively allowing it to become law. He criticized the bill for creating confusion rather than clarity, but pointed out the legislature had passed it by a large margin, and argued the bill would have no effect on the state's science curriculum.[39]

On March 8, 2012, Haslam instructed his Health and Wellness Task Force to focus on the state's growing obesity problem, noting that nearly one-third of Tennesseans are obese.[40] In early April, he initiated the "Meth Stops Now" campaign, aimed at informing the public of the consequences of methamphetamine manufacture.[41] In May, he signed legislation aimed at curbing prescription drug abuse.[42]

On April 24, 2012, Haslam signed into law the Tennessee Excellence, Accountability and Management ("TEAM") Act, which established a new hiring system for state agencies and overhauled the evaluation standards for state employees by placing a greater focus on job performance rather than seniority.[43] The bill also makes it easier for executive branch employees to be hired and fired, establishes merit raises for high performing workers, and gives preference to veterans in job openings where applicants have equal qualifications.[44]

In May 2012, Haslam signed a bill barring sex education instructors from encouraging "gateway sexual activity." Proponents of the bill argued it was necessary to clarify the meaning of abstinence, while opponents argued the bill's wording was overly vague, and could be construed to include behavior such as kissing and holding hands.[45] Other bills signed by Haslam in May included a measure requiring drug testing for welfare recipients, a measure providing grants to companies to pay for training expenses for recently laid-off workers,[46] and a bill requiring Amazon.com to start collecting sales taxes on online purchases by 2014.[47]

After the General Assembly permanently adjourned in May, Haslam issued the first veto of his governorship. He vetoed a controversial bill that sought to end Vanderbilt University's "All Comers" policy, which required religious groups at the school to allow any student to join even if the student didn't share the group's religious beliefs. The legislature could not override the veto because it was no longer in session.[48] Haslam stated he disagreed with the policy, but didn't think it appropriate for the government to interfere with the policies of a private institution.[49]

In December 2012, Haslam announced the state would not implement a provision of the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare") that allows for a state-run health care exchange. Haslam had considered a state-run exchange for several weeks, but argued the federal government had not provided enough information regarding costs of the program, and what had been provided consisted of draft proposals subject to change. "More and more I'm convinced they are making this up as they go," he said.[50]

2014[edit]

In April 2014, Haslam signed into law a measure allowing prosecution of a new mother with criminal assault if she had used narcotics during pregnancy. The law has been criticised as discriminatory against women from poor rural areas with limited access to healthcare and addiction treatment facilities. [51] In July 2014, the first woman prosecuted under this law, Mallory Loyola, was arrested in Madisonville, Monroe County. [52]

Political positions[edit]

Haslam was formerly a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition but resigned early in 2009 and became a member of the National Rifle Association.[53]

While he generally supports budget cuts, Haslam has suggested that the Republican Party is too often focused on scaling back government rather than making it work. "At the end of the day," he said, "I think the most conservative principle there is, is giving people a dollar worth of value for a dollar worth of tax paid."[54]

Haslam is pro-life and opposes gay marriage, though he has stated that he wouldn't discriminate against gay employees, and prefers his administration focus on the economy and education, rather than hot-button social issues.[55][56] He has stated that he favors cracking down on businesses that employ illegal immigrants, and suggested he would sign a law requiring law enforcement officers to check the citizenship status of arrested individuals they suspect might be in the country illegally, if passed by the state legislature.[55]

On January 11, 2012, Bill Haslam endorsed Mitt Romney for the Republican nomination in the 2012 United States presidential election. This announcement came on the heels of Romney's victory in the New Hampshire primary on January 10.[57] Haslam's father was the Tennessee state co-chairman for the Romney campaign.

In a 2013 interview with Politico, Haslam stated that many of the more controversial measures passed by the state legislature, such as the 2012 law protecting teachers who dispute evolution in class, were "frustrating and a distraction."[54] He noted that in his travels across the state, "those aren't the issues I hear people bringing up."[54]

Lawsuit against Pilot Flying J[edit]

In July of 2014, Pilot Flying J, the nation’s largest chain of hybrid convenience store-gas stations, agreed to pay $92 million in fines to settle claims in a class-action lawsuit. The suit was brought by 5,500 trucking companies that claimed they were cheated out of promised rebates and discounts. Bill Haslam is a co-owner of the company, but has not worked for the company since the 1990s. The company is managed by his brother, Jimmy Haslam.[58]

Personal life[edit]

