|Birth name||William Melvin Hicks|
December 16, 1961|
Valdosta, Georgia, United States
|Died||February 26, 1994
Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
|Medium||comedian and musician|
|Genres||Dark comedy, political satire, observational comedy|
|Subject(s)||American culture, American politics, current events, pop culture, human sexuality, philosophy, religion, spirituality, recreational drug use, entheogens, conspiracy theories, consumerism|
|Website||BillHicks.com. WebCitation archive.|
William Melvin "Bill" Hicks (December 16, 1961 – February 26, 1994) was an American comedian, social critic, satirist and musician. His material, encompassing a wide range of social issues including religion, politics, and philosophy, was controversial, and often steeped in dark comedy. He criticized consumerism, superficiality, mediocrity, and banality within the media and popular culture, which he characterized as oppressive tools of the ruling class that keep people "stupid and apathetic".
At the age of 16, while still in high school, he began performing at the Comedy Workshop in Houston, Texas. During the 1980s, he toured the United States extensively and made a number of high-profile television appearances; but it was in the UK that he amassed a significant fan base, filling large venues during his 1991 tour. He also achieved a modicum of recognition as a guitarist and songwriter.
Hicks died of pancreatic cancer on February 26, 1994 in Little Rock, Arkansas, at the age of 32. In subsequent years – in particular after a series of posthumous album releases – his body of work gained a significant measure of acclaim in creative circles, and he developed a substantial cult following. In 2007, he was voted the fourth greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-Ups, and he maintained that ranking on the 2010 list.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Controversy
- 4 Material and style
- 5 Cancer diagnosis and death
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Discography
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 Notes
- 12 External links
Hicks was born in Valdosta, Georgia, the son of James Melvin "Jim" Hicks (1923–2006) and Mary (Reese) Hicks and younger sibling of Lynn and Steve. The family lived in Florida, Alabama, and New Jersey before settling in Houston, Texas, when Bill was seven. He was drawn to comedy at an early age, emulating Woody Allen and Richard Pryor, and writing routines with his friend Dwight Slade. At school he began performing comedy – mostly derivations of Woody Allen material – for his classmates. At home, he would write his own one-liners and slide them under the bedroom door of his brother Steve – the only family member Bill respected – for his critical analysis. "Keep it up", Steve told him. "You're really good at this."
Early on, Hicks began to mock his family's Southern Baptist religious beliefs. "We were Yuppie Baptists," he joked to the Houston Post in 1987. "We worried about things like, 'If you scratch your neighbor's Subaru, should you leave a note?' " Biographer Cynthia True described a typical argument with his father:
The elder Hicks would say, "I believe that the Bible is the literal word of God." And Bill would counter, "No it's not, Dad." "Well, I believe that it is." "Well," Bill replied, "you know, some people believe that they're Napoleon. That's fine. Beliefs are neat. Cherish them, but don't share them like they're the truth."
Hicks did not, however, reject spiritual ideology itself, and throughout his life, he sought various alternative methods of experiencing it. Kevin Slade, elder brother of Dwight, introduced him to Transcendental Meditation and other forms of spirituality. Over one Thanksgiving weekend he took Hicks and Dwight to a TM retreat, the "Residence Course", in Galveston. Worried about his rebellious behavior, his parents took him to a psychoanalyst at age 17. According to Hicks, after the first group session the analyst took him aside and told him, "You can continue coming if you want to, but it's them, not you."
Hicks was associated with the Texas Outlaw Comics group developed at the Comedy Workshop in Houston in the 1980s. Once Hicks gained some underground success in night clubs and universities, he quit drinking. However, Hicks continued to smoke cigarettes.
California and New York
By January 1986, Hicks was using recreational drugs and his financial resources had dwindled. His career received another upturn in 1987, however, when he appeared on Rodney Dangerfield's Young Comedians Special. The same year, he moved to New York City, and for the next five years performed about 300 times a year. On the album Relentless, he jokes that he quit using drugs because "once you've been taken aboard a UFO, it's kind of hard to top that", although in his performances, he continued to extol the virtues of LSD, marijuana, and psychedelic mushrooms.
He eventually fell back to chain-smoking, a theme that would figure heavily in his performances from then on. His nicotine addiction, love of smoking, and occasional attempts to quit became a recurring theme in his act throughout his later years.
In 1988, Hicks signed on with his first professional business manager, Jack Mondrus.
On the track "Modern Bummer" of his 1990 album Dangerous, Hicks says he quit drinking alcohol in 1988.
In 1989, he released his first video, Sane Man; a remastered version with 30 minutes of extra footage was released in 1999.
In 1990, Hicks released his first album, Dangerous, performed on the HBO special One Night Stand, and performed at Montreal's Just for Laughs festival. He was also part of a group of American stand-up comedians performing in London's West End in November. Hicks was a huge hit in the UK and Ireland and continued touring there throughout 1991. That year, he returned to Just for Laughs and filmed his second video, Relentless.
Hicks made a brief detour into musical recording with the Marble Head Johnson album in 1992 collaborating with Houston high school friend Kevin Booth and Austin Texas drummer Pat Brown. During the same year he toured the UK, where he recorded the Revelations video for Channel 4. He closed the show with his soon-to become-famous philosophy regarding life, "It's Just a Ride." Also in that tour he recorded the stand-up performance released in its entirety on a double CD titled Salvation. Hicks was voted "Hot Standup Comic" by Rolling Stone magazine in 1993. He moved to Los Angeles in 1992.
Hicks and Tool
Progressive metal band Tool invited Hicks to open a number of concerts in its 1993 Lollapalooza appearances, where Hicks once asked the audience to look for a contact lens he had lost. Thousands of people complied.
Members of Tool felt that they and Hicks "were resonating similar concepts". Intending to raise awareness about Hicks's material and ideas, Tool dedicated their triple-platinum album Ænima (1996) to Hicks. Both the lenticular casing of the Ænima album packaging as well as the chorus of the title track "Ænema" make reference to a sketch from Hicks's Arizona Bay album, in which he contemplates the idea of Los Angeles falling into the Pacific Ocean. Ænima 's final track, "Third Eye" contains samples from Hicks's Dangerous and Relentless albums.
An alternate version of the Ænima artwork shows a painting of Bill Hicks, calling him "Another Dead Hero," and mentions of Hicks are found both in the liner notes and on the record.
Censorship and aftermath
In 1984, Hicks was invited to appear on Late Night with David Letterman for the first time. He had a joke that he used frequently in comedy clubs about how he caused a serious accident that left a classmate using a wheelchair. NBC had a policy that no handicapped jokes could be aired on the show, making his stand-up routine difficult to perform without mentioning words such as "wheelchair."
On October 1, 1993, Hicks was scheduled to appear on Late Show with David Letterman, where Letterman had recently moved to CBS. It was his 12th appearance on a Letterman late-night show, but his entire performance was removed from the broadcast; until that point the only occasion where a comedian's entire routine was cut after taping. Hicks' stand-up routine was removed from the show, Hicks said, because Letterman's producers believed the material, which included jokes involving religion and the anti-abortion movement, was unsuitable for broadcast. Producer Robert Morton initially blamed CBS, which denied responsibility; Morton later conceded it was his decision. Although Letterman later expressed regret at the way Hicks had been handled, Hicks did not appear on the show again.[note 1]
Letterman finally aired the censored routine in its entirety on January 30, 2009. Hicks's mother, Mary, was present in the studio and appeared on-camera as a guest. Letterman took responsibility for the original decision to remove Hicks's set from the 1993 show. "It says more about me as a guy than it says about Bill," he said, after the set aired, "because there was absolutely nothing wrong with that."
For many years, Hicks was friends with fellow comedian Denis Leary. But in 1993, Hicks was angered by Leary's album No Cure for Cancer, which featured lines and subject matter similar to Hicks's routine. According to American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story by Cynthia True, upon hearing the album "Bill was furious. All these years, aside from the occasional jibe, he had pretty much shrugged off Leary's lifting. Comedians borrowed, stole stuff, and even bought bits from one another. Milton Berle and Robin Williams were famous for it. This was different. Leary had practically taken line for line huge chunks of Bill's act and recorded it." The friendship ended abruptly as a result.
At least three stand-up comedians have gone on the record stating they believe Leary stole Hicks's material as well as his persona and attitude. In an interview, when Hicks was asked why he had quit smoking, he answered, "I just wanted to see if Denis would, too." In another interview, Hicks said, "I have a scoop for you. I stole his [Leary's] act. I camouflaged it with punchlines, and, to really throw people off, I did it before he did." During a 2003 Comedy Central Roast of Denis Leary, comedian Lenny Clarke, a friend of Leary's, said there was a carton of cigarettes backstage from Bill Hicks with the message, "Wish I had gotten these to you sooner." This joke was cut from the final broadcast.
The controversy surrounding plagiarism is also mentioned in American Scream:
Leary was in Montreal hosting the "Nasty Show" at Club Soda, and Colleen [McGarr?] was coordinating the talent so she stood backstage and overheard Leary doing material incredibly similar to old Hicks riffs, including his perennial Jim Fixx joke: "Keith Richards outlived Jim Fixx, the runner and health nut. The plot thickens." When Leary came offstage, Colleen, more stunned than angry, said, "Hey, you know that's Bill Hicks's material! Do you know that's his material?" Leary stood there, stared at her without saying a word, and briskly left the dressing room.
Material and style
Hicks's performance style was seen as a play on his audience's emotions. He expressed anger, disgust, and apathy while addressing the audience in a casual and personal manner, which he likened to merely conversing with his friends. He would invite his audiences to challenge authority and the existential nature of "accepted truth." One such message, which he often used in his shows, was delivered in the style of a news report (in order to draw attention to the negative slant news organizations give to any story about drugs):
Today, a young man on acid realized that all matter is merely energy condensed to a slow vibration—that we are all one consciousness experiencing itself subjectively. There is no such thing as death, life is only a dream, and we're the imagination of ourselves. Here's Tom with the weather.
The American philosopher and ethnomycologist Terence McKenna was a frequent source of Hicks' most controversial psychedelic and philosophical counter-cultural material; he infamously acted out an abridged version of McKenna's "Stoned Ape" model of human evolution as a routine during several of his final shows.
Another of Hicks's most quoted lines was delivered during a gig in Chicago in 1989 (later released as the bootleg I'm Sorry, Folks). After a heckler repeatedly shouted "Free Bird", Hicks screamed that "Hitler had the right idea; he was just an underachiever!" Hicks followed this remark with a misanthropic tirade calling for unbiased genocide against the whole of humanity.
Much of Hicks's routine involved direct attacks on mainstream society, religion, politics, and consumerism. Asked in a BBC interview why he cannot do a routine that appeals "to everyone", he said that such an act was impossible. He responded by repeating a comment that an audience member once made to him, "We don't come to comedy to think!", to which he replied, "Gee, where do you go to think? I'll meet you there!" When asked whether there was a "half way" point between audience expectations and his own, he said: "but my way is half-way between, I mean, this is a night-club, and, you know, these are adults, and what do you expect?"
Hicks often discussed popular conspiracy theories in his performances, most notably the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He mocked the Warren Report and the official version of Lee Harvey Oswald as a "lone nut assassin." He also questioned the guilt of David Koresh and the Branch Davidian compound during the Waco Siege. Hicks would end some of his shows, especially those being recorded in front of larger audiences as albums, with a mock "assassination" of himself on stage, making gunshot sound effects into the microphone while falling to the ground.
