Bismuth(III) nitrate

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Bismuth(III) nitrate
Dusičnan bismutitý.JPG
Identifiers
CAS number 10035-06-0
EC-number 600-076-0
Properties
Molecular formula Bi(NO3)3·5H2O
Molar mass 485.07 g/mol
Appearance colorless, white
Density 2.90 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)[1]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Bismuth(III) nitrate is either encountered as the solid pentahydrate or as a solution. It is used in the synthesis of other bismuth compounds.[2] It is available commercially. It is the only nitrate salt formed by a group 15 element, indicative of bismuth's metallic nature.[3]

Preparation and reactions[edit]

Bismuth nitrate can be prepared by the reaction of bismuth metal and concentrated nitric acid.[4]

Bi + 4HNO3 → Bi(NO3)3 + 2H2O + NO

It dissolves in nitric acid but is readily hydrolysed to form a range of oxynitrates when the pH increases above 0.[5]

It is also soluble in acetone, acetic acid and glycerol but practically insoluble in ethanol and ethyl acetate.[6]

Some uses in organic synthesis have been reported for example the nitration of aromatic compounds and selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides.[6] It is also used as to form Dragendorff reagent, which is used as a TLC stain.

Bismuth nitrate forms insoluble complexes with pyrogallol and cupferron and these have been the basis of gravimetric methods of determining bismuth content.[7]

On heating bismuth nitrate can decompose forming nitrogen dioxide, NO2.[8]

Structure[edit]

The crystal form is triclinic, and contains 10 coordinate Bi3+, (three bidentate nitrate ions and four water molecules).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lazarini, F. (15 August 1985). "Redetermination of the structure of bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2O". Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 41 (8): 1144–1145. doi:10.1107/S0108270185006916. 
  2. ^ Mary Eagleson. Concise encyclopedia chemistry. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-011451-8. 
  3. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  4. ^ Rich, Ronald (2007). Inorganic Reactions in Water (e-book). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-73962-3. 
  5. ^ Lazarini, F. (1981). "Thermal dehydration of some basic bismuth nitrates". Thermochimica Acta 46 (1): 53–55. doi:10.1016/0040-6031(81)85076-9. ISSN 0040-6031. 
  6. ^ a b Suzuki, Hitomi, ed. (2001). Organobismuth Chemistry. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-20528-4. 
  7. ^ A.I. Vogel,(1951), Quantitative Inorganic analysis, (2d edition), Longmans Green and Co
  8. ^ Krabbe, S.W.; Mohan, R.S. (2012). "Environmentally friendly organic synthesis using Bi(III) compounds". In Ollevier, Thierry. Topics in Current chemistry 311, Bismuth-Mediated Organic Reactions. Springer. pp. 100–110. ISBN 978-3-642-27239-4. 
HNO3 He
LiNO3 Be(NO3)2 B C (NH4)2NO3 O FNO3 Ne
NaNO3 Mg(NO3)2 Al(NO3)3 Si P S ClONO2 Ar
KNO3 Ca(NO3)2 Sc(NO3)3 Ti V Cr(NO3)3 Mn(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 Co(NO3)2,
Co(NO3)3
Ni(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 Ga(NO3)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbNO3 Sr(NO3)2 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd(NO3)2 AgNO3 Cd(NO3)2 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
CsNO3 Ba(NO3)2   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2(NO3)2,
Hg(NO3)2
Tl(NO3)3 Pb(NO3)2 Bi(NO3)2 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo
La Ce(NO3)x Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd(NO3)3 Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2(NO3)2 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr