Biomedical Equipment Technician
A Biomedical Equipment Technician/Technologist, also referred to as a Biomedical Engineering Technician/Technologist (BMET) or Biomedical Equipment/Engineering Specialist (BES or BMES) is typically an electro-mechanical technician or technologist who ensures that medical equipment is well-maintained, properly configured, and safely functional. In hospital or clinical environments BMETs often work with Clinical Engineers, though as in most technical fields there is a professional and legal distinction between engineers and engineering technicians/technologists.
BMETs are employed by hospitals, clinics, private sector companies, and the military. These persons install, inspect, maintain, repair, calibrate, modify and design biomedical equipment and support systems to adhere to medical standard guidelines. Biomeds are involved in the total management of healthcare technology beyond repairs and scheduled maintenance; such as, capitol asset planning, project management, budgeting and personnel management, designing interfaces and integrating medical systems, training end-users to utilize medical technology, and evaluating new devices for acquisition. BMETs educate and advise staff and other agencies on theory of operation, physiological principles, and safe clinical application of biomedical equipment maintaining the facility's patient care and medical staff equipment.
The acceptance of the BMET in the private sector was given a big push in 1970 when consumer advocate Ralph Nader wrote an article in which he claimed, "At least 1,200 people a year are electrocuted and many more are killed or injured in needless electrical accidents in hospitals."
BMETs cover a vast array of different fields and devices. However, in many cases there is a separation of responsibilities whereby other (more specific) specialists focus on certain kinds of medical technology—i.e., an Imaging Repair Specialist works strictly on medical imaging equipment, and typically comes from an Imaging background, either from the military, or an OEM. An Imaging Repair Specialist usually does not have much, if any, biomedical training. However, there are situations where a BMET has cross-trained into the Imaging field.
Examples of different areas of Medical equipment technology are:
- Diagnostic Imaging:
- Physiological monitoring,
- Electron microscope,
- Heart Lung Device,
- DaVinci Surgical Robot,
- Surgical Instruments,
- Infusion pumps,
- Respiratory Services (ventilators),
- Computer Networking Systems integration,
- Information Technology,
- Patient Monitoring,
- Cardiac Diagnostics,
BMETs work closely with nursing staff, and medical materiel personnel to obtain parts, supplies, and equipment and even closer with facility management to coordinate equipment installations requiring certain facility requirements/modifications.
BMETs must conform with safety regulations, and most biomedical systems must have documentation to show that they were managed, modified, tested, delivered, and used according to a planned, approved process that increases the quality and safety of diagnostics and therapeutic equipment and reduces the risk of harm to patients and staff.
In the United States, BMETs may operate under various regulatory frameworks. Clinical devices and technologies are generally governed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) particularly NFPA 99 and chapter 7, NFPA 70, Life Safety Code 101, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 21, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The Joint Commission (TJC)  hospital or Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC)  standards; and ensures compliance with these codes and standards for the US government registry of biomedical devices.
Other countries typically have their own mechanisms for regulation.
Biomedical equipment technology training
Traditionally, biomedical equipment technology has been an interdisciplinary field to specialize in after completing an Associate degree in Biomedical Equipment Technology, Biomedical Electronics Technology, or Biomedical Engineering Technology. Some BMETs get their training through the military.
Most entry-level BMETs enter into the field with a 2-year associate's degree in biomedical equipment technology, or they spend about one year in full-time military training. A 4-year graduate is often also a Health Technology Management (HTM) professional who can perform any similar medical equipment management duties as a clinical engineer, clinical engineering manager  or director of clinical engineering. Practical experience is gained through internships. Continuing education is typically provided by specific medical device manufacturers. BMET educational degree programs can be accredited by the ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) or the ATMAE (Association of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering) both of whom offer specialized/programmatic accreditation for BMET programs. In addition, many 4 year graduates from accredited programs have studied or go on to study Biomedical Engineering, more specifically Clinical Engineering, if they wish to perform research and/or design (or MBA programs, if they wish to work on the business or administrative side).
