Birmingham New Street railway station
|Birmingham New Street|
|The west end of the station|
|Local authority||City of Birmingham|
|Managed by||Network Rail|
|Number of platforms||13 (1-12a, 1-12b + 4c, which is a separate platform and metro platform)|
|Live arrivals/departures and station information
from National Rail Enquiries
|Annual rail passenger usage*|
|Passenger Transport Executive|
|1 June 1854||First opened|
|8 February 1885||Extension opened|
|National Rail – UK railway stations|
|* Annual estimated passenger usage based on sales of tickets in stated financial year(s) which end or originate at Birmingham New Street from Office of Rail Regulation statistics. Methodology may vary year on year.|
|UK Railways portal|
Birmingham New Street is the largest and busiest of the three main railway stations serving Birmingham, England. It is in the city centre and is a central hub of the British railway system. It is a major destination for Virgin Trains services from London Euston, Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley via the West Coast Main Line, and the national hub of the CrossCountry network – the most extensive in Britain, with long-distance trains serving destinations from Aberdeen to Penzance. It is also a major hub for local and suburban services within the West Midlands, including those on the Cross City Line between Lichfield Trent Valley and Redditch and the Chase Line to Walsall and Rugeley Trent Valley.
New Street is the eighth busiest railway station in the UK and the busiest outside London, with 32 million passenger entries and exits between April 2012 and March 2013. It is also the busiest interchange station outside London, with over 5.1 million passengers changing trains at the station annually.
The original New Street station was built in the Victorian era and had, when built, the largest single-span arched roof in the world. In the 1960s, the station was completely rebuilt. An enclosed station, with buildings over most of its span and passenger numbers more than twice those it was designed for, the replacement was not popular with its users, having a customer satisfaction rate of only 52% - the joint lowest of any Network Rail major station.
A £550m redevelopment of the station named Gateway Plus is currently under way. The redevelopment will include a new concourse, a new exterior facade, and a new entrance on Stephenson Street, and is expected be completed in September 2015. New Street will also become the terminus of the city-centre extension of the Midland Metro, with a new tram stop on Stephenson Street, also expected be finished by 2015.
Around 80% of train services to Birmingham go through New Street. The other major city-centre stations in Birmingham are Birmingham Moor Street and Birmingham Snow Hill. On the outskirts, closer to Solihull, is Birmingham International, which serves Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre.
- 1 History
- 2 Services
- 3 See also
- 4 Further reading
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The first railway stations
New Street station was built as a joint station by the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) and the Midland Railway between 1846 and 1854 to replace several earlier rail termini, most notably Curzon Street.
For the first 31 years, the station was used by LNWR and Midland Railway trains. However in 1885 the Midland Railway opened its own trainshed alongside the original one for the exclusive use of its trains, effectively creating two stations side-by-side. The two companies stations were separated by a central roadway; Queens Drive.
Traffic grew steadily, and by 1900 New Street had become extremely busy, with an average of 40 trains an hour departing and arriving, rising to 53 trains in the peak hours.
Original LNWR station
The station was formally opened on 1 June 1854, although it had already been in use for two years. The station was constructed by Messrs. Fox, Henderson & Co. and designed by Edward Alfred Cowper of that firm. When completed, it had the largest arched single-span iron and glass roof in the world, spanning a width of 212 feet (65 m) and being 840 feet (256 m) long. It held this title for 14 years until St Pancras station opened in 1868. When first opened, New Street was described as the "Grand Central Station at Birmingham".
The main entrance building on Stephenson Street incorporated Queen's Hotel, designed by William Livock, which was opened on the same day. The Queen's Hotel was built in an Italianate style and was originally provided with 60 rooms. The hotel was expanded several times over the years, and reached its final form in 1917 with the addition of a new west wing.
|“||The interior of this station deserves attention from its magnitude. The semicircular roof is 1,110 feet long, 205 feet wide and 80 feet high, composed of iron and glass, without the slightest support except that afforded by the pillars on either side. If the reader notice the turmoil and bustle created by the excitement of the arrival and departure of trains, the trampling of crowds of passengers, the transport of luggage, the ringing of bells, and the noise of two or three hundred porters and workmen, he will retain a recollection of the extraordinary scene witnessed daily at Birmingham Central Railway Station.||”|
The roof of the original station was strengthened with additional steel tie bars during 1906-7, this was done as a precaution following the collapse of a similar roof at Charing Cross station in 1905.