Bill Haslam met his wife-to-be, Crissy Garrett, at Emory University and they have been married since 1981; they have two daughters and a son.[6][59] Haslam is Presbyterian, and has been associated with the Cedar Springs Presbyterian Church in Knoxville.[1] Haslam has been a member of the Young Life Board of Trustees since 2011.[60]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Bill Haslam biography. Retrieved at Archive.org 19 July 2013.
  2. ^ "''Knoxville News Sentinel'' profile on Haslam". Knoxnews.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  3. ^ Josh Flory, "Haslam Patriarch Started Making Mark on Knoxville as UT Student", Knoxville News Sentinel, January 16, 2011; retrieved September 22, 2011
  4. ^ Josh Flory, "Work, loss and new joy: Death drew Haslams closer", Knoxville News Sentinel, January 17, 2011
  5. ^ a b c d e Josh Flory, "Growth and Change: As Business Evolves, Haslam Siblings Find Their Roles Within and Without It", Knoxville News Sentinel, January 18, 2011; retrieved September 22, 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d Mayor's biography, City of Knoxville website, accessed May 9, 2010
  7. ^ ""NFL approves Rooney's ownership plan"". Sports.espn.go.com. 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  8. ^ Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy (2007-05-13). "Knox County One Question". Knoxville News-Sentinel. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  9. ^ "Election Roundup". U.S. Conference of Mayors. November 17, 2003. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  10. ^ a b c Josh Flory, "Building on Experience as Knoxville's Mayor, 'Optimistic and Enthusiastic' Haslam Begins Leading State", Knoxville News Sentinel, January 19, 2011; retrieved September 22, 2011
  11. ^ a b Hayes Hickman (September 26, 2007). "Haslam sails to second term". Knoxville News-Sentinel. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  12. ^ Hickman, Hayes (January 6, 2009). "Haslam cites executive experience in launching campaign for governor". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  13. ^ Vines, Georgiana (December 5, 2009). "Haslam fundraiser boosts total". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  14. ^ Sisk, Chas (December 14, 2009). "Famous name gives McWherter edge in governor's race-for now". The Tennessean. 
  15. ^ "Haslam Endorsed By U.S. Rep. John J. Duncan". The Chattanoogan. May 8, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Underwood, Ryan; Michael Cass, Chas Sisk and Clay Carey (December 28, 2009). "Tennessee political movers". The Tennessean. p. 2. 
  17. ^ Humphrey, Tom (February 3, 2010). "Knoxville Mayor Bill Haslam gathers $5.8 million so far for governor's race". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  18. ^ Feldmann, Linda (August 6, 2010). "Tennessee GOP primary: Bill Haslam's win fits Election 2010 trends". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  19. ^ Bill's Priorities. Retrieved at Archive.org 19 July 2013.
  20. ^ Andy Sher, "Tennessee Gov. Signs Budget", Chattanooga Times-Free Press, June 16, 2011; retrieved September 22, 2011
  21. ^ Richard Locker, "Gov. Haslam Unveils Tennessee Budget; Will Expedite $97 Million for Electrolux", Memphis Commercial Appeal, March 14, 2011; retrieved September 23, 2011
  22. ^ Tom Humphrey "With Planned Parenthood Defunded (except may in Memphis?), Lawmakers Ready to Ignore Mystery Amendment", Knoxnews.com, June 12, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  23. ^ Erik Schelzig, "Haslam: Leave Discrimination Policies to Companies", Businessweek, May 25, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  24. ^ Andy Sher, "State Democrats Announce Efforts to Educate Voters on New Photo ID Requirements", Chattanooga Times Free Press, October 31, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  25. ^ Andy Sher, "Collective Bargaining, Political Contribution Measures Become Law", Chattanooga Times Free Press, June 2, 2011
  26. ^ Joe White, "Haslam Signs Tort Reform Measure Into Law", WPLN News, June 16, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  27. ^ ""Haslam Signs Charter Schools Bill into Law in Memphis". Memphis Business Journal, June 15, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  28. ^ Doug Davis, ""Gov. Bill Haslam Signs Bill to Allow Summer Use of Lottery Scholarships", Daily News Journal, June 8, 2011; retrieved from Knoxnews.com on November 3, 2011.
  29. ^ "Occupy Nashville Prostestors Arrested and Released", NewsChannel5.com, October 29, 2011
  30. ^ a b Lucas Johnson II, "Tenn. Gov.: 'Occupy' Arrests Necessary for Safety", The Tennessean, November 1, 2011
  31. ^ Jim Ridley, "Night Court Magistrate Throws the Book at Haslam, Troopers Over Occupy Nashville Arrests", Nashvillescene.com, October 29, 2011
