Birkat haMinim

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The Birkat ha-Minim (Hebrew ברכת המינים "Blessing on the heretics") is a Jewish prayer of blessing on heretics in general, and sometimes Christians, though in this context "blessing" may also be a euphemism for a curse. The blessing is the 12th of the Eighteen Benedictions or Amidah.[1]

The writing of the benediction is attributed to Shmuel ha-Katan at the supposed Council of Jamnia which was inserted in the "Eighteen Benedictions" as the 19th blessing in the silent prayer to be said thrice daily, the Amidah. The benediction is thus seen as related to the Pharisees, the Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, the split of early Christianity and Judaism as heresy in Judaism, the origins of Rabbinic Judaism, Origins of Christianity, Christianity in the 1st century, and history of early Christianity.

The Blessing was useful as a tool for outing minim, because no min would recite aloud or reply amen to it, as it was a curse upon minim.[2]

Textual variations[edit]

The blessing exists in various forms.[3][4]

"For the apostates let there be no hope. And let the arrogant government be speedily uprooted in our days. Let the noẓerim and the minim be destroyed in a moment. And let them be blotted out of the Book of Life and not be inscribed together with the righteous. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who humblest the arrogant" (Schechter)."[5]

Two medieval Cairo Genizah copies equate Minim and Notzrim, "Nazarenes", i.e. "Christians."[6][7][8] The extent of reference to Notzrim, or application of Minim to Christians is debated.[9]

Identification of Minim[edit]

Main article: Minuth

The extent of the minim included by the birkat is debated.[10] During the medieval period, whether the birkat had historically included Christians or not was the subject of disputations, a potential cause for persecution and thus a matter relevant for the safety of Jewish communities.[11] It is generally viewed in modern studies that the term "heretics" at an early point in the split between Christianity and Judaism had included Jewish Christians.[12][13][14][15] It was David Flusser's view (1992) that the Birkat haMinim was added in reference to the Sadducees.[16]

Many scholars have seen reference to the Birkat haMinim in Justin Martyr's complaint to Trypho of the Jews "cursing in your synagogues those that believe on Christ." Reuven Kimelman (1981) challenged this, noting that Justin's description places the curse in the wrong sequence in the synagogue service.[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pieter Willem van der Horst Hellenism, Judaism, Christianity: essays on their interaction - Page 113 - 1998 ".. who humblest the insolent" (Palestinian recension) The 12th berakhah in the Jewish Shemoneh Esreh (Eighteen [benedictions]) is usually called the Birkat ha-minim 'the blessing of the heretics', which is a euphemism for a curse"
  2. ^
  3. ^ Ruth Langer, “The Earliest Texts of the Birkat Haminim”, with Uri Ehrlich, forthcoming in Hebrew Union College Annual 77.
  4. ^ Pieter Willem van der Horst, Selected works: The Birkat Ha-minim in Recent Research. T. & T. Clark, 1994. Aspects of Religious Contact and Conflict in the Ancient World.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Yaakov Y. Teppler, Susan Weingarten Birkat haMinim: Jews and Christians in conflict in the ancient world 2007 - Page 56 "Thus Krauss speaks on the one hand of notzrim and on the other of minim, and his two pleas do not really hold up side by ... 207 Rashi on BT Megillah 17b: "The minim are disciples of Jesus the Notzri which is why they put Birkat haMinim ..."
  7. ^ Marvin R. Wilson Our father Abraham: Jewish roots of the Christian faith - 1989 Page 68 "We must emphasize that only two texts of the Birkat ha-Minim (both found in the Cairo Genizah) explicitly mention Christians. Both texts refer to "the Christians [notzrim, ie, the Nazarenes] and the heretics / minim]. "
  8. ^ ed. William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz The Cambridge History of Judaism: The late Roman-Rabbinic period 2006 - Page 291 "He proposes that the original Yavnean version of the Birkat ha-Minim, following the medieval Genizah fragment, included both minim and "Nazarenes," and that "in this liturgical fragment minim and Notzrim are synonymous, ie, "
  9. ^ Antti Marjanen, Petri Luomanen A Companion to Second-Century Christian "Heretics" - 2008 p283 "59–61, in contrast to R. Kimelman, “Birkat ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Late Antiquity,” in Aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period (ed. E. P. Sanders, A. I. Baumgarten, and A. Mendelson; vol."
  10. ^ The Cambridge History of Judaism: The late Roman-Rabbinic period ed. William David Davies,Louis Finkelstein,Steven T. Katz p.291-292
  11. ^ Israel Jacob Yuval, Two Nations in Your Womb: Perceptions of Jews and Christians in ... (2008), p. 116.
  12. ^ Birkat haMinim: Jews and Christians in conflict in the ancient world Yaakov Y. Teppler, Susan Weingarten - 2007 "Yaakov Y. Teppler studies the identity of those Minim and lays a firm foundation for understanding the processes of separation between Judaism and Christianity in this stormy and fascinating period."
  13. ^ Jews and Christians: the parting of the ways, A.D. 70 to 135 James D. G. Dunn - 1992
  14. ^ An Introduction to Jewish-Christian Relations Edward Kessler - 2010
  15. ^ Hellenism, Judaism, Christianity: essays on their interaction - Pieter Willem van der Horst - 1998
  16. ^ The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature p15 ed. Doris Lambers-Petry; Peter J. Tomson, chapter 'The War Against Rome' - 2003 "... who unearthed the conceptual background of the birkat ha-minim. In his analysis, the material of the berakha basically dates from temple times, when it was directed against such 'separatists' (perushim or porshim) as Sadducees who ..."
  17. ^ Contra Iudaeos: ancient and medieval polemics between Christians and Jews ed. Ora Limor, Guy G. Stroumsa - 1996 -p31 "Although this has been generally accepted, R. Kimelman recently tried to challenge the view that Justin's mention of a curse has to do with the 12th benediction: "Birkat Ha-Minim and the Lack of Evidence for an Anti-Christian Jewish Prayer in Late Antiquity" in EP Sanders et al., eds., Jewish and Christian Self- Definition, vol. 2: Aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman Period (Philadelphia ... But it is not as clear whether one may take Justin's words in a too narrow sense"