Biscotti

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Biscotti
Plate of biscotti.jpg
A traditional plate of biscotti
Alternative names Biscotti di Prato
Type Biscuit
Place of origin Italy
Region or state Prato
Main ingredients Flour, sugar, eggs and almonds or pine nuts
Cookbook:Biscotti  Biscotti

Biscotti (/bɪˈskɒti/; Italian pronunciation: [bisˈkɔtti]; English: twice cooked), also known as cantuccini (English: coffee bread), are twice-baked cookies (or biscuits) originating in the Italian city of Prato. The biscuits are oblong-shaped almond biscuits, made dry and crunchy through cutting the loaf of dough while still hot and fresh from baking in the oven.

Name[edit]

"Biscotti" is the plural form of biscotto. The word originates from the medieval Latin word biscoctus, meaning "twice-cooked/baked." It defined oven baked goods that were baked twice, so they were very dry and could be stored for long periods of time. Such nonperishable food was particularly useful during journeys and wars, and twice baked breads were a staple food of the Roman Legions.[1]

Italy[edit]

The first documented recipe for biscotti is a centuries-old manuscript, now preserved in Prato, found by the eighteenth-century scholar Amadio Baldanzi. In this document, the biscuits are called of Genoa.

Pinoli, a variation of biscotti made with pine nuts rather than almonds

Although commonly used to indicate the biscuits of Prato, biscotti di Prato, in modern Italy and Argentina they are also known widely by the name "cantuccini". These names actually suggest other similar regional products of Italy. The term cantuccini is most commonly used today in Tuscany, but originally refers to variations or imitations which deviate from the traditional recipe in a few key points such as the use of yeasts, acids (to make them less dry) and flavourings. Rusks are larger, longer biscuits, rustic bread dough enriched with olive oil and anise seeds.

The confusion on the name may have been born from the fact that on the old sign (still present) of "Biscottificio Antonio Mattei," the leading manufacturer of biscuits of Prato, is written just below the name of the shop: "Manufacturers of cantuccini," which at the time were one of the major products of the biscuits. The sign has remained unchanged, and after such a long time people are accustomed to associate the name "cantuccini" with the biscuits.[2] typical of Sardegna and Sicily.

The rest of Europe[edit]

Carquinyolis, a Catalan variation of biscotti, made with whole or sliced almonds

Through Middle French, the word was imported into the English language as "biscuit", although in English as in Italian "biscuit" does not refer specifically to a twice-baked cookie.

In Spain, the Catalan carquinyoli (Catalan: [kərkiˈɲɔɫi], plural carquinyolis),[3] are made with whole or sliced almonds, and are also associated with the regions of Aragon. In Batea, La Fatarella, and Prat de Comte, all inland municipalities of Catalonia, in the Terra Alta they are also called carquinyols.[4] Biscotti are traditional also in some inland towns in Valencia, where they are called rosegons or rosegós.[5] In Minorca, carquinyols are square shaped and do not include whole almonds. One Catalan food writer states that carquinyoli is derived from the French croquignole.[5] Croquignole, another name for these biscotti, is a French word of Germanic origin.

North America[edit]

In North America, where "biscuit" has taken on other meanings, any twice-baked cookies are apt to be known as biscotti.

Recipe[edit]

Chocolate and pistachio biscotti

Following rediscovery of the original recipe by Prato-based pastry chef Antonio Mattei in the nineteenth century, his variation is what is now accepted as the traditional recipe for biscotti. Mattei brought his cakes to the Exposition Universelle of Paris of 1867, winning a special mention.

The mixture is composed exclusively of flour, sugar, eggs, pine nuts; and almonds that are not roasted or skinned. The traditional recipe uses no form of yeast or fat (butter, oil, milk). The barely wet dough is then cooked twice: once in slab form, and after cutting in sliced form, with the second baking defining how hard the biscotti are.

Traditionally in Italy, biscotti di Prato are sold together with another sweet speciality of Prato, the bruttiboni. Served after dessert, they are usually combined with orange juice.

Modern variations[edit]

Biscotti glazed with chocolate

Today the regional variations of the original are still adhered to, but the modern mass-manufactured biscotti are in fact closer to cantuccini, variations of biscotti.

Modern biscotti recipes often contain seeds (traditional almonds, pine nuts and pistachios or nuts such as hazelnuts are popular choices) or spices such as anise or cinnamon.