Cancer diagnosis and death
On June 16, 1993, Hicks was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer that had spread to his liver. He started receiving weekly chemotherapy, while still touring and also recording his album, Arizona Bay, with Kevin Booth. He was also working with comedian Fallon Woodland on a pilot episode of a new talk show, titled Counts of the Netherworld for Channel 4 at the time of his death. The budget and concept had been approved, and a pilot was filmed. The Counts of the Netherworld pilot was shown at the various Tenth Anniversary Tribute Night events around the world on February 26, 2004.
After being diagnosed with cancer, Hicks would often joke that any given performance would be his last. The public, however, was unaware of Hicks's condition. Only a few close friends and family members knew of his disease. Hicks performed the final show of his career at Caroline's in New York on January 6, 1994. He moved back to his parents' house in Little Rock, Arkansas, shortly thereafter. He called his friends to say goodbye before he stopped speaking on February 14. He died of pancreatic cancer on February 26, 1994 in Little Rock at the age of 32. Hicks was buried in the family plot in Magnolia Cemetery, Leakesville, Mississippi.
On February 7, 1994, a verse Hicks had authored, on his perspective, wishes, and thanks of his life, to be released after his death as his "last word", ended with the words: "I left in love, in laughter, and in truth and wherever truth, love and laughter abide, I am there in spirit."
In a 2005 poll to find The Comedian's Comedian, fellow comedians and comedy insiders voted Hicks No. 13 on their list of "The Top 20 Greatest Comedy Acts Ever". Likewise, in "Comedy Central Presents: 100 Greatest Stand-ups of All Time" (2004), Hicks was ranked at #19. In March 2007, Channel 4 ran a poll, "The Top 100 Stand-Up Comedians of All Time", in which Hicks was voted #6. Channel 4 renewed this list in April 2010, which saw Hicks move up 2 places to #4.
Devotees of Hicks have incorporated his words, image, and attitude into their own creations. By means of audio sampling, fragments of Hicks's rants, diatribes, social criticisms, and philosophies have found their way into many musical works, such as the live version of Super Furry Animals' "Man Don't Give A Fuck". His influence on the band Tool is well-documented as he is sampled at the beginning of their song Third Eye; he "appears" on the Fila Brazillia album Maim That Tune (1996) and on SPA's self-titled album SPA (1997), which are both dedicated to Hicks; the British band Radiohead's second album The Bends (1995) is also dedicated to his memory. Singer/songwriter Tom Waits listed Rant in E-Minor as one of his 20 most cherished albums of all time.
The British actor Chas Early portrayed Hicks in the one-man stage show Bill Hicks: Slight Return, which premiered in 2004. The show was co-written by Chas Early and Richard Hurst, and imagined Hicks's view of the world 10 years after his death.
That this House notes with sadness the 10th anniversary of the death of Bill Hicks, on 26th February 1994, at the age of 33 [sic]; recalls his assertion that his words would be a bullet in the heart of consumerism, capitalism and the American Dream; and mourns the passing of one of the few people who may be mentioned as being worth [sic] of inclusion with Lenny Bruce in any list of unflinching and painfully honest political philosophers.
Film and documentary
Annex Houston (1986) was a video in an early stand up performance live at Texas.
Sane Man (1989) is the first officially video recorded Bill Hicks show.
Ninja Bachelor Party (1991) is a 1991 low-budget comedy film produced by and starring Bill Hicks, Kevin Booth, and David Johndrow. It is a parody of martial arts movies and was intentionally dubbed improperly.
One Night Stand (1991) is an HBO stand-up series that first aired on February 15, 1989. The half-hour series aired weekly and featured stand-up comedy specials from some of the top performing comedians. The series originally comprised 55 specials over the course of its four years on HBO.
Revelations (1992) is one more live performance that Bill Hicks performed at the Dominion Theatre, London in November 1992.
Relentless (1992) was recorded at the Centaur Theatre during the annual Just for Laughs Comedy Festival in Montreal, Canada. Despite the common title, the CD album was recorded at a separate performance, after the Just for Laughs festival had closed.
