Thermoeconomists argue that economic systems always involve matter, energy, entropy, and information. Moreover, the aim of many economic activities is to achieve a certain structure. In this manner, thermoeconomics applies the theories in non-equilibrium thermodynamics, in which structure formations called dissipative structures form, and information theory, in which information entropy is a central construct, to the modeling of economic activities in which the natural flows of energy and materials function to create scarce resources. In thermodynamic terminology, human economic activity may be described as a dissipative system, which flourishes by consuming free energy in transformations and exchange of resources, goods, and services.
^Raine, Alan; Foster, John; and Potts, Jason (2006). "The new entropy law and the economic process". Ecological Complexity3: 354–360. doi:10.1016/j.ecocom.2007.02.009.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Valero Capilla, Antonio; Alicia Valero Delgado (2014). [hhttp://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/7323 Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources: A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment]. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN978-981-4273-93-0.