  32. ^ ""TN Governor Bill Haslam Defends Actions; Occupy Nashville Situation had 'Deteriorated'", WBIR.com, October 29, 2011
  33. ^ Brandon Gee, "Lawsuit Seeks Halt to Occupy Nashville Arrests", The Tennessean, October 31, 2011
  34. ^ Andy Sher, "$31 Billion Tennessee Budget Heads to Gov. Bill Haslam," Chattanooga Times Free Press, 1 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  35. ^ "Haslam Signs Cash Grants Plan," TNReport.com, 18 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  36. ^ "Haslam Lauds No Child Left Behind Waiver," Tn.gov, 9 February 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  37. ^ Andy Sher, "Gov. Bill Haslam Tackles Higher Education Costs," Chattanooga Times Free Press, 11 July 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  38. ^ "Continued Opposition to Tennessee's 'Monkey Bill,'" National Center for Science Education website, 30 March 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  39. ^ Nick Wing, "Tennessee Evolution Bill Becomes Law After Governor Bill Haslam Declines to Act," Huffington Post, 10 April 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  40. ^ "Tennessee Governor Puts Obesity Problem in Spotlight," Memphis Commercial Appeal, 8 March 2012. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
  41. ^ "Haslam Announces Statewide Anti-Meth Campaign," TN.gov, 4 April 2012. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
  42. ^ Alexis Zotos, "Haslam Signs Tennessee Prescription Safety Act," WATE.com, 11 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  43. ^ "Haslam Signs TEAM Act Into Law," TN.gov, 24 April 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  44. ^ "Governor Haslam Signs Civil Service Overhaul Bill," NewsChannel5.com, 24 April 2012. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
  45. ^ Chas Sisk, "Haslam Signs 'Gateway Sexual Activity' Bill," WBIR.com, 11 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  46. ^ "Governor Haslam Signs Several Bills Into Law," NewsChannel5.com, 24 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  47. ^ Chloé Morrison, "Gov. Bill Haslam Signs Bill That Requires Amazon to Charge Sales Tax by 2014," Nooga.com, 26 March 2012. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
  48. ^ Tom Humphrey (May 6, 2012). Knoxville News Sentinel Gov. Bill Haslam's first veto deftly dodges override possibility http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2012/may/06/tom-humphrey-gov-bill-haslams-first-veto-deftly/ Gov. Bill Haslam's first veto deftly dodges override possibility |url= missing title (help). 
  49. ^ Tom Humphrey, "Haslam: 'All Comers' Policy Wrong, But Veto Plan Still Stands," Knoxville News Sentinel, 11 May 2012. Retrieved: 4 March 2013.
  50. ^ Tom Humphrey, "Gov. Bill Haslam Rejects State-Run Health Care Exchange," Knoxville News Sentinel, 10 December 2012. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
  51. ^ "First woman arrested under Tennessee law that criminalizes pregnancy outcomes". Salon.com. 
  52. ^ "$2,000 bond set for East Tenn. mom charged under new law". WBIR. 
  53. ^ "Bill Haslam Joined The NRA In 'Late February Or Early March'", Nashville Post Blogjam, April 9, 2009. Article includes a link to a Copy of Haslam's letter of resignation from MAIG.
  54. ^ a b c Alexander Burns, "Bill Haslam: The GOP Star You've Never Heard Of," Politico, 20 February 2013. Retrieved: 9 March 2013.
  55. ^ a b Stephen George, ""Is Bill Haslam Your Next Governor?", The Nashville City Paper, July 18, 2010; retrieved November 3, 2011
  56. ^ Jeff Woods, "Bill Haslam: 'Gay Rights Is a Broad Topic'", The Nashville City Paper, July 10, 2011; retrieved November 3, 2011
  57. ^ Endorsement of Mitt Romney, The Republic, January 11, 2012; retrieved at Archive.org 19 July 2013.
  58. ^ Associated Press (July 14, 2014) "Feds: Company co-owned by Tennessee Gov. Haslam to pay $92 for cheating customers." Fox News. (Retrieved 7-14-2014.)
  59. ^ Crissy Haslam profile. Retrieved at Archive.org 19 July 2013.
  60. ^ Board of Trustees 2012-2013, Young Life website. Retrieved; 20 August 2013.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Phil Bredesen
Governor of Tennessee
2011–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Victor Ashe
Mayor of Knoxville
2003–2011
Succeeded by
Daniel Brown
Acting
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Joe Biden
as Vice President
Order of Precedence of the United States
Within Tennessee
Succeeded by
Mayor of city
in which event is held
Succeeded by
Otherwise John Boehner
as Speaker of the House of Representatives
Preceded by
Steve Beshear
as Governor of Kentucky
Order of Precedence of the United States
Outside Tennessee
Succeeded by
John Kasich
as Governor of Ohio