Russell Crowe announced in 2012 that he will direct a Bill Hicks biopic. Crowe was originally thought to be playing the comedian, but Mark Staufer, the actor's schoolmate and writer on the film, has suggested the part is now open for casting. Production was expected to start in 2013.
- "Bill Hicks Personal Life and Career". Bestcomedyonline.net. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "100 Greatest Comedy Stand-ups vote from channel4.com". Channel 4. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Bill Hicks: Love All the People (Robinson Publishing, 2005), ISBN 978-1-84529-111-2, page #s?
- "Bill Hicks (Personal Life, Career)". bestcomedyonline. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- True, C. American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story. London, Sidgwick & Jackson, 2002. ISBN 0380803771. p. 12.
- True (2002), pp. 10–11.
- True (2002), p. 44.
- True, Cynthia (2002). American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story. Harper Paperbacks. p. 25. ISBN 0380803771.
- Staff report (April 18, 1991). 'Texas outlaw' fires from the lip. Washington Times
- Matt Harlock and Paul Thomas, Directors (2009). American: The Bill Hicks Story
- Outhwaite, Paul. "Bill Hicks". Bill Hicks family official site. Archived from the original on 2014-04-08. Retrieved 2014-04-08.
- See Sane Man and Rant in E Minor.
- Jason Ankeny. "Bill Hicks | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Lieck, Ken (June 2, 2000). "Bill Hicks ... Sane Man". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- "Bill Hicks". icomedytv. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "Flash Intro Page". Billhicks.com. December 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Interview with Kevin Booth. "It's Only a Ride: Bill Hicks Question & Answer with Kevin Booth". FadeToBlack.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2005. Retrieved March 3, 2006.
- Langer, Andy (May 1997). "Another Dead Hero". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- Theiner, Manny (September 28, 2006). "Concert Review: Tool's prog pleases populace". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
...from its triple-platinum 1996 release, "Ænima."
- Zwick, John (February 25, 2004). "Dead 10 years, Hicks still makes us laugh". University of Colorado Denver Advocate. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- Lahr, John (November 1, 1993). "The Goat Boy Rises". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008.
- Korn, Steven (February 3, 2009), "David Letterman Airs the 'Lost' Bill Hicks Routine", Entertainment Weekly, retrieved January 15, 2009
- Crosbie, Lynn (February 3, 2009). "The Globe Review Column; Pop Rocks; A Pop-Culture Epiphany; David Letterman's Apology to Mary Hicks". The Globe and Mail. p. R1.
- Outhwaite, Paul (November 2003). One Consciousness: An Analysis of Bill Hicks's Comedy, 3rd edition, D.M. Productions. ISBN 0-9537461-3-5.
- True, Cynthia (2002). American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story. Harper Paperbacks. ISBN 0-380-80377-1.
- Booth, Kevin; Bertin, Michael (2005). Bill Hicks: Agent of Evolution. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-719829-9.
- Rogan, Joe (2005). "Carlos Mencia is a weak minded joke thief". JoeRogan.net. Archived from the original on June 7, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
- Rogan, Joe (October 2003). (Interview). Playboy Magazine. Missing or empty
- McIntire, Tim (1998). "Dark Times: Bill Hicks: Frequently Asked Questions". BillHicks.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2006. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
- Jalees, Sabrina (October 17, 2006). "Nothing funny about joke thieves". Toronto: The Star. Retrieved December 23, 2009.[dead link]
- Stern, Doug (April 1993). "Profile: Bill Hicks". Austin Comedy News. via Gavin's Blog. Archived from the original on October 19, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2006.. WebCitation archive.
- "Roasting a Comic They Turn Up the Flames Gently". Boston Globe. August 10, 2003. Archived from the original on August 11, 2003.[dead link] (Dead link as of at least March 26, 2009.)
- Extract from Revelations, London, 1993. The extract is part of the concluding track to the album, called "It's Just a Ride", in which he essentially outlines his world view.
- True, Cynthia, American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story, Pan Macmillan, 2008, p.127.
- Hound, Rufus, Stand-Up Put-Downs, Random House, 2011, p.59.
