Binondo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Binondo, Manila)
Jump to: navigation, search
Binondo
Nickname(s): Chinatown
Location of Binondo
Country Philippines
Region National Capital Region
City Manila
Congressional districts Part of the 3rd district of Manila
Barangays 10
Area
 • Total 0.66 km2 (0.26 sq mi)
Population (2010[1])
 • Total 12,985
 • Density 20,000/km2 (50,000/sq mi)

Binondo is an enclave in Manila primarily populated by ethnic Chinese living in the Philippines. It is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594.[2] Historically, this was where the Spanish permitted converted sangleys, their indigenous Filipino wives, and their mixed-race descendants, the mestizos de sangley or Chinese mestizos, to reside. Similarly, Parían, an area near Intramuros, was where the Spanish first restricted unconverted Chinese immigrants. They allowed sangley settlement at Parían because it was within the range of Intramuros' cannons, and they felt they could control any uprising from the labourers.

Located across the Pasig River from Intramuros, Binondo has typified a small Chinese town, and is referred to as the local "China Town". The district is the centre of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants. Given the historic reach of Chinese trading in the Pacific, Binondo was already a hub of Chinese commerce before the first Spanish colonisers arrived in 1521.

Binondo is also considered a historic centre of the mestizo de sangley community; famous residents include St. Lorenzo Ruiz, the Filipino protomartyr, and Venerable Mother Ignacia del Espiritu Santo, founder of the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary.

Etymology[edit]

The name "Binondo" is a toponym derived from the archaic spelling of the Tagalog term "binondoc" (modern orthography: binundók), or mountainous, referring to the district's originally hilly terrain.

History[edit]

The Escolta, the 'Broadway of Manila' (circa 1899)
Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 19th century. Original caption: Pont de Binondoc à Manille. From Aventures d'un Gentilhomme Breton aux iles Philippines by Paul de la Gironière, published in 1855.

Founded in 1594, Binondo was created by Spanish Governor Luis Pérez Dasmariñas as a permanent settlement for Chinese immigrants (the Spanish called the Chinese sangleys) who converted to Catholicism. It was across the river from the walled city of Intramuros, where the Spaniards resided. Originally it was intended to replace the Parian near Intramuros, where the Chinese were first confined. The Spanish gave a land grant for Binondo to a group of Chinese merchants and artisans in perpetuity, tax-free and with limited self-governing privileges.

Arko ng Pagkakaibigang Pilipino-Tsino (Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch at Binondo).
Plaza San Lorenzo Ruíz and Binondo Church

The Spanish Dominican fathers made Binondo their parish and succeeded in converting many of the residents to Catholicism. Binondo soon became the place where Chinese immigrants converted to Catholicism, intermarried with indigenous Filipino women and had children, who became the Chinese mestizo community. Over the years, the Chinese mestizo population of Binondo grew rapidly. This was caused mainly because the lack of Chinese immigrant females and the Spanish officials' policy of expelling or killing (in conflicts) Chinese immigrants who refused to convert.

In 1603 a Chinese revolt took place led by Juan Suntay, a wealthy Catholic Chinese. It was put down by joint Spanish and native forces led by Luis Pérez Dasmariñas. In the aftermath most of the 20,000 Chinese that composed the colony were killed. The revolt took place right after a visit to Manila by three official Chinese representatives who disclosed they were searching for "a mountain of gold". This strange claim prompted the Spanish to conclude that there was an imminent invasion from China in the making. At the time the local Chinese outnumbered the Spaniards by twenty to one, and Spanish authorities feared that they would join the invading forces.[3] The Chinese afterward played down those events in an attempt to preserve their commercial interests. In 1605 a Fukien official issued a letter claiming that the Chinese who had participated in the revolt were unworthy of China's protection, describing them as "deserters of the tombs of their ancestors".[4]

During the brief British occupation of Manila, between 1762 and 1764, Binondo was bombarded on several occasions and some of its structures destroyed. Many Spanish, Mestizos, Chinese and natives were killed and brought into prisons indiscriminately.[5]

Binondo became the main center for business and finance in Manila for the ethnic Chinese, Chinese mestizos and Spanish Filipinos. During the Spanish colonial period, many esteros (canals) were constructed in the Binondo area, from where they entered the Pasig River. Among the many who married at the historic Binondo Church was Andres Bonifacio in 1895, who became a hero of the Philippine Revolution.

Before World War II, Binondo was the centre of a banking and financial community which included insurance companies, commercial banks and other financial institutions from Britain and the United States. These banks were located mostly along Escólta, which used to be called the "Wall Street of the Philippines".

After the war and new development, most businesses began to relocate to the newer area of Makati. During the financial crisis of the early 1980s, it had the moniker "Binondo Central Bank", as the local Chinese businessmen engaged in massive black market trading of US dollars, which often determined the national peso-dollar exchange rate. Given its rich historical and financial significance, Binondo is said to have one of the highest land values nationwide.

Barangays[edit]

Binondo skyline as seen from Jones Bridge
A street sign in Chinatown

The largest barangay in Binondo is Barangay 292.
Zone 27: 287, 288, 289, 290, 291
Zone 28: 292, 293, 294, 295, 296

Barangays of Binondo
Name Population (2010 census)[1]
Barangay 287 2,078
Barangay 288 1,265
Barangay 289 485
Barangay 290 546
Barangay 291 809
Barangay 292 3,140
Barangay 293 486
Barangay 294 1,877
Barangay 295 1,062
Barangay 296 1,237

Places of interest[edit]

In Literature[edit]

Binondo was mentioned several times in the novels of Dr. José Rizal, for example, in Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b National Capital Region Final Results - 2010 Census of Population and Housing
  2. ^ Raitisoja, Geni " Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world", Tradio86.com, July 8, 2006, accessed March 19, 2011.
  3. ^ Chi Tien, Liu (1955). Hua-ch’iao tui-yu Fei-lu-pin (The Overseas Chinese in the Philippines). Manila. pp. 37–41. 
  4. ^ MacNair, H.F. (1923). The Relation of China to her Nationals Abroad. p. 30. 
  5. ^ Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40. 

Coordinates: 14°36′00″N 120°58′01″E / 14.600°N 120.967°E / 14.600; 120.967