Biodiversity of Wales
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Wales is a predominantly mountainous peninsula located between England and the Irish Sea, covering 8,023 square miles. It has terrestrial habitats and many protected areas rich in biodiversity, including three national parks and five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). The national parks include: Snowdonia, Pembrokeshire Coast and Brecon Beacons. AONB include: Anglesey, Clwydian Range, Gower Peninsula, Llŷn Peninsula and Wye Valley, which is partially in England. Wales also has many locations categorised as Site of Special Scientific Interest, Special Area of Conservation, Special Protection Area and Local nature reserve. There are many zoos and gardens, including the National Botanic Garden of Wales.
On the coast, a great diversity of species such as seals, dolphins, sharks, jellyfish, crabs and lobsters can be found. There are also seabird colonies on the islands near the coast. Species which can only be found in Wales are the Radnor lily, spotted rock-rose and a type of fish, the gwyniad, only found in Lake Bala. The rare fen orchid (Liparis loeselii) is one of the most threatened species in northwestern Europe and has vanished from many places in Wales. The Welsh Government funds Natural Resources Wales (NRW), Plantlife, Bridgend County Borough Council and the Wales Biodiversity Partnership coastal ecosystem group to help reconstruct its natural habitat and secure the future of this threatened species.
The Welsh government works closely with the Wales Biodiversity Partnership (WBP) which promotes and monitors the Wales biodiversity action plan. In 2010 the Welsh government launched a Natural Environment Framework, "A Living Wales", which focuses on sustainable land and marine management in Wales.
- 1 Elements
- 2 Endemism
- 3 Human impact
- 4 Management
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The sessile oak (Quercus petraea), one of Wales' most common species, can be found across the region. English holly (Ilex aquifolium), one of the few native evergreen trees, can found in southern Wales. The wych elm (Ulmus glabra), a native species, suffers from disease and competition introduced by exotic species.
The cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis), a herbaceous perennial, can be found throughout Wales. Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), a small flowering shrub, can be found in central Wales. Within the British Isles, the Snowdon lily (Gagea serotina) is found only on the slopes of Snowdon.
|County / Histori\320c county||Species||Habitat|
|Anglesey / Sir Fon||Spotted rock-rose (Tuberaria guttata)||Dry, rocky places|
|Brecknockshire / Sir Frycheiniog||Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis)||Wet grassland and pond margins|
|Caernarvonshire / Sir Gaernarfon||Snowdon lily (Gagea serotina)||Mountain rocks|
|Cardiff / Caerdydd||Wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum)||Sandy and rocky places near the sea|
|Cardiganshire / Ceredigion||Bog-rosemary (Andromeda polifolia)||Mid-Wales|
|Carmarthenshire / Sir Gaerfyddin||Whorled caraway (Carum verticillatum)||Damp meadows|
|Denbighshire / Sir Ddinbych||Limestone woundwort (Stachys alpina)||Roadsides and hedges|
|Flintshire / Sir Fflint||Bell heather (Erica cinerea)||Heaths and moors|
|Glamorgan / Morgannwg||Yellow whitlow-grass (Draba aizoides)||Rocks and old walls|
|Merioneth / Merionnydd||Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambrica)||Damp, shady rocks|
|Monmouthshire / Sir Fynwy||Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)||Woodland clearings, heaths and banks|
|Montgomeryshire / Sir Drefaldwyn||Spiked speedwell (Veronica spicata)||Limestone rocks|
|Pembrokeshire / Sir Benfro||Thrift (Armeria maritima)||Coastal cliffs or astride craggy islands|
|Radnorshire / Sir Faesyfed||Radnor lily (Gagea bohemica)||Limestone rocks|
Around Cadigan Bay and Pembrokeshire coast, minke and pilot whales are common in the summer while fin and killer whales are rare. Bottlenose dolphins are common and Risso’s dolphin and Atlantic white-sided dolphin are rare. Whales, grey seals, basking sharks and sunfish can also be seen.
Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) are the two largest mammal species in Wales. Roe deer are found in central and northern Wales. Fallow deer are found in rural and semiurban areas of Wales. The European polecat (Mustela putorius) can be found in both urban and country environments. Found in the same area is the red fox, one of the most common mammals in Wales.
The red deer, one of five native deer species, is the biggest non-marine mammal in Wales. Fallow, muntjac roe and sika deer can also be found. Polecats and pine martens are very rarely seen. Other mammals include badgers, foxes, hares, hedgehogs, otters, rabbits, stoats, weasels, red squirrels, and 13 species of bat.
About 420 species of birds have been found in Wales. Red kites and ospreys are a "signature species" of Wales. Dippers, choughs, puffins, guillemots, razorbills, short-eared owls, Manx shearwaters, whimbrel and plovers are also common. Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), a rare species in Britain, has several nesting places in Wales. Red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica), once a common species, has reduced population dramatically due to human hunting. Red grouse can be found at the extreme north part of Wales. King eider (Somateria spectabilis) is also heavily hunted for its feathers.