Many BMETs pursue professional certification, such as satisfying certain education requirements and passing an examination from the International Certification Commission (ICC) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) to become a certified biomedical equipment technician (CBET), that is an accomplished generalized certification in the field covering many facets. There are three other certifications BMETs can obtain such as: Certified Radiology Equipment Specialists (CRES) that specializes more specifically in diagnostic imaging, radiological, and nuclear medicine equipment, Certified Laboratory Equipment Specialists (CLES) that covers the abundance of equipment found in the many different kinds of laboratory environments, and even the less well known Certified Nephrology Equipment Specialist (CNES) that specifically specializes in nephrology and hemodialysis equipment. One can also choose to obtain the Biomedical Electronics Technician certification (BMD)  from the Electronics Technician Association (ETA) after first obtaining the Associate Electronics Technician certification (CET). In most cases, carrying the title of "CBET" is highly encouraged, not mandatory, and is respected within the technical community.
BMETs work in the hospital's Biomedical or Clinical Engineering Department, but can also find employment with a third-party independent service organization (ISO) or original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
BMETs working for an OEM or ISO are many times called Field Service Engineers (FSE). FSE are more narrowly focused and specialized technicians who support Service and Sales.
All military members entering the BMET career field receive comprehensive technical training. Prior to 1998, Army and Navy BMETs received training at the United States Army Equipment and Optical School (USAMEOS) at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado. Only after a July 1995 Base Realignment Closure Commission decided to close FAMC did the Army and Navy merge with the Air Force, conducting training at the DoD Biomedical Equipment Technician Training School at Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas. This school has a partnership with Aims Community College where students receive 81 quarter credits (from the Community College of the Air Force) toward an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) Degree with an emphasis in Biomedical Electronic Technology. In addition to the credits acquired from DoD BMET Training School, a minimum of 24 credits must be completed through Aims Community College to receive a degree. As of August 4, 2010, the U. S. Military moved the BMET training to San Antonio, TX as a part of their new base realignment plan. All three forces remain in rigorous, tri-service training for 10 months prior to returning to their individual services. The training is held at Fort Sam Houstion and is a part of the Military Education and Training Campus (METC).The first METC BMET class started on August 4, 2010, and the last Sheppard class graduated on January 14, 2011.
- Nader, Ralph (March 1971). "Ralph Nader's Most Shocking Expose". Ladies Home Journal 3: 176–179.
- "Medical Devices". U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- NFPA 99: HEALTH CARE FACILITIES CODE. 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169: National Fire Protection Association. 2012.
- NFPA 70® : NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE. 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169: National Fire Protection Association. 2012.
- NFPA 101®: LIFE SAFETY CODE. 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169: National Fire Protection Association. 2012.
- "21--FOOD AND DRUGS". Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. -FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Occupational Safety & Health Administration". U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "The Joint Commission". The Joint Commission. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care". Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Clinical Engineering Manager Sample Job Description". Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Director of Clinical Engineering Sample Job Description". Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- About Certification. Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Biomedical Electronics Technician (BMD)". ETA International. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Douglas. K. Richard. The U.S. Military’s Biomed Training Program: A Multiservice Commitment to Excellence. Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. April 2012. 48-52. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Bowles, Roger "Techcareers: Biomedical Equipment Technicians" TSTC Publishing
- Dyro, Joseph., Clinical Engineering Handbook (Biomedical Engineering).
- Khandpur, R. S. "Biomedical Instrumentation: Technology and Applications". McGraw Hills
- Northrop, Robert B., "Noninvasive Instrumentation and Measurement in Medical Diagnosis (Biomedical Engineering)".
- Webb, Andrew G., "Introduction to Biomedical Imaging (IEEE Press Series on Biomedical Engineering)".
- Yadin David, Wolf W. von Maltzahn, Michael R. Neuman, and Joseph D. Bronzino,. Clinical Engineering (Principles and Applications in Engineering).
- Villafañe, Carlos CBET: "Biomed: From the Student's Perspective" (ISBN # 978-1-61539-663-4). www.Biomedtechnicians.com.