Roman Catholic Diocese of Troyes
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Troyes is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in France. The diocese now comprises the département of Aube. Erected in the 4th century, the diocese is currently suffragan to the Archdiocese of Reims. The current bishop is Marc Camille Michel Stenger, who was appointed in 1999.
The catalogue of bishops of Troyes, known since the 9th century, is in the opinion of Louis Duchesne, worthy of confidence. The first bishop, St. Amator, seems to have preceded by a few years Bishop Optatianus who probably ruled the diocese about 344.
There have been several councils held at Troyes.
The cathedral of Troyes is a fine Gothic structure begun in the 12th, and completed in the 15th, century; the ancient collegiate Church of St. Urban is a Gothic building whose lightness of treatment reminds one of La Sainte-Chapelle at Paris. It was built by Urban IV at the close of the 13th century. He was a native of Troyes and on one of the stained-glass windows he caused his father to be depicted, working at his trade of tailor.
The Abbey of Nesle la Riposte was founded before 545 near Villenauxe, perhaps by Queen Clotilde. In the 16th century the monks caused to be rebuilt at Villenauxe, with the actual stones which they brought from Nesle, the original doorway of Nesle Abbey, an interesting monument of French history. The Benedictine Mabillon undertook to interpret its carvings, among which might be seen the statue of a reine pédauque (i.e. a web-footed queen) supposed to be St. Clotilde.
The Abbey of Notre Dame aux Nonnains, founded by St. Leucon, was an important abbey for women. Alcuin and St. Bernard corresponded with its abbesses. At his installation the bishop went to the abbey on the previous evening; the bed he slept on became his property, but the mule on which he rode became the property of the abbess. The abbess led the bishop by the hand into the chapter hall; she put on his mitre, offered him his crozier, and in return the bishop promised to respect the rights of the abbey. The Jansenists in the 18th century made a great noise over the pretended cure by the deacon Paris of Marie Madeleine de Mégrigny, a nun of Notre Dame aux Nonnains. The part of the Diocese of Troyes which formerly belonged to the Diocese of Langres contained the famous Abbey of Clairvaux.
Concerning the Abbey of the Paraclete, founded by Abelard and in which the Abbess Heloise died in 1163, and where her body and that of Abelard were buried until 1792. On 20 June 1353, Geoffroy de Charny, Lord of Savoisy and Lirey, founded at Lirey in honour of the Annunciation a collegiate church with six canonries, and in this church he exposed for veneration the Holy Winding Sheet. Opposition arose on the part of the Bishop of Troyes, who declared after due inquiry that the relic was nothing but a painting, and opposed its exposition. Clement VI by four Bulls, 6 January 1390, approved the exposition as lawful. In 1418 during the civil wars, the canons entrusted the Winding Sheet to Humbert, Count de La Roche, Lord of Lirey. Margaret, widow of Humbert, never returned it but gave it in 1452 to the Duke of Savoy. The requests of the canons of Lirey were unavailing, and the Lirey Winding Sheet is the same that is now exposed and honoured at Turin.
Cardinal Pierre de Bérulle (1575–1629) was brought up on the Bérulle estate in the diocese. He preached at Troyes before founding the Oratorians. An Oratory was opened at Troyes in 1617. Charles-Louis de Lantage, b. at Troyes in 1616, d. in 1694, was one of the chief helpers of Jean-Jacques Olier, founder of the Sulpicians.
The chief pilgrimages of the diocese are: Notre Dame du Chêne, near Bar-sur-Seine, dates from 1667; Notre Dame de la Sainte Espérance, at Mesnil-Saint-Loup; Notre Dame de Valsuzenay.
It was re-established in 1802 as a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Paris, it then comprised the départements of Aube and Yonne, and its bishop had the titles of Troyes, Auxerre, and Châlons-sur-Marne. In 1822 the See of Châlons was created and the Bishop of Troyes lost that title. When Sens was made an archdiocese, the episcopal title of Auxerre went to it and Troyes lost also the département of Yonne, which became the Archdiocese of Sens. The diocese of Troyes since covers, besides the ancient diocesan limits, 116 parishes of the ancient diocese of Langres, and 20 belonging to the ancient diocese of Sens. Since 1822 Troyes is a suffragan of Sens.
Before the application of the Associations Law (1901) there were, in the Diocese of Troyes, Benedictines, Jesuits, Lazarists, Oblates of St. Francis of Sales, and Brothers of the Christian Schools. Many female congregations arose in the diocese, among others the Ursulines of Christian Teaching, founded at Moissy l'Evêque in the eighteenth century by Gilbert Gaspard de Montmorin, Bishop of Langres; the Sisters of Christian Instruction, founded in 1819, with motherhouse at Troyes; the Oblate Sisters of St. Francis de Sales, a teaching order, founded in 1866, with motherhouse at Troyes; Sisters of Notre Dame de Bon Secours, a nursing community with motherhouse at Troyes.