Modern recipes include adding baking powder and spices to the flour. The nuts are then added to allow them to be coated, with the skins being left particularly when using almonds and hazelnuts. Separately, eggs are beaten together, and then any wet flavouring (e.g., almond extract or liquor), before being added to the dry ingredients. Following twice baking (once in long slab form, secondly in cut sliced form), the biscotti may be dipped in a glaze, such as chocolate.[6]

Use[edit]

Tuscan-style cantuccini served with vin santo

Since they are very dry, biscotti traditionally are served with a drink, into which they may be dunked. In Italy they are typically served as an after-dinner dessert with a Tuscan fortified wine called vin santo.

Outside of Italy, they more frequently accompany coffee, including cappuccinos and lattes, or black tea.

In Catalonia, carquinyoli are usually served with a small glass of a sweet dessert wine, such as muscat or moscatell.

Culture[edit]

In the Catalan city Vic, "Carquinyoli" is also the name of a ceremonial figure who orchestrates an annual summer festa in honor of the patron saint Albert of Sicily.[7] In Vilanova i la Geltrú, biscotti with almonds are called currutacos and are most typically associated with Palm Sunday, when they are used to ornament the palm leaves that are distributed to worshipers.[8]

Biscotti are much used as an ingredient in a variety of traditional dishes.[9] In Catalonia, such dishes include rice with sardines[10] and rabbit with snails.[11] They are also used in sauces with onions (specifically calçots).[12] In coastal Baix Llobregat, biscotti are used in the sauce for a dish of duck stuffed with turnips.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Umberto Mannucci, Bisenzio tradizioni e cucina, Libreria del Palazzo, Prato, 1973

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Origin Of Biscotti. The Nibble, May 2006.
  2. ^ Joseph Aladern; Marian Grandia (1905). Diccionari popular de la llengua catalana. Francisco Baxarias. pp. 142–. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Routledge (Firm) (1994). Diccionari Català. Routledge reference: Bilingual Dictionaries Series. Routledge. p. 604. ISBN 0-415-10802-0. 
  4. ^ Loreto Meix i Boira (2003). Els cócs a la Terra Alta. Coll̃ecció El cullerot 25. Cossetània Edicions. p. 157. ISBN 84-96035-79-4. 
  5. ^ a b Jaume Fàbrega (2005). Les postres i els pastissos de l'àvia: més de 300 receptes de coques, pastissos, galetes, pastes, cremes, bunyols, gelats, postres, confitures y refrescos. Coll̃ecció El cullerot 34. Cossetània Edicions. p. 475. ISBN 84-9791-091-5. 
  6. ^ "The Perfect Biscotti". Mercina. September 29, 2008. 
  7. ^ Andrés Barrera González (1985). La dialéctica de la identidad en Cataluña: un estudio de antropología social (in Spanish). CIS. p. 504. ISBN 84-7476-087-9. 
  8. ^ Pere Tàpias (2003). Cuines de Vilanova: Xató, all cremat, ranxo, sípia a la bruta, arrossos. Coll̃ecció El Cullerot (in Catalan) 20. Cossetània Edicions. p. 102. ISBN 84-96035-26-3. 
  9. ^ Marina Cepeda Fuentes (2004). Il surrealismo in cucina tra il pane e l'uovo. A tavola con Salvador Dalì (in Italian). Il leone verde edizioni. p. 136. ISBN 88-87139-64-4. 
  10. ^ Pep Nogué i Puigvert (2003). La cuina de l'arròs de Pals: de l'orient a l'Empordà. Coll̃ecció El Cullerot (in Catalan) 21. Cossetània Edicions. p. 150. ISBN 84-96035-29-8. 
  11. ^ Jaume Fàbrega (2002). El gust d'un poble: els plats més famosos de la cuina catalana : de Verdaguer a Gaudí : el naixement d'una cuina. Coll̃ecció El Cullerot (in Catalan) 15. Cossetània Edicions. p. 319. ISBN 84-95684-91-8. 
  12. ^ Joan Jofre Español, Joan Jofre i Agustí García, Agustí Carcia Carrión (2006). La cuina del calçot. Coll̃ecció El Cullerot (in Catalan) 1. Cossetània Edicions. p. 123. ISBN 84-9791-075-3. 
  13. ^ Carme Gasull (2006). Catalunya al paladar. Coll̃ecció Azimut. Cossetània Edicions. p. 276. ISBN 84-9791-088-5. 

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