Biological response modifiers
Biological response modifiers, also known as BRMs, are substances that the human body produces naturally, as well as something that scientists can create in a lab. These substances arouse the body's response to an infection. Some of these are used to treat arthritis, cancer, and some other diseases. Biologics include Monoclonal antibodies, Interleukin-2, Interferon, various types of colony-stimulating factors (CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF)
"Immunotherapy makes use of BRMs to enhance the activity of the immune system to increase the body's natural defense mechanisms against cancer" whereas BRMs for rheumatoid arthritis aim to reduce inflammation.
Mechanism of action: A monoclonal antibody that binds to the glycoprotein receptor IIb/IIIa on activated platelets, preventing aggregation. Clinical use: Acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Toxicity: Bleeding, thrombocytopenia.
Mechanism of action: A monoclonal antibody to TNF, proinflammatory cytokine. Clinical use: Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis. Toxicity: Respiratory infection, fever, hypotension. Predisposes to infections (reactivation of latent TB).
Mechanism of action: A monoclonal antibody against HER2/neu (erb-B2). Helps kill breast cancer cells that overexpress HER-2, possibly through antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Clinical use: Metastatic breast cancer. Toxicity: Cardiotoxicity.
High dose intravenous ascorbate
- "Biological Response Modifiers (BRM)".
- Tzianabos AO (2000). "Polysaccharide immunomodulators as therapeutic agents: structural aspects and biologic function.". Clin Microbiol Rev 13 (4): 523–33. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.4.523-533.2000. PMC 88946. PMID 11023954.
- The Riordan IVC Protocol for Adjunctive Cancer Care: Intravenous Ascorbate as a Chemotherapeutic and Biological Response Modifying Agent. Riordan Clinic Research Institut. February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "High-Dose Vitamin C (PDQ®): Human/Clinical Studies". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Biological Response Modifier
- Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0.
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