- c. 340: Saint Amateur
- 346–347: Optatius
- Léon Heraclius
- Saint Mellonius (Melaine) (390-400)
- Saint Ursus of Auxerre (Ours) (426)
- Saint Lupus of Troyes (Loup) (426-478)
- Saint Camelianus (Camelien) (479-536 or 511–525)
- Saint Vincent (536-46, or 533–541)
- 549: Ambroise
- 573–582: Gallomagne
- 585–586: Agrecius
- Loup II.
- c, 631: Evode
- Saint Leuconius (Leucon, Leucoin) (651-56)
- Saint Nicolas de Matthieu
- 666–673: Abbon
- 675–678: Waimer
- c. 722: Censard
- Saint Bobinus (Bobin) (750-66), previously Abbot of Monstier la Celle
- c, 787: Adelgaire
- c, 829–936: Elie
- 837–845: Adalbert
- Saint Prudentius of Troyes (845-61), who wrote against Gottschalk and Johannes Scotus Eriugena
- 846–861: Heiliger Prudence
- 866?-869: Foucher
- c. 880: Ottulf
- c. 890: Bodon
- c. 895: Riveus
- c. 910: Otbert
- c. 965: Ansegisel (Chancellor)
- 971: Walon
- 980–982: Milon I.
- 991: Manassé (Menasses), or 985-993
- Renaud I.
1000 to 1300
- Fromond I.
- 1034–1049: Mainard
- 1050: Fromond II.
- 1075: Hugo I.
- 1075–1082: Hugo II. de Moeslain (House of Dampierre)
- 1083–1121: Milon II.
- 1121–1122: Renaud II. (House of Montlhéry)
- 1122–1145: Atton (or Hatton)
- 1145-1169: Heinrich I. (Spanheimer)
- 1169–1180: Matthieu
- 1181–1190: Manassé II.
- 1190–1193: Barthélémy
- 1193–1205: Garnier
- 1207–1223: Hervée
- 1223–1233: Robert
- 1233–1269: Nicolas
- 1269–1298: Jean I.
- 1299–1314: Guichard
1300 to 1500
- 1314–1317: Jean II. d'Auxois
- 1317–1324: Guillaume I.
- 1324–1326: Jean III.
- 1326–1341: Jean IV.
- 1342–1353: Jean V.
- 1354–1370: Henri II. de Poitiers
- 1370–1375: Jean VI.
- 1375–1377: Pierre I.
- 1377–1395: Pierre II. d'Arcis
- 1395–1426: Etienne de Givry
- 1426–1450: Jean VII.
- 1450–1483: Louis I.
- 1483–1518: Jacques Raguier
1500 to 1800
- 1519–1527: Guillaume II.
- 1528–1544: Odard Hennequin
- 1545–1550: Louis de Lorraine-Guise
- 1551–1561: A. Caraccioli
- 1562–1593: C. de Beauffremont
- 1604–1641: R. de Breslay
- 1641–1678: F. Malier du Houssay
- François Bouthillier de Chavigny † (17 Oct 1678 Appointed - 1697 Resigned)
- Denis-François Bouthillier de Chavigny † (7 Apr 1697 Appointed - 21 Jan 1716 Appointed, Archbishop of Sens)
- Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet † (2 Mar 1716 Appointed - 30 Mar 1742 Retired)
- Jean-Baptiste-Marie Champion de Cicé † (2 Feb 1758 Appointed - 8 Jan 1761 Appointed, Bishop of Auxerre)
- Claude-Mathias-Joseph de Barral † (8 Jan 1761 Appointed - 22 Dec 1790 Retired)
- Louis-Mathias-Joseph de Barral † (22 Dec 1790 Succeeded - 5 Oct 1801 Resigned)
- Marc-Antoine de Noé † (11 Apr 1802 Appointed - 21 Sep 1802 Died)
- Louis-Apolinaire de La Tour du Pin-Montauban † (30 Sep 1802 Appointed - 28 Nov 1807 Died)
- Etienne-Marie de Boulogne † (8 Mar 1808 Appointed - 13 May 1825 Died)
- Jacques-Louis-David de Seguin des Hons † (22 Jun 1825 Appointed - 31 Aug 1843 Died)
- Jean-Marie-Mathias Debelay † (19 Nov 1843 Appointed - 16 Oct 1848 Appointed, Archbishop of Avignon)
- Pierre-Louis Coeur † (16 Oct 1848 Appointed - 9 Oct 1860 Died)
- Emmanuel-Jules Ravinet † (11 Dec 1860 Appointed - 2 Aug 1875 Retired)
- Pierre-Louis-Marie Cortet † (3 Aug 1875 Appointed - 16 Feb 1898 Died)
- Gustave-Adolphe de Pélacot † (22 Mar 1898 Appointed - 15 Jun 1907 Appointed, Archbishop of Chambéry)
- Laurent-Marie-Etienne Monnier † (6 Oct 1907 Appointed - 7 Jul 1927 Died)
- Maurice Feltin † (19 Dec 1927 Appointed - 16 Aug 1932 Appointed, Archbishop of Sens)
- Joseph-Jean Heintz † (7 Dec 1933 Appointed - 15 Feb 1938 Appointed, Bishop of Metz)
- Joseph-Charles Lefèbvre † (27 Jul 1938 Appointed - 17 Jun 1943 Appointed, Archbishop of Bourges)
