Bishopric of Utrecht
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (February 2007)|
|Bishopric of Utrecht|
Prinsbisdom Utrecht (nl)
Hochstift Utrecht (de)
Principauté d'Utrecht (fr)
|State of the Holy Roman Empire|
The Bishopric of Utrecht around 1350. The smaller, western territory, which was the bishopric's central territory centred around the city of Utrecht, was known as Nedersticht. The larger north-eastern territory was known as Oversticht.
|Languages||Dutch, Low Saxon|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Created Princes of
Holy Roman Empire
|-||Territories sold to
Emperor Charles V
|21 August 1528|
|-||Union of Utrecht||1579|
From 1024 until 1528, it was one of the Prince-Bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, constituting, in addition to its eccleaiastical aspect, a civil state within the Empire. In 1528, Emperor Charles V secularized its civil authority and territorial possessions and its entire worldly power. It continued to exist as an ecclesiastical entity, and in 1559 was elevated to an archbishopric.
By 1580, after the death of archbishop Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, the Protestant Reformation in Utrecht and surrounding regions rendered impossible several attempts to effectively continue the ecclesiastical archdiocese. The ecclesiastical archbishopric or archdiocese was reinstated in 1853 as the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht by Pope Pius IX.
Since the early 18th century Old Catholic dissidents have claimed the restoration of the archdiocese took place as early as 1723 by the election and episcopal consecration of Cornelius van Steenoven, enthroned, consecrated and elevated in a so-called schuilkerk by certain members of Utrecht Catholic clergy without papal approval.
- 1 History
- 2 Bishops until Protestant Reformation
- 3 Apostolic Vicars of the Dutch Mission
- 4 Old-Catholic archbishops who notified their election to the Pope
- 5 Roman Catholic archbishops after Restoration of the Roman-Catholic episcopal hierarchy
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The Diocese of Utrecht was established in 695 when Saint Willibrord was consecrated bishop of the Frisians at Rome by Pope Sergius I. With the consent of the Frankish ruler, Pippin of Herstal, he settled in an old Roman fort in Utrecht. After Willibrord's death the diocese suffered greatly from the incursions of the Frisians, and later on of the vikings. Willibrord was most probably instated as archbishop, having received the pallium during his life; but it is uncertain why and when exactly this title was lost in later times.
Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht
Better times appeared during the reign of the Saxon emperors, who frequently summoned the Bishops of Utrecht to attend the imperial councils and diets. In 1024 the bishops were made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire and the new Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht was formed. The secular territory over which it ruled was known as Sticht Utrecht or Het Sticht (a sticht was any piece of land governed by a bishop or abbot). This territory was divided into the Nedersticht (Lower Sticht, roughly corresponding to the present day Dutch province of Utrecht) and Oversticht (Upper Sticht, encompassing the present-day provinces of Overijssel, Drenthe, and part of Groningen).
In 1122, with the Concordat of Worms, the Emperor's right of investiture was annulled, and the cathedral chapter received the right to the election of the bishop. It was, however, soon obligated to share this right with the four other collegiate chapters in the city: St. Salvator, St. John's, St. Peter's and St. Mary's. The Counts of Holland and Guelders, between whose territories the lands of the Bishops of Utrecht lay, also sought to acquire influence over the filling of the episcopal see. This often led to disputes and consequently the Holy See frequently interfered in the election. After the middle of the 14th century the popes repeatedly appointed the bishop directly without regard to the five chapters.
In 1527, the Bishop sold his territories and thus his entire direct secular authority to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the principality became an integral part of the Habsburg dominions. The chapters transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V and his government, a measure to which Pope Clement VII gave his consent, under political pressure after the Sacco di Roma.
Lordship of Utrecht
The Prince-Bishopric of Utrecht became the Lordship of Utrecht in 1528.
