Bishop of Durham
|Bishop of Durham|
|First Bishop:||Aldhun of Durham|
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York. The diocese is one of the oldest in the country and its bishop is a member of the House of Lords. The post is currently vacant - the last occupant, Justin Welby, was translated to Canterbury on 4 February 2013 (the date of his Confirmation of Election ceremony). The bishop is one of two (the other is the Bishop of Bath and Wells) who escorts the sovereign at the coronation.
He is officially styled The Right Reverend Father in God, (Christian Name), by Divine Providence Lord Bishop of Durham, but this full title is rarely used. In signatures, the bishop's family name is replaced by Dunelm, from the Latin name for Durham (the Latinised form of Old English Dunholm). In the past, Bishops of Durham varied their signatures between Dunelm and the French Duresm. Prior to 1836, the Bishop of Durham was a prince-bishop and had significant temporal powers over the Liberty of Durham and later the County Palatine of Durham.
The bishop lived in Durham Castle from its construction in the 11th century. In 1832, Auckland Castle became the official residence of the Bishops of Durham until July 2012 when ownership of the castle was transferred over to the Auckland Castle Trust, a charitable foundation with the aim of beginning a major restoration of the grounds and castle and creating permanent exhibitions on the history of Christianity in Britain and the North East. The bishop continues to work in Auckland Castle but no longer reside there.
From the 7th century onwards, in addition to his spiritual authority, the Bishop of Durham also acted as the civil ruler of the region as the lord of the liberty of Durham, claiming local authority equal to that of the king. The bishop appointed all local officials and maintained his own court. After the Norman Conquest, this claim continued to be maintained by the bishop and was eventually recognised with the establishment of the region as the County Palatine of Durham. As holder of this office, the bishop was titled a prince-bishop and considered the equivalent of an earl. Except for a brief period of suppression during the Glorious Revolution, this temporal power and responsibilities of the office lasted until all such authorities were abolished in 1836, during a period of Industrial Revolution in the UK, partial disestablishment and tithes being made defunct, a process known as commutation of tithes.
List of bishops 
Early Medieval bishops 
|Bishops of Durham|
|995||1018||Aldhun||Previously Bishop of Lindisfarne.|
Pre-Reformation Prince-Bishops 
|Bishops of Durham|
|1081||1096||William de St-Calais|
|1143||1153||William of St. Barbara|
|1153||1195||Hugh de Puiset|
|1197||1208||Philip of Poitou|
|1209||1213||Richard Poore||Election quashed by Pope Innocent III (who was quarrelling with King John); later elected and consecrated.|
|1214||1214||John de Gray||Died before consecration.|
|1226||1227||William Scot||Election quashed.|
|1229||1237||Richard Poore||Translated from Salisbury.|
|1237||1240||Thomas de Melsonby||Resigned before consecration.|
|1249||Walter of Kirkham|
|1274||1283||Robert of Holy Island|
|1284||1310||Antony Bek||Also Titular Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1306 to 1311 (the only English person ever to hold this post).|
|1318||1333||Lewis de Beaumont|
|1333||1345||Richard de Bury|
|1382||1388||John Fordham||Translated to Ely.|
|1388||1406||Walter Skirlaw||Translated from Bath & Wells.|
|1437||1457||Robert Neville||Translated from Salisbury|
|1457||1476||Lawrence Booth||Translated to York.|
|1494||1501||Richard Foxe||Translated from Bath & Wells, later translated to Winchester.|
|1502||1505||William Senhouse||Translated from Carlisle.|
|1507||1508||Christopher Bainbridge||Translated to York.|
|1523||1529||Thomas Wolsey||Archbishop of York. Held Durham in commendam.|
|1530||1559||Cuthbert Tunstall||Translated from London.|
Post-Reformation Prince-Bishops 
|Bishops of Durham|
|1577||1587||Richard Barnes||Translated from Carlisle.|
|1589||1595||Matthew Hutton||Translated to York.|
|1595||1606||Tobias Matthew||Translated to York.|
|1617||1627||Richard Neile||Translated from Lincoln, later translated to Winchester.|
|1628||George Montaigne||Translated from London, later translated to York.|
|1628||1632||John Howson||Translated from Oxford|
|1632||1659||Thomas Morton||Translated from Lichfield.|
|1674||1722||Nathaniel Crew||Translated from Oxford. Additionally styled The Hon Nathaniel Crew 1679–1697, then The Rt Hon The Lord Crew 1697 onwards|
|1722||1730||William Talbot||Translated from Salisbury.|
|1730||1750||Edward Chandler||Translated from Lichfield.|
|1750||1752||Joseph Butler||Translated from Bristol.|
|1752||1771||Richard Trevor||Translated from St David's.|
|1771||1787||John Egerton||Translated from Lichfield.|
|1787||1791||Thomas Thurlow||Translated from Lincoln.|
|1791||1826||Shute Barrington||Translated from Salisbury.|
|1826||1836||William Van Mildert||Translated from Llandaff.|
Late modern bishops (since 1836) 
|Bishops of Durham|
|1836||1856||Edward Maltby||Translated from Chichester.|
|1856||1860||Charles Longley||Translated from Ripon, later translated to York, then to Canterbury.|
|1860||1861||Henry Villiers||Translated from Carlisle.|
|1861||1879||Charles Baring||Translated from Gloucester and Bristol.|
|1879||1889||Joseph Lightfoot||Previously Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity.|
|1890||1901||Brooke Westcott||Previously Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge.|
|1901||1920||Handley Moule||Previously Norrisian Professor of Divinity.|
|1920||1939||Hensley Henson||Translated from Hereford.|
|1939||1952||Alwyn Williams||Translated to Winchester.|
|1952||1956||Michael Ramsey||Translated to York, then to Canterbury.|
|1956||1966||Maurice Harland||Translated to Lincoln.|
|1973||1983||John Habgood||Translated to York.|
|1984||1994||David Jenkins||Previously Professor of Theology University of Leeds|
|1994||2003||Michael Turnbull||Translated from Rochester|
|2003||2010||Tom Wright||Previously Dean of Lichfield; returned to academia|
|2011||2013||Justin Welby||Translated to Canterbury|
- "Positive Developments at Auckland Castle". Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Our Plans". Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Historical successions: Durham (including precussor offices)". Crockford's Clerical Directory. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Diocese of Durham – New Bishop Announced
- Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S. et al., eds. (1986). Handbook of British Chronology (3rd, reprinted 2003 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 216, 241–243. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
- Greenway, D. E. (1971). "Bishops of Durham". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: Volume 2: Monastic Cathedrals (Northern and Southern Provinces). British History Online. pp. 29–32.
- Jones, B. (1963). "Bishops of Durham". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541: Volume 6: Northern Province (York, Carlise and Durham). British History Online. pp. 107–109.
- Horn, J. M.; Smith, D. M.; Mussett, P. (2004). "Bishops of Durham". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: Volume 11: Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Manchester, Ripon, and Sodor and Man Dioceses. British History Online. pp. 73–77.