During World War II, Cowper's roof sustained extensive bomb damage as a result of air raids during the Birmingham Blitz. After the war, the remains of the roof were dismantled after being deemed beyond economic repair. It was replaced with basic 'austerity' canopies over the platforms, made from surplus war materials, which remained in use until the station was rebuilt in the 1960s.
Midland Railway extension
Midland Railway trains that had used Curzon Street began to use New Street from 1854. However, its use by the Midland Railway was limited by the fact that those trains going between Derby and Bristol would have to reverse, so many trains bypassed New Street and ran through Camp Hill. This was remedied in 1885 by the extension into New Street of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway. This allowed through trains to the south-west to run through New Street without reversing.
To cope with the increase in traffic this would bring, the station required an extension. In conjunction with the new link, the Midland Railway opened its extension on 8 February 1885. This extension consisted of a trainshed with two trussed arches, 58 feet (18 m) wide by 620 feet (189 m) long, and 67 feet 6 inches (21 m) wide by 600 feet (183 m) long. It was designed by F. Stevenson, Chief Engineer to the LNWR.
It was built immediately to the south of the original LNWR trainshed, but was linked by a footbridge. Queens Drive became a central carriageway separating the two companies trainsheds. Queens Drive was lost in the rebuilding of the 1960s, but the name is now carried by a new driveway which serves the car park and a tower block, and is the access route for the station's taxis.
In 1923, the LNWR and Midland Railway, with others, were grouped into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) by the Railways Act 1921. In 1948, the railways were nationalised and came under the control of British Railways.
The station was rebuilt in the 1960s as part of the West Coast Main Line modernisation programme. In 1964, demolition of the original New Street station and Queen's Hotel began and was not completed until 1966. The new New Street station was finished in 1967. The 1960s station is currently (as of 2013) being redeveloped.
The rebuilt station was designed by Kenneth J. Davies, lead planner for the London Midland Region at British Rail. The concrete constructed design has been widely criticised for being ugly. The station has 12 through platforms which are covered over by a seven acre concrete deck, which is supported by 200 columns, the concourse and other buildings are built above the platforms upon the deck. Escalators, stairs and lifts are provided to reach the platforms from the concourse. The new station had sold its air rights, leading to the construction of the Pallasades Shopping Centre (then known as the Birmingham Shopping Centre) above the station between 1968 and 1970. The station and the Pallasades are now partly integrated with the Bullring Shopping Centre via elevated walkways above Smallbrook Queensway.
Also above the station is a nine-storey office block called Ladywood House, and a multi-storey car park dating from the 1970s. The car park closed in May 2012 and is set to be demolished to provide space for the new concourse and rebuilt. Alongside the station, a residential 20-storeys tower block, Stephenson Tower, was built between 1965 and 1966, designed by the City Architect of Birmingham. The tower was demolished in March 2012 as part of the station redevelopment.
Currently, New Street handles about 80% of rail passengers travelling to, from or through Birmingham.
The station has seen a large increase in passenger numbers in recent years, and this has made overcrowding and closures on safety grounds more common. The station was designed to cater for 650 trains and 60,000 passengers per day. In 2008 it catered for 1,350 trains and over 120,000 passengers per day. This increased further to 140,000 by 2013.
In 1987, twelve different horse sculptures by Kevin Atherton, titled Iron Horse, were erected between New Street station and Wolverhampton. One stands on a platform at New Street.
New Street signal box
The power signal box at New Street was completed in 1964. The signal box is a brutalist building with corrugated concrete architecture, designed by Bicknell & Hamilton in collaboration with W. R. Healey, the regional architect for British Railways London Midland Region. The four-storey structure is at the side of the tracks connected to Navigation Street. It is now a Grade II listed building.
In November 2003 it was voted the second biggest "eyesore" in the UK by readers of Country Life magazine. This might be blamed on the sub-surface nature of the station and the 1960s architecture. New Street was voted joint worst station for customer satisfaction with Liverpool Lime Street and East Croydon, with only 52% satisfied; the national average was 60%.