Bishops until Protestant Reformation
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be moved into Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580). (Discuss)|
- Willibrord (Clemens) (695–739)
- Wera (739?–752/3)
- Eoban (753–754)
- Gregory of Utrecht (754–775)
- Alberic of Utrecht (775–784)
- Theodardus (784–790)
- Hamacarus (790–806)
- Ricfried (806–ca. 820)
- Frederick of Utrecht (ca. 820–829)
- Alberik II (835/7–845)
- Eginhard (ca. 845)
- Liudger (ca. 848–854)
- Hunger (854–866)
- Adalbold I (866–899)
- Radboud (899/900–917)
- Balderic (917/8–975/6)
- Folcmar (976–990)
- Baldwin I (991–995)
- Ansfried (995–1010)
- Adalbold II (1010–1026)
- Bernold (1026/7–1054)
- William I (1054–1076)
- Conrad (1076–1099)
- Burchard (1100–1112)
- Godbald (1114–1127)
- Andreas van Cuijk (1127/8–1139)
- Hartbert (1139–1150)
- Herman van Horne (1151–1156)
- Godfrey van Rhenen (1156–1178)
- Baldwin II van Holland (1178–1196)
- Arnold I van Isenburg (1196–1197)
- Dirk I van Holland (1197)
- Dirk II van Are (van Ahr) (1197/8–1212)
- Otto I van Gelre (1212–1215)
- Otto II van Lippe (1216–1227)
- Wilbrand van Oldenburg (1227–1233)
- Otto III van Holland (1233–1249)
- Gozewijn van Amstel (van Randerath) (1249–1250)
- Henry I van Vianden (1250/2–1267)
- John I of Nassau (1267–1290)
- John II van Sierck (1290–1296)
- Willem II Berthout (1296–1301)
- Guy van Avennes (1301–1317)
- Frederik II van Sierck (1317–1322)
- Jacob van Oudshoorn (1322)
- Jan III van Diest (1322–1340)
- Jan IV van Arkel (1342–1364)
- Jan V van Virneburg (1364–1371)
- Arnold II van Hoorn (1371–1379)
- Floris van Wevelinkhoven (1379–1393)
- Frederik III van Blankenheim (1393–1423)
- Rudolf van Diepholt (1423–1455)
- Zweder van Culemborg (1425–1433)
- Walraven van Meurs (1434–1448)
- Gijsbrecht van Brederode (1455–1456)
- David of Burgundy (1456–1496)
- Frederick IV of Baden (1496–1517)
- Philip of Burgundy (1517–1524)
- Henry of the Palatinate (bishop) (1524–1529)
- Willem III van Enckenvoirt (1529–1534)
- George van Egmond (1534–1559)
- Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg (1559–1580)
- Herman van Rennenberg (1580–1592) - unable to be enthroned due to Protestantism
- Jan van Bruhesen (1592–1600) - unable to be enthroned due to Protestantism
Apostolic Vicars of the Dutch Mission
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be moved into Dutch Mission. (Discuss)|
Archbishops in partibus and Apostolic Vicars, in Utrecht
- Giuseppe Spinelli (1727–1731)
- Vincentius Montalto (1731–1732)
- Silvester Valenti Gonzaga (1732–1736)
- Franciscus Goddard (1736–1737)
- Lucas Melchior Tempi (1737–1743)
- Petrus Paulus Testa (1744)
- Ignatius Crivelli (1744–1755)
- Carolus Molinari (1755–1763)
- Batholomeus Soffredini (1763)
- Thomas Maria Ghilini (1763–1775)
- Joannes Antonius Maggiora (1775–1776)
- Ignatius Busca (1776–1785)
- Michael Causati (1785–1786)
- Antonius Felix Zondadari (1786–1792)
in The Hague:
- Franciscus Cappacini (1829–1831)
- Antonius Antonucci (1831–1841)
- Innocentius Ferrieri (1841–1847)
- Johannes Zwijsen (1847–1848)
- Carolus Belgrado (1848–1853)
Old-Catholic archbishops who notified their election to the Pope
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be moved into Old Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht. (Discuss)|
- Cornelius van Steenoven (1724–1725)
- Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers (1725–1733)
- Theodorus van der Croon (1734–1739)
- Petrus Johannes Meindaerts (1739–1767)
- Walter van Nieuwenhuisen (1768–1797)
- Johannes Jacobus van Rhijn (1797–1808)
- Willibrord van Os (1814–1825)
- Johannes van Santen (1825–1858)
- Henricus Loos (1858–1873)
For more information on the Old-Catholic hierarchy, see main article.