- Julien Le Couëdic † (4 Nov 1943 Appointed - 21 Feb 1967 Retired)
- André Pierre Louis Marie Fauchet † (21 Feb 1967 Appointed - 4 Apr 1992 Retired)
- Gérard Antoine Daucourt (4 Apr 1992 Succeeded - 2 Jul 1998 Appointed, Bishop of Orléans)
- Marc Camille Michel Stenger (30 Apr 1999 Appointed - )
Saints connected with the diocese
Among the many saints specially honoured or connected with the diocese are:
- St. Mathia, virgin, period uncertain; her relics were found in Troyes in 980
- St. Helena, virgin, whose life and century are unknown, and whose body was transferred to Troyes in 1209; these two are patronesses of the town and diocese;
- St. Oulph, martyr (second or third century)
- St. Savinianus, Apostle of Troyes
- St. Patroclus (Parre), St. Julius, St. Claudius, and St. Venerandus, martyrs under Aurelian;
- St. Savina, martyred under Diocletian;
- St. Syra, the wonder-worker (end of third century);
- St. Ursion, pastor of Isle Aumont (c. 375);
- St. Exuperantia, a religious of Isle Aumont (c. 380);
- St Balsemius (Baussange), deacon, apostle of Arcis-sur-Aube, martyred by the Vandals in 407;
- St. Mesmin and his companions and Saints Germana and Honoria, martryred (451) under Attila;
- St. Aper (Evre), Bishop of Toul, and his sister Evronia, natives of the diocese (towards the close of the fifth century);
- St. Aventinus, disciple of St. Loup (d. c. 537);
- St. Romanus, Archbishop of Reims, founder of the Monastery of SS. Gervasus and Protasius at Chantenay in the diocese of Troyes (d. c. 537);
- St. Maurelius, priest at Isle Aumont (d. C. 545);
- St. Lyæus (Lyé), second Abbot of Mantenay (d. c. 545);
- St. Phal, Abbot at Isle Aumont (d. c. 549);
- St. Bouin, priest and solitary (d. c. 570); St. Potamius (Pouange), solitary (close of sixth century);
- St. Vinebaud, Abbot of St. Loup of Troyes (d. 623);
- St. Flavitus, solitary (563-630);
- St. Tancha, virgin and martyr (d. 637);
- St. Victor, solitary (d. 640);
- St. Frobert, founder and first Abbot of Montier le Celle (d. 688);
- St. Maura, virgin (827-850);
- St. Adalricus (slain by the Normans about 925);
- St Aderaldus, canon and archdeacon of Troyes, who died in 1004 on returning from the Crusade, and who founded the Benedictine monastery of the Holy Sepulchre in the diocese;
- St. Simon, Count de Bar-sur-Aube, solitary, acted as mediator between Pope Gregory VII and Robert Guiscard, and died in 1082;
- St. Robert, founder of Molesme and Cîteaux, a native of the diocese (1024–1108);
- St. Elizabeth of Chelles, foundress of the monastery of Rosoy (d. c. 1130);
- St Hombelina, first Abbess of Jully-sur-Sarce, and sister of St. Bernard (1092–1135);
- Blessed Peter, an Englishman, prior of Jully-sur-Sarce (d. 1139);
- St. Malachy, archbishop, Primate of Ireland, died at Clairvaux (1098–1148);
- St. Bernard of Clairvaux, first Abbot of Clairvaux (1091–1153)
- St. Belina, virgin, slain about 1153 in defence of her chastity;
- Blessed Menard and Blessed Herbert, abbots of the monastery at Mores founded by St. Bernard (end of the twelfth century); Blessed Jeanne, the recluse (d. 1246);
- Pope Urban IV (1185–1264);
- John of Ghent, hermit and prophet, who died at Troyes in 1439;
- Marguerite Bourgeoys (1620–1700), foundress of the Congregation of Notre Dame at Montreal, a native of the diocese;
- Marie de Sales Chappuis, superioress of the Visitation Convent at Troyes (d. 1875).
Sources and references
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- GigaCatholic- includes ercet incumbents
- diocesan website, in French