Adders, common lizards (try Oxwich bay) and grass snakes have been recorded. Some sand lizards bred by Herpetological Conservation Trust volunteers and Chester and Jersey Zoos have been released into the wild.
|Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros)||Greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)|
|Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)||Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)|
|Natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)||Grass snake (Natrix natrix)|
|Common lizard (Lacerta vivipara)||Pine marten (Martes martes)|
|Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax)||Common toad (Bufo bufo)|
|Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)||Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)|
|Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)||Otter (Lutra lutra)|
|Marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia)||Twait shad (Alosa fallax)|
|Great crested newt (Triturus cristatus)||Adder (Vipera berus)|
|Skylark (Alauda arvensis)||Polecat (Mustela putorius)|
|Water vole (Arvicola terrestris)||Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)|
Native species include ash, birch, oak, willow, holly, juniper, Scots pine and yew. Planting and conservation of natives species is encouraged, because they tend to better survive the local environment. They also help balance the biodiversity and provide wood and timbers.
The endangered species are: Bartramia stricta, Cryphaea lamyana, Ditrichum plumbicola, Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Pallavicinia lyellii, Petalophyllum ralfsii, Riccia huebeneriana and Sematophyllum demissum.
An estimated 25,000 invertebrate species live in land and freshwater habitats in Wales.
Welsh biodiversity has been reduced by human activity. Many native species were lost because of lack of woodland support.
Many conservation projects have been set up to preserve the red squirrel. There is a great decline in the number of hedgehogs. The use of pesticides has cause a major decline of honeybees; a Pollinator Action plan was launched at the Royal Welsh Show in July 2012.
Wales has 175 species on the Section 74 list of Species of Principal Importance for the Conservation of Biological Diversity. In Wales, the UK biodiversity action plan (UKBAP) is enforced by Wales Biodiversity Partnership (WBP). The Countryside Council for Wales also assists in sustainability management.
Wales Biodiversity Partnership (WBP) organises the overall plan, and on a local scale, each council carries out its own surveys and reports back, then produces management and protection plants for the identified species and habitats.
- Conservation in the United Kingdom
- Index of biodiversity articles
- List of conservation topics
- List of endemic species of the British Isles
- List of local nature reserves in Wales
- List of national nature reserves in Wales
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest by Area of Search
- List of Special Areas of Conservation in Wales
- Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales
- What is Biodiversity Wales Biodiversity Partnership, Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
- Biodiversity in Wales Biodiversitywales.org.uk, Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- The Natural Environment Framework A Living Wales
- John White, "Trees: A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe", 2005.
- R. G. Ellis, "Flowering Plants of Wales", 1993.
- Important Plant Areas (Wales) Plantlife, Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Wildlife and bird watching in Wales, Wildlife Extra, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Philip Whitfield, "The Simon & Schuster Encyclopedia of Animals: A Visual Who's Who of the World's Creatures", 1998.
- Sixty more Sand lizards re-introduced to the sand dunes of north and west Wales Wildlife Extra, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Planting Native Trees for Biodiversity Nativetrees.org, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Species CCW, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Terrestrial CCW, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Conservation of red squirrels in Wales CCW, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Hedgehog BBC Wales, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Royal Welsh Show: Honeybee action plan launched Farmers Weekly, Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee, Halting Biodiversity Loss: Thirteenth Report of Session 2007–08; Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence, The Stationery Office, 2008. ISBN 0215524845, ISBN 9780215524843. p120.
- Managing land, water and sea CCW.gove.uk, Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Wales Biodiversity Strategy DEFRA, Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Habitats directive Welsh Government, Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Wales Biodiversity Group, Future biodiversity action in Wales: advice to the National Assembly for Wales on the UK Millennium Biodiversity Report, Wales Biodiversity Group, 2002. ISBN 0750428872, ISBN 9780750428873.
- David Hill, Matthew Fasham, Graham Tucker, Michael Shewry, Philip Shaw, Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring, Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0521823684, ISBN 9780521823685.
- National Museums & Galleries of Wales. Dept. of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, Biodiversity Wales: Species of Conservation Or Special Interest to Wales, National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 2005. ISBN 0720005604, ISBN 9780720005608.
- Great Britain: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, The UK Government Sustainable Development Strategy, The Stationery Office, 2005. ISBN 0101646720, ISBN 9780101646727.
- Jon Moore, An Atlas of Marine Biodiversity Action Plan Species and Habitats in Wales: A Report for Countryside Council for Wales, Countryside Council for Wales, 2001.
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- GLOBIO, an ongoing programme to map the past, current and future impacts of human activities on biodiversity
- World Map of Biodiversity an interactive map from the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre
- Automatic acoustic Monitoring and Inventorying of BIOdiversity
- Barcode Wales
- Biodiversity headlines from thinktanksreport – Latest reports, research and opinion on biodiversity.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library – Open access digital library of taxonomic literature.
- Biodiversity of Wales at DMOZ
- Countryside Council for Wales
- Encyclopedia of Life – Documenting all species of life on earth.
- Economics of Species protection & Management
- Local Records Centres Wales
- National Biodiversity Network – National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
- Tree of Life – Relationships & characteristics of all life on earth.
- Wales Biodiversity Partnership