The use of billon coins dates from ancient Greece and continued through the Middle Ages. During the 6th and 5th centuries BC, some cities on Lesbos Island used coins made of 60% copper and 40% silver. In both ancient times and the Middle Ages, leaner mixtures were adopted, with less than 2% silver content.
Billon coins are perhaps best known from the Roman Empire, where progressive debasements of the Roman denarius and the Roman provincial tetradrachm in the 2nd century AD led to declining silver and increasing bronze content in these denominations of coins. Eventually, by the third quarter of the 2nd century AD, these coins were almost entirely bronze, with only a thin coating or even a wash of silver.
- "Billon". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- Harl, Dr. Kenneth (1998-03-19). "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". tulane.edu. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- Munro, John (Jan 15, 2007). "Review of Earl J. Hamilton, American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 1501-1650.". EH.Net Economic History Services. Retrieved 2009-09-25.[dead link]
- Erik Christiansen, Coinage in Roman Egypt: The Hoard Evidence (Aarhus University Press, 2004) 135-141.
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