Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg

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Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg
Hochstift Bamberg
State of the Holy Roman Empire
Bishopric of Würzburg
1245–1802 Electorate of Bavaria


Coat of arms

Hochstift Bamberg with its Carinthian estates, J.B. Homann, c.1700
Capital Bamberg
Government Elective principality
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Diocese established 1007
 -  Elevated to
   Prince-Bishopric
1245
 -  Joined
   Franconian Circle
1500
 -  Mediatised to Bavaria 1802

The Bishopric of Bamberg was established in 1007, to further expand the spread of Christianity in Germany. The ecclesiastical state was a member of the Holy Roman Empire from about 1245 until it was subsumed to the Electorate of Bavaria in 1802.

State[edit]

The Bishops of Bamberg received the princely title by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen before his deposition by Pope Innocent IV in 1245, whereby the diocese became an Imperial state. During the eighteenth century, it was often held in conjunction with the neighboring Bishopric of Würzburg. Bamberg was bordered, among others, by Würzburg to the west, by the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach and the Free City of Nuremberg to the south, by the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth to the east and by the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg to the north.

Prince-Bishop Martin von Eyb (1580-1583)

The prince-bishopric also ruled over large possessions within the Duchy of Carinthia, including the strategically important towns of Villach, Feldkirchen, Wolfsberg and Tarvisio at the transalpine road to Venice, as well as Kirchdorf an der Krems in the Archduchy of Austria. The Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa purchased these territories in 1759.

In the course of the German Mediatization of 1802-1803 which saw the suppression of virtually all the ecclesiastical principalities, Bamberg was annexed to Bavaria. The former prince-bishopric then had an area of 3580 km² and a population of 207,000.

History[edit]

From 1 November 1007 onwards, a synod was held at the City of Frankfurt am Main. Eight archbishops and twenty-seven bishops were present, led by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, as well as the King of the Romans, Henry II the Saint. The king intended to create a new diocese that would aid in the final conquest of paganism in the area around Bamberg. But the territory of the Wends on the upper Main, the Wiesent, and the Aisch had belonged to the Diocese of Würzburg since the organization of the Middle German bishoprics by St. Boniface, so that no new diocese could be erected without the consent of the occupant of that see. Bishop Henry I of Würzburg raised no objection to parting with some of his territory, especially as the king promised to have Würzburg raised to an archbishopric and to give him an equivalent in Meiningen. The consent of Pope John XVII was obtained for this arrangement, but the elevation of Würzburg to an archbishopric proved impracticable also due to Willigis' reservations, and Bishop Henry I at first withdrew his consent.

The last prince-bishop, Christoph Franz von Buseck (1795-1802)
Altenburg Castle, residence of the Bamberg prince-bishops from 1305 to 1553
Bamberg Cathedral with the Old and the New Palaces of the prince-bishops
Seehof Castle near Bamberg, summer residence

Nevertheless after several further concessions, King Henry II obtained the consent for the foundation of the diocese of Bamberg from parts of the dioceses of Würzburg and - later - the Diocese of Eichstätt. Bamberg was made directly subordinate to Rome. It was also decided that Eberhard, the king's chancellor, would be ordained by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, to be the head of the new border area diocese. The new diocese had expensive gifts at the synod confirmed by documents, in order to place it on a solid foundation.

Henry wanted the celebrated monkish rigour and studiousness of the Hildesheim cathedral chapter - Henry himself was educated there - linked together with the churches under his control, including his favourite bishopric of Bamberg. The next seven bishops were named by the emperors, after which election by the cathedral chapter became the rule, as in all the German prince-bishoprics. Eberhard's immediate successor, Suidger of Morsleben, became pope in 1046 as Clement II. He was the only pope to be interred north of the Alps at the Bamberg Cathedral. In the thirteenth century the diocese gradually became a territorial principality, and its bishops took secular precedence next after the archbishops; Bishop Henry I of Bilversheim (1242-57) became the first Prince-Bishop.

The fortieth bishop, George III of Limburg (1505-22), was inclined toward the Reformation, which caused a violent social outbreak under his successor Weigand (1522-56), and the city suffered severely in the Second Margrave War (1552-54), as well as in the Thirty Years' War, when it was placed under the jurisdiction of Bernard, the new Duke of Franconia.

At the Peace of Westphalia (1648), the prince-bishops recovered their possessions. During the French Revolution, Bamberg was overrun by the French and, in the course of the German Mediatization of 1802-1803, it was annexed to Bavaria. From 1808 to 1817 the See was vacant; but by the Bavarian Concordat of the latter year it was made an archbishopric, with Würzburg, Speyer, and Eichstädt as suffragan sees.

Bishops of Bamberg, 1007–1803[edit]

  • Eberhard I 1007-1040
  • Suidger von Morsleben 1040-1046 (Later Pope Clement II)
  • Hartwig von Bogen 1047-1053
  • Adalbert of Carinthia 1053-1057
  • Günther 1057-1065
  • Hermann I von Formbach 1065-1075
  • Rupprecht 1075-1102
  • Otto I of Mistelbach 1102-1139
  • Egilbert 1139-1146
  • Eberhard II von Otelingen 1146-1170
  • Hermann II von Aurach 1170-1177
  • Otto II von Andechs 1177-1196
  • Thimo von Lyskirch 1196-1201
  • Konrad von Ergersheim 1202-1203
  • Ekbert von Andechs 1203-1231
  • Siegfried von Öttingen 1231-1238
  • Poppo von Andechs 1238-1242
  • Heinrich I von Bilversheim 1242-1257
  • Wladeslaw of Silesia 1257
  • Berthold von Leiningen 1257-1285
  • Mangold von Neuenburg 1285 (Bishop of Würzburg 1287-1303)
  • Arnold von Solms 1286-1296
  • Leopold I von Grundlach 1296-1303
  • Wulfing von Stubenberg 1304-1318
  • Ulrich von Schlusselberg 1319
  • Konrad von Giech 1319-1322
  • Johannes von Schlackenwerth 1322-1324
  • Heinrich II von Sternberg 1324-1328
  • Werntho Schenk von Reicheneck 1328-1335
  • Leopold II von Egloffstein 1335-1343
  • Friedrich I von Hohenlohe 1344-1352
  • Leopold III of Bebenburg 1353-1363
  • Friedrich II von Truhendingen 1363-1366

Patronage[edit]

The prince bishops operated courts like minor royalty and employed artists, in particular musicians. Kapellmeisters and organists attached to the court included several minor South German masters such as Heinrich Pfendner, Johann Baal, Georg Arnold and Georg Mengel.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]