Carthage (episcopal see)
The episcopal see of Carthage, the great city restored to importance by Julius Caesar and Augustus and in which Christianity was firmly established by the 2nd century, great to be the most important in whole of Roman Africa and continued as a residential see until the start of the second millennium.
Some accounts give as the first bishop of Carthage Crescens, ordained by Saint Peter, or Speratus, one of the Scillitan Martyrs. Others speak of Epenetus of Carthage (per Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles) The account of the martyrdom of Saint Perpetua and her companions in 203 mentions an Optatus who is generally taken to have been bishop of Carthage, but who may instead have been bishop of Thuburbo Minus. The first certain historically documented bishop of Carthage is Agrippinus of the late 2nd century. Also historically certain is Donatus, the immediate predecessor of Saint Cyprian (249–258)
By this time, the bishop of Carthage already exercised authority over the Church in the Roman province of Proconsular Africa in the broadest sense (even when it was divided into three provinces through the establishment of Byzacena and Tripolitania), but also, in some supra-metropolitan form, over the Church in Numidia and Mauretania. The provincial primacy was associated with the senior bishop in the province rather than with a particular see and was of little importance in comparison to the authority of the bishop of Carthage, who could be appealed to directly by the clergy of any province.
Cyprian himself had to face opposition within his own diocese over the question of the proper treatment of the lapsi who had fallen away from the Christian faith under persecution. Donatism became a serious problem in the 4th century and was not got rid of even through the Conference of Carthage of 411, which decided in favour of the Catholic side.
Successors of Cyprian until before the Vandal invasion
The immediate successors of Cyprian were Lucianus and Carpophorus, but there is disagreement about which of the two was earlier. A bishop Cyrus, mentioned in a lost work by Augustine, is placed by some before, by others after, the time of Cyprian. There is greater certainty about the 4th-century bishops: Mensurius, bishop by 303, succeeded in 311 by Caecilianus, who was at the First Council of Nicaea and who was opposed by the Donatist bishop Majorinus (311–315). Rufus participated in an anti-Arian council held in Rome in 337 or 340 under Pope Julius I. He was opposed by Donatus Magnus, the true founder of Donatism. Gratus (344– ) was at the Council of Sardica and presided over a council at Carthage in 349. He was opposed by Donatus Magnus and, after his exile and death, by Parmenianus, whom the Donatists chose as his successor. Restitutus accepted the Arian formula at the Council of Rimini in 359 but later repented. Genethlius presided over two councils at Carthage, the second of which was held in 390. The next bishop was Saint Aurelius, who in 421 presided over another council at Carthage and was still alive in 426. His Donatist opponent was Primianus, who had succeeded Parmenianus in about 391.
Bishops under the Vandals
Capreolus was bishop of Carthage when the Vandals conquered the province. Unable for that reason to attend the Council of Ephesus in 431 as chief bishop of Africa, he sent his deacon Basula or Bessula to represent him. In about 437, he was succeeded by Quodvultdeus, whom Genseric exiled and who died in Naples. A 15-year vacancy followed, and it was only in 454 that Saint Deogratias was ordained bishop of Carthage. He died at the end of 457 or the beginning of 458, and Carthage remained without a bishop for another 24 years. Saint Eugenius was consecrated in around 481, exiled, along with other Catholic bishops, by Huneric in 484, recalled in 487, but in 491 forced to flee to Albi in Gaul, where he died. When the Vandal persecution ended in 523, Bonifacius became bishop of Carthage and held a council in 525.
Last resident bishops of Carthage
After the Byzantine conquest of Africa under the leadership of Belisarius, Bonifacius was succeeded by Reparatus, who held firm in the Three Chapters Controversy and in 551 was exiled to Pontus, where he died. He was replaced by Primosus, who accepted the emperor's wishes on the controversy. He was represented at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 by the bishop of Tunis. Publianus was bishop of Carthage from before 566 to after 581. Dominicus is mentioned in letters of Pope Gregory the Great between 592 and 601. Fortunius lived at the time of Pope Theodore I (c. 640) and went to Constantinople in the time of Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople (641 to 653). Victor became bishop of Carthage in 646. At the beginning of the 8th century and at the end of the 9th, Carthage still appears in lists of dioceses over which the Patriarch of Alexandria claimed jurisdiction. A letter of Pope Leo IX in 1054 mentions a "Bishop of Africa" called Thomas, who is deduced to have been archbishop of Carthage because he spoke of having held a council of his four suffragans. Under Pope Gregory VII, Cyriacus of Carthage appealed for help in view of the lamentable state of his diocese.
In 1843, the Vicariate Apostolic of Tunis was erected in Tunisia. In 1884, the Vicariate was renamed the Archdiocese of Carthage, and Pope Leo XIII acknowledged it in 1893 as the see of the Primate of "Africa". The see became in 1964 the Territorial Prelature of Tunis. The Prelature was elevated to Diocese in 1995. In 2010, it was promoted to Archdiocese.
The Holy See does not recognize the archdiocese as a continuation of the ancient diocese of Carthage. The summary of the history of the archdiocese given in the Annuario Pontificio is: "Tunis: archdiocese under the name of Carthage, 10 November 1884; Prelature of Tunis 9 July 1964; diocese 31 May 1995; archbishopric 22 May 2010." The ancient see of Carthage, on the other hand, being no longer a residential bishopric, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
- Matthew Bunson, Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire (Infobase Publishing 2009 ISBN 978-1-43811027-1), pp. 97–98
- Joseph Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 1-19
- Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black, ed. (1903). "Epaenetus". Encyclopaedia Biblica.
- "Carthage". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- François Decret, Carthage chrétienne, Bibliothèque CLIO
- "Cartagine" in Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani (1931)
- Anatole Toulotte, Géographie de l'Afrique chrétienne. Proconsulaire, vol. I, Rennes-Paris 1892, pp. 73-100
- Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, pp. 48-58
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 463
- Hefele, A History of the Christian Councils, Bk II, Chapter II
- Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Tunis". Dioceses. catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Primate". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- "Archdiocese of Tunis". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 759
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 860