Bipolar nebula

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Bipolar planetary nebula PN Hb 12.[1]

A bipolar nebula is a distinctive nebular formation characterized by an axially symmetric bi-lobed appearance.

Many, but not all, planetary nebulae exhibit an observed bipolar structure. It may be that the two types of nebulae are directly related, one preceding or superseding the other in the evolution of the nebula.

Formation[edit]

Though the exact causes of this nebular structure are not known, it may be related to the physical process known as bipolar outflow in which a star ejects highly energetic streams of outflow along both poles. One theory states that these outflows collide with material surrounding the star (either stellar dust, or shells of matter sloughed off in a prior Supernova event).

Examples[edit]

Planetary Nebula M2-9, otherwise known as the Twin Jet Nebula or the Wings of a Butterfly Nebula, is a good example of a bipolar or two-lobed nebula.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bizarre alignment of planetary nebulae". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  2. ^ NewsCenter - Doomed Star Eta Carinae (06/10/1996) - Release Images. HubbleSite (10 June 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  3. ^ APOD: 12 July 1995 - Eta Carinae Before Explosion. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (12 July 1995). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  4. ^ APOD: 2006 March 26 - Doomed Star Eta Carinae. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  5. ^ Eta Carinae Nebula (NGC 3372). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  6. ^ HubbleSite – NewsCenter – Hubble Witnesses the Final Blaze of Glory of Sun-Like Stars (12/17/1997) – Release Images
  7. ^ APOD: 2005 June 12 - M2 9: Wings of a Butterfly Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  8. ^ APOD: 21 October 1997 - The Butterfly Planetary Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (21 October 1997). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  9. ^ Butterfly Nebula (M 2-9). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  10. ^ NewsCenter - The "Rotten Egg" Nebula: A Planetary Nebula in the Making (10/19/1999) - Introduction. HubbleSite (19 October 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  11. ^ a b APOD: 1 November 1999 - The Rotten Egg Planetary Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (1 November 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  12. ^ APOD: 2001 September 3 - The Making of the Rotten Egg Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  13. ^ Calabash Nebula (OH231.8+4.2). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  14. ^ NewsCenter - Astro-Entomology? Ant-like Space Structure Previews Death of Our Sun (02/01/2001) - Introduction. HubbleSite (1 February 2001). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  15. ^ APOD: 2005 May 1 - Planetary Nebula Mz3: The Ant Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  16. ^ Ant Nebula (Menzel 3). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  17. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Finds Searchlight Beams and Multiple Arcs around a Dying Star (01/16/1996) - Introduction. HubbleSite (16 January 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  18. ^ APOD: 26 June 1999 - Shells in the Egg Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (26 June 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  19. ^ APOD: 2003 April 9 - The Egg Nebula in Polarized Light. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  20. ^ Egg Nebula (CRL 2688). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  21. ^ NewsCenter - Dying Star Sculpts Rungs of Gas and Dust (05/11/2004) - Release Images. HubbleSite (11 May 2004). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  22. ^ APOD: 2004 May 13 - Rungs of the Red Rectangle. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  23. ^ Red Rectangle. Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  24. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Finds an Hourglass Nebula around a Dying Star (01/16/1996) - Release Images. HubbleSite (16 January 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  25. ^ APOD: 18 January 1996 - MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (18 January 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  26. ^ APOD: 2002 June 15 - MyCn18: An Hourglass Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  27. ^ APOD: 9 February 1996 - The Eye of an Hourglass Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (9 February 1996). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  28. ^ Hourglass Nebula (MyCn 18). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  29. ^ NewsCenter - Symbiotic Star Blows Bubbles into Space (08/24/1999) - Release Images. HubbleSite (24 August 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  30. ^ APOD: 31 August 1999 - Symbiotic Star Bubbles. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (31 August 1999). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  31. ^ Southern Crab Nebula (He2-104). Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  32. ^ NewsCenter - Hubble Catches Scattered Light from the Boomerang Nebula (09/13/2005) - Release Images. HubbleSite (13 September 2005). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  33. ^ APOD: 2005 September 14 - The Boomerang Nebula in Polarized Light. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  34. ^ APOD: 2003 February 20 - Cold Wind from the Boomerang Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  35. ^ APOD: 15 October 1997 - Cold Wind From The Boomerang Nebula. Antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (15 October 1997). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  36. ^ Boomerang Nebula. Daviddarling.info (1 February 2007). Retrieved on 2010-11-26.
  37. ^ APOD: 28 October 2001 – NGC 2346: A Butterfly-Shaped Planetary Nebula

See also[edit]