A feasibility study into the redevelopment of the station was approved in January 2005. A regeneration scheme was launched in 2006. Since then, the scheme has taken various forms, and various names, such as Birmingham Gateway, Gateway Plus, and New Street Gateway. This proposed complete rebuilding of the street-level buildings and refurbishment of the platforms, with track and platform level remaining essentially unchanged. A target date given for completion was 2013.
In February 2008, the then Secretary of State for Transport, Ruth Kelly, announced that the Department for Transport would provide £160 million on top of the £128 million that is to be provided through the government White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway. A further £100 million would be provided by the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform and channelled through Advantage West Midlands, the regional development agency. The announcement brought total government spending on the project to £388 million. After earlier proposals were discarded, six architects were shortlisted to design the new station following a call for submissions, and it was announced in September 2008 that the design by Foreign Office Architects had been chosen.
The fact that the Gateway development leaves the railway capacity of the station more or less unaltered has not escaped attention. In July 2008 the House of Commons Transport Committee criticised the plans: it was not convinced they were adequate for the number of trains which could end up using the station. It said if the station could not be adapted, the government needed to look for alternative solutions. Designs were shown to the public in February 2006 for a new Birmingham New Street Station in a project known as Gateway Plus.
The approved planning application submitted to the council in August 2006 showed a glass façade with rounded edges. The entrance on Station Street originally included two curved 130-metre-tall towers on the site of Stephenson Tower. Due to the economic slowdown, the office space is not needed, and the "twin towers" plan has been shelved.
The final approved plans for the redevelopment will include:
- A new concourse three and a half times larger than the 1960s concourse, with a domed atrium at the centre to let in natural light.
- Refurbished platforms reached by new escalators and lifts.
- A new station facade, and new entrances.
- The refurbished Pallasades Shopping Centre is to be renamed 'Grand Central Birmingham' and will include a new John Lewis store.
Work began on Gateway Plus on 26 April 2010. Construction will be completed in phases to minimise disruption. The work is expected to last until at least 2015. On 28 April 2013, one half of the new concourse was opened to the public, and the old 1960s concourse was closed for redevelopment, along with the old entrances.
|Birmingham New Street|
|Platforms in use||2 when operational|
|Date opened||Due September 2015|
|Services||Birmingham - Wolverhampton|
Initially, New Street station was planned to act as the terminus of the Midland Metro extension to Line One through the city centre. However, in October 2013 Birmingham City Council voted to extend the new development works, adding a further two stops beyond New Street, at the Town Hall and Centenary Square. As the two additional stops are due to be completed in 2017, New Street will only serve as the terminus of Line One between 2015 and 2017. The new tram stop will be alongside the new main station entrance on Stephenson Street, and will provide a link to Snow Hill station and onwards to Wolverhampton. Further extensions, including the direction of a future Line Two, are currently being discussed. In November 2013 Birmingham City Council indicated a new plan to connect Birmingham New Street with the new High Speed 2 circus at Curzon Street, Birmingham International Airport and Coventry.
|Preceding station||Midland Metro||Following station|
|Corporation Street||Line 1||Terminus|
|Corporation Street||Line 1||Town Hall|
New Street is the hub of the West Midlands rail network, as well as being a major national hub. The station is one of seventeen operated and managed by Network Rail, which provides all the operational staff for the station itself. Booking office and barriers are split between Virgin Trains and London Midland, with customer service or floor walker staff provided by Cross Country. Virgin Trains operates a First Class Lounge, and Network Rail runs the customer reception on the main concourse. Arriva Trains Wales runs services into New Street, and the station has also seen services operated by Silverlink Trains and Wales & West in the past, although these companies are now defunct. New Street is a Penalty Fare zone which is operated by London Midland on its trains and at the manual ticket barriers at the station.
New Street is a hub for Cross Country Trains and London Midland, which both have a train-crew depot at the station. Some trains are stabled at New Street in the through roads or the non-passenger bays behind Platform 12, but most trains are taken to their respective depots. London Midland uses Soho TMD in Smethwick for electric traction units, with its non-electric units kept at Tyseley TMD. Cross Country also uses Tyseley for its non-Voyager stock, and its Voyagers are based at their purpose-built depot near Burton on Trent.