Roman Catholic archbishops after Restoration of the Roman-Catholic episcopal hierarchy
||It has been suggested that portions of this section be moved into Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht. (Discuss)|
- Johannes Zwijsen (1853–1868)
- Andreas Ignatius Schaepman (1868–1882)
- Petrus Matthias Snickers (1883–1895)
- Henricus van de Wetering (1895–1929)
- Johannes Henricus Gerardus Jansen (1930–1936)
- Johannes de Jong (1936–1955)
- Bernardus Johannes Alfrink (1955–1975)
- Johannes Gerardus Maria Willebrands (1975–1983)
- Adrianus Johannes Simonis (1983–2007)
- Willem Jacobus Eijk (since 2007)
- Act of Abjuration
- Eighty Years' War
- Habsburg Netherlands
- History of religion in the Netherlands
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Dutch Wikipedia. (January 2014)|
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (January 2014)|
- Roman foederati
- The Chamavi merged into the confederation of the Franks; the Tubanti merged into the confederation of the Saxons.
- Roman foederati
- Roman foederati
- Part of East Francia after 939, divided in Upper Lorraine (as part of West Francia) and Lower Lorraine (as part of East Francia) in 959.
- Lower Lorraine - also referred to as Lothier - disintegrated into several smaller independent territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant.
- Lordship of Frisia and Lordship of Groningen (including the Ommelanden) after 1524 and 1536 respectively.
- Including County of Zeeland, that was ruled by neighboring County of Holland and County of Flanders (until 1432).
- Utrecht included Lordship of Overijssel (until 1528), County of Drenthe (until 1528) and County of Zutphen (until 1182).
- Duchy of Brabant included since 1288 also the Duchy of Limburg (now part of the Belgian Province of Liège) and the "Overmaas" lands Dalhem, Valkenburg and Herzogenrath (now part of the Dutch Province of Limburg).
- The county, later duchy, of Guelders consisted of four quarters, as they were separated by rivers: situated upstream Upper Quarter (the present day northern half of the Dutch province of Limburg), spatially separated from the three downstream Lower Quarters: County of Zutphen (after 1182), Veluwe Quarter and Nijmegen Quarter. The three lower quarters formed the present day province of Gelderland. Guelders did not include the Cleves enclave Huissen and the independent counties of Buren and Culemborg, that were much later seceded to the province of Gelderland.
- Including County of Artois (part of Flanders until 1237) and Tournaisis.
- Throughout the Middle Ages, the bishopric was further expanded with the Duchy of Bouillon in 1096 (ceded to France in 1678), the acquisition of the county of Loon in 1366 and the county of Horne in 1568. The Lordship of Mechelen was also part of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège.
- The name Seventeen Provinces came in use after the Habsburg emperor Charles V had re-acquired the Duchy of Guelders, and an continuous territory arose.
- Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul, eds. (1995). "Utrecht". International dictionary of historic places 2. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 761. ISBN 188496401X.
- Apostolisch vicarissen van de Hollandse Zending (Dutch)
- Budde, Paul. "Hamaland, Bishopric (Sticht) Utrecht incl. Oversticht (Drente, Overijssel)". PaulBuddeHistory.com. Archived from the original on 2014-01-18. Retrieved 2014-01-18.