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Biosynthesis (also called biogenesis or "anabolism") is an enzyme-catalyzed process in cells of living organisms by which substrates are converted to more complex products. The biosynthesis process often consists of several enzymatic steps in which the product of one step is used as substrate in the following step. Examples for such multi-step biosynthetic pathways are those for the production of amino acids, fatty acids, and natural products. Biosynthesis plays a major role in all cells, and many dedicated metabolic routes combined constitute general metabolism. Six organelles in the cell are involved in biosynthesis: ribosomes, chloroplasts, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, and Golgi bodies.
The prerequisites for biosynthesis are precursor compounds, chemical energy (such as in the form ATP), and catalytic enzymes, which may require reduction equivalents (e.g., in the form of NADH, NADPH).
Commonly known complex products of biosynthesis include proteins, vitamins, and antibiotics. Most organic compounds in living organisms, including but not limited to carnitine, cholesterol and many others, are built in biosynthetic pathways. Biosynthesis is commonly used regarding nerve implantations in red nanotechnology, specifically medical nanotechnology and nano medicine.
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- Jones, Russell Celyn; Buchanan, Bob B.; Gruissem, Wilhelm (2000). Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants. Rockville, Md: American Society of Plant Physiologists. pp. 371–2. ISBN 0-943088-39-9.
- name="isbn978-1-932012-54-5">Wile, Dr. Jay L. and Durnell, Marilyn F. (2005). Exploring Creation with Biology 2nd Edition. Indiana: Apologia Science.
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