The biophilia hypothesis suggests that there is an instinctive bond between human beings and other living systems. Edward O. Wilson introduced and popularized the hypothesis in his book, Biophilia (1984). He defines biophilia as "the urge to affiliate with other forms of life".
Love of living systems
The term "biophilia" literally means "love of life or living systems." It was first used by Erich Fromm to describe a psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and vital. Wilson uses the term in the same sense when he suggests that biophilia describes "the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life.” He proposed the possibility that the deep affiliations humans have with other life forms and nature as a whole are rooted in our biology. Unlike phobias, which are the aversions and fears that people have of things in the natural world, philias are the attractions and positive feelings that people have toward organisms, species, habitats, processes and objects in their natural surroundings. Although named by Fromm, the concept of biophillia has been proposed and defined many times over. Aristotle was one of the many to put forward a concept that could be summarized as "love of life". Diving into the term phillia, or friendship, Aristotle evokes the idea of reciprocity and how friendships are beneficial to both parties in more than just one way, but especially in the way of happiness.
In the book Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations edited by Peter Kahn and Stephen Kellert, the importance of animals, especially those with which a child can develop a nurturing relationship, is emphasised particularly for early and middle childhood. Chapter 7 of the same book reports on the help that animals can provide to children with autistic-spectrum disorders.
Product of biological evolution
Human preferences toward things in nature, while refined through experience and culture, are hypothetically the product of biological evolution. For example, adult mammals (especially humans) are generally attracted to baby mammal faces and find them appealing across species. The large eyes and small features of any young mammal face are far more appealing than those of the mature adults. The biophilia hypothesis suggests that the positive emotional response that adult mammals have toward baby mammals across species helps increase the survival rates of all mammals.
Similarly, the hypothesis helps explain why ordinary people care for and sometimes risk their lives to save domestic and wild animals, and keep plants and flowers in and around their homes. In other words, our natural love for life helps sustain life.
Very often, flowers also indicate potential for food later. Most fruits start their development as flowers. For our ancestors, it was crucial to spot, detect and remember the plants that would later provide nutrition.
The hypothesis has since been developed as part of theories of evolutionary psychology in the book The Biophilia Hypothesis edited by Stephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson and by Lynn Margulis. Also, Stephen Kellert's work seeks to determine common human responses to perceptions of, and ideas about, plants and animals, and to explain them in terms of the conditions of human evolution.
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Human-animal bond|
- Wilson, Edward O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07442-4.
- Kellert & Wilson 1995, p. 416.
- Fromm, Erich (1964). The Heart of Man. Harper & Row.
- SANTAS, ARISTOTELIS. "Aristotelian Ethics And Biophilia." Ethics & The Environment 19.1 (2014): 95-121. GreenFILE. Web. 24 Feb. 2015 http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=2ed69cd6-0f3e-47aa-b03a-a284b3619652%40sessionmgr113&vid=4&hid=116
- Kahn, Peter; Kellert, Stephen (2002). Children and nature: psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations. MIT Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-262-11267-1.
- Katcher, Aaron (2002). "Animals in Therapeutic Education: Guides into the Liminal State". In Kahn, Peter H.; Kellert, Stephen R. Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11267-1. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Kellert, Stephen R. (ed.) (1993). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-147-3.
- Edward O. Wilson's Biophilia Hypothesis (wilderdom.com)
- Biophilia, biomimicry, and sustainable design (Canada.com)
- The Economics of Biophilia Terrapin Bright Green (terrapinbg.com)
- "Biophilia", website for Biophilia magazine.
- Complexity, Patterns and Biophilia ArchNet International Journal of Architectural Research (archnet-ijar.net)
- 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design Terrapin Bright Green (terrapinbg.com)
- "Biophilia: Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health and Well-Being?" National Center for Biotechnology Information (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
- "Biophilic Architecture and Biophilic Design" by Antonio Caperna, International Society of Biourbanism (www.biourbanism.org)
- "Biourbanism for a healthy city: biophilia and sustainable urban theories and practices" by Antonio Caperna and Eleni Tracada, University of Derby (UK) - UDORA Repository
- "Introduction to Biophilic Biophilic Design" by Antonio Caperna, International Society of Biourbanism