The platforms are divided into A and B ends, with an extra bay platform called 4C, with the B end of the station towards Wolverhampton. Longer trains such as the Class 390 service to London Euston and Cross Country HST services are numbered without an associated letter, since they occupy both ends of the platforms. Platform 4C can be used only for services heading through Monument Lane tunnel towards Wolverhampton. All signalling is controlled by New Street power signal box at the Wolverhampton or B end of the station.
Four escalators currently provide access to the Pallasades Shopping Centre, and there are lifts down to all platforms from the new paid concourse. There are escalators from the concourse down to the 'B' end of each platform. All twelve main platforms, except platform 4c, are through platforms. This results in most platform changes, and access to the concourse, requiring use of the escalators, stairs, or lifts. The main platforms are all long enough to accommodate two relatively short trains.
The station does not have automatic ticket barriers. Instead, station staff inspect tickets at peak times, while at off-peak times there is often no ticket checking. Birmingham New Street hosts a British Transport Police station. Automated announcements are at present provided by ATOS, using in-house voice artists. Between summer 2001 and summer 2012, the distinctive automated announcements were voiced by professional voice artist Phil Sayer (and latterly also voice artist Celia Drummond), and delivered by a computerised system provided by Ditra Systems.
Passengers generally get to and from platforms using the stairs, lifts, and escalators. All platforms can be accessed directly from the new paid concourse by lift.
The basic Monday to Saturday off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is as follows:
- 3tph to London Euston via Coventry
- 1tph to Glasgow Central or Edinburgh Waverley (alternating each hour) via Preston and Carlisle.
- 2tph to Manchester Piccadilly via Stafford and Stoke-on-Trent
- 2tph to Bristol Temple Meads, one of which continues to Plymouth and some as far as Penzance.
- 2tph to Nottingham via Derby
- 2tph to Leicester, one of which continues to Stansted Airport
- 2tph to Reading via Oxford, some of which continue to Southampton Central or Bournemouth.
- 1tph to Cardiff Central via Gloucester & Newport
- 1tph to Newcastle Central via Sheffield and Doncaster
- 1tph to Edinburgh Waverley via Leeds and Newcastle Central, continuing alternately to Glasgow Central or Aberdeen.
- On the Cross-City Line:
- 5tph to Wolverhampton (2 of which continue to Liverpool and 1 to Shrewsbury, see below)
- 4tph to Walsall, one of which continues to Rugeley Trent Valley
- 3tph to Northampton two of which continue to London Euston
- 2tph to Liverpool Lime Street via Crewe
- 1tph to Birmingham International
- 1tph to Hereford via Bromsgrove & Worcester Foregate Street
- 1tph to Shrewsbury
- 1tph to Coventry
- 1tph to Birmingham International
- 1tph to Shrewsbury, continuing alternately to Chester & Holyhead or Aberystwyth/Pwllheli
|Preceding station||National Rail||Following station|
|Arriva Trains Wales
Birmingham - Chester
|Arriva Trains Wales
Birmingham - Leicester
|Water Orton or
Birmingham - Stansted Airport
Bournemouth - Manchester
Plymouth - Edinburgh
Cross City Line
|Adderley Park||London Midland
West Coast Main Line
Hereford — Birmingham
|Smethwick Galton Bridge or
Walsall-Wolverhampton (Stopping Services)
West Coast Main Line
|Sandwell and Dudley
Milton Keynes Central
- Gateway Plus
- Birmingham Snow Hill station
- Birmingham Moor Street railway station
- Transport in Birmingham
- West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive
- Commuter rail in the United Kingdom
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- www.warwickshirerailways.com - lnwrbns_str1873
- "Birmingham New Street". Network Rail. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
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- Warwickshirerailways.com 'lnwrbns_str1915'
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- warwickshirerailways.com Plan of original station
- Foster, Andy (2007) . Birmingham. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-300-10731-9.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Birmingham New Street railway station.|
- New Street - New Start
- Birmingham New Street, on Warwickshire Railways Photographs and information on the Victorian Station.
- 1890 Ordnance Survey map of the station
- Rail Around Birmingham and the West Midlands: Birmingham New Street station
- Building a model of Birmingham New Street station
- 1967 ATV report on station rebuilding and opening