Biltmore Forest School

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Biltmore School of Forestry
Biltmore Forestry School, Schoolhouse, Brevard vicinity (Transylvania County, North Carolina).jpg
The Schoolhouse of the Biltmore School of Forestry
Biltmore Forest School is located in North Carolina
Biltmore Forest School
Nearest city Brevard, North Carolina
Coordinates 35°21′4″N 82°46′52″W / 35.35111°N 82.78111°W / 35.35111; -82.78111Coordinates: 35°21′4″N 82°46′52″W / 35.35111°N 82.78111°W / 35.35111; -82.78111
Built September 1, 1898
Architect Multiple
Governing body United States Forest Service
NRHP Reference # 74001377[1]
Added to NRHP November 19, 1974

The Biltmore School of Forestry was the first school of forestry in North America. The school of "practical forestry" was founded by Carl A. Schenck in 1898 on George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina.


In 1895, Carl A. Schenck was brought by George W. Vanderbilt from Germany to Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in North Carolina to work managing the vast expanses of forest lands on the estate's property. Schenck replaced Gifford Pinchot as Vanderbilt's estate forester, and immediately began introducing new scientific management and practical forestry techniques. As Schenck worked throughout Vanderbilt's vast forest lands in Western North Carolina, he found himself explaining to local young men what he was working on and why it was important to maintain healthy forests. The growing interest in forestry work Schenck found among the locals caused him to look into starting his own forestry education program.

With the permission of Vanderbilt, Schenck established the Biltmore School of Forestry using abandoned farm buildings on the estate grounds. This was the first school of forestry in North America. According to The Biltmore Company, the school "opened its doors on September 1, 1898."[2] According to Steven Anderson, President of the Forest History Society, this was just "a few weeks" before the opening of the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell University, under the leadership of Dr. Bernhard Fernow.[3]

Students from Biltmore School of Forestry inspecting a forest rail line, Darmstadt, Germany, c. 1912

The Biltmore School of Forestry offered a one-year course of study, and the curriculum focused on providing traditional classroom lectures in silvicultural theory supplemented with extensive hands-on, practical forest management field training. Schenck's students spent most afternoons in the forest doing hands-on work and directly applying the theories they had learned in the classroom. Schenck was a demanding, but engaging professor, and his students took to him immediately, absorbing as much of the scientific forestry theories as they could.

The Biltmore Forest Fair[edit]

In November 1908, Schenck hosted the Biltmore Forest Fair, designed to demonstrate the accomplishments and possibilities of scientific management and practical forestry techniques, and to celebrate the 10th anniversary of his Forestry School.[4] The three-day festival ran from November 26–29, exhibiting theories of forestry taught at the school. Attendees were given forest plantation tours with Schenck as their guide, and received detailed lessons on forestry practices, planting techniques, logging operations, seed regeneration, soil composition and more.

Schenck sent personal letters inviting close to 400 people to the fair, along with these letters of invitation, Schenck also enclosed a 55-page illustrated booklet, A Forest Fair in the Biltmore Forest,[5] which served as not only a guide to the forests at Biltmore but also a textbook of forestry and conservation practices. The guests included foresters, lumbermen, furniture manufacturers, botanists, university professors and others. The fair successfully demonstrated Schenck’s forestry and conservation practices, with various newspaper editorials from the region subsequently praising him.

The school's end and legacy[edit]

In 1909, Schenck left his job as forester of the Vanderbilt estate. At this time he was forced to close the doors of the original Biltmore School of Forestry, as he could no longer operate it on Vanderbilt's property. Schenck continued the school through 1913, though, traveling with his students and operating in various locations, including in Germany.

Despite the school's short existence, it laid the foundation for American forestry education. Graduates of the Biltmore School of Forestry became the first generation of American professional foresters. Schenck's theories of sustainable forestry greatly influenced the field, remaining important long after his death, in 1955. Today, the school continues to be celebrated as "the cradle of forestry in America" on Vanderbilt's former lands in Pisgah National Forest, and several of the remaining buildings can be seen on trails that are part of the Cradle of Forestry in America site.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  2. ^ Biltmore Company, The. July 24, 1998. "Cradle of Forestry Celebrates Centennial of The Biltmore School of Forestry: America's First School of Forestry." [press release] Brevard, NC. Available: Accessed February 13, 2010.
  3. ^ Anderson, Steven. 1998. "Introduction". P. i in Cradle of Forestry in America: The Biltmore School of Forestry, 1898-1913, Carl Alwyn Schenck. Durham, NC: Forest History Society.
  4. ^ November 26, 1908: The Biltmore Forest Fair
  5. ^ A Forest Fair in the Biltmore Forest

External links[edit]