- Hicks, Bill, Love All the People: Letters, Lyrics, Routines, Hachette UK, 2009, unpaginated.
- Hicks, Bill. "Last Word". BillHicks.com. Bill Hicks. Archived from the original on May 21, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- "Bill Hicks Bio". Billhicks.com. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- O'Neill, Brendan (February 23, 2004). "Bill Hicks: Why the fuss, exactly?". BBC News (UK accessdate = 2006-03-03: BBC). Archived from the original on February 25, 2004.
- Edwards, Rupert (March 5, 1994). "Obituary: Bill Hicks". The Independent (UK). Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- "America's outlaw comic". Socialist Worker. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- Comedy Central. "Comedy Central 100 Greatest Standups of all Time". Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Mueller, Andrew (July 24, 2008). "Radiohead Part II: On The Road With The Mercury Prize Nominees". The Quietus. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
- Waits, Tom (March 20, 2005). "What the stars are listening to: 'It's perfect madness'". The Observer (London: The Guardian). Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
Bill Hicks, blowtorch, excavator, truthsayer and brain specialist, like a reverend waving a gun around.
- Guildford, Simon (June 21, 2007). "Does Anybody Remember Laughter?". SimonGuildford.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014.
I was definitely influenced by Bill Hicks. Well, maybe less 'influenced' than 'inspired by'. When I first met him, I was doing stuff that I do now, so maybe I wasn't directly influenced by him. But he was certainly inspiring.
- "Photos: Comedy's New Legends Portfolio". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- "RonWhiteComedian comments on Hi I am Ron White / Tater Salad / Blue Collar Comedy Tour / Comedian. AMA". Reddit.com. October 1, 2012. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- "Anniversary of the death of Bill Hicks". Parliamentary Information Management Services. Retrieved March 3, 2006.
- Ashurst, Sam (January 9, 2009). "5 Best Political Cameos in Comic Books". TotalFilm.com. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 31, 2011.
- "GCD :: Issue :: Preacher #31". Comics.org. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Bill Hicks – Annex Houston (1986)". Bill Hicks.
- "Bill Hicks – Sane Man (1989)". Bill Hicks.
- "Ninja Bachelor Party". Bill Hicks.
- "Bill Hicks – One night stand (1991)". Bill Hicks.
- "Revelations:Bill Hicks". Bill Hicks.
- "Bill Hicks – Relentless (1992)". Bill Hicks.
- "American: The Bill Hicks Story". Americanthemovie.com. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Henry Barnes. "Russell Crowe to direct Bill Hicks biopic – guardian.co.uk July 24, 2012". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- "Russell Crowe Taking The Directors Chair For Bill Hicks Film". flicksnews. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Booth, Kevin; Bertin, Michael (March 2005). Bill Hicks: Agent of Evolution. New York City: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-719829-9.
- Hicks, Bill (2004). Love All the People: Letters, Lyrics, Routines. ISBN 1-932360-65-4.
- Kaufman, Will (1997). Comedian As Confidence Man: Studies in Irony Fatigue. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2657-9.
- Mack, Ben; Pulkkinen, Kristin (October 2005). What Would Bill Hicks Say?. ISBN 1-933368-01-2.
- Newfield, Jack (2003). American Rebels. New York, NY: Nation books. ISBN 1-56025-543-9.
- Outhwaite, Paul (November 2003). One Consciousness: An Analysis of Bill Hicks's Comedy (3rd edition ed.). D.M. Productions. ISBN 0-9537461-3-5.
- True, Cynthia (2002). American Scream: The Bill Hicks Story. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-380-80377-1.
- Hicks was actively undergoing chemotherapy at the time of his final Late Show appearance – unbeknownst to Letterman and most others outside of Hicks' immediate family – and died less than four months later (True, 2002, pp. 193–214).
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Bill Hicks|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bill Hicks.|
- Official website
- Sacred Cow Productions
- Bill Hicks at the Internet Movie Database
- Bill Hicks' Last Interview 1993