The Bird–Meertens formalism is a calculus for deriving programs from specifications (in a functional-programming setting) by a process of equational reasoning. It was devised by Richard Bird and Lambert Meertens as part of their work within IFIP Working Group 2.1.
It is sometimes referred to in publications as BMF, as a nod to Backus-Naur Form. Facetiously it is also referred to as Squiggol, because of the "squiggly" symbols it uses. A less-used variant name, but actually the first one suggested, is SQUIGOL.
- Lambert Meertens (1986). "Algorithmics — Towards programming as a mathematical activity." (PDF). CWI. In J.W. de Bakker; M. Hazewinkel, and J.K. Lenstra, editors (1986). Mathematics and Computer Science, CWI Monographs Volume 1. North-Holland. pp. 289–334.
- Lambert Meertens; Richard Bird (1987). "Two Exercises Found in a Book on Algorithmics" (PDF). North-Holland.
- Richard Bird; Oege de Moor (1997). Algebra of Programming, International Series in Computing Science, Vol. 100. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